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Beyond HashtagsRacial Politics and Black Digital Networks$

Sarah Florini

Print publication date: 2019

Print ISBN-13: 9781479892464

Published to NYU Press Scholarship Online: September 2020

DOI: 10.18574/nyu/9781479892464.001.0001

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(p.221) Notes

(p.221) Notes

Source:
Beyond Hashtags
Author(s):

Sarah Florini

Publisher:
NYU Press

Introduction

(1) Tef Poe (@TefPoe), Twitter post, August 9, 2014 (7:35 p.m.), https://twitter.com/TefPoe/status/498251204389269505/photo/1?ref_src=twsrc^tfw.

(2) The Black Guy Who Tips, “Ep. 760 #IGotTheTalk,” The Black Guy Who Tips, Pod-cast Audio, August 10, 2014. http://theblackguywhotips.podOmatic.com/rss2.xml.

(3) “We ARE ALL #MikeBrown, We ARE ALL #Ferguson,” Straight Outta LoCash, Podcast Audio, August 14, 2014. https://straightolc.podbean.com/feed.xml.

(4) This Week in Blackness, “#FergusonDispatch: Gassed (Snippet),” YouTube, Online Video Clip, August 19, 2014, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DA4IT-rGNDg; “The Effects of Tear Gas,” Melissa Harris-Perry Show, August 24, 2014, http://www.msnbc.com/melissa-harris-perry/watch/the-effects-of-tear-gas-321564227633.

(5) I make a distinction here between “transmedia” and “transplatform.” I use “media” to refer to sound, text, and image in line with the concept of transmedia storytelling as worldbuilding and narrative spanning across multiple media. The term “transplatform” foregrounds technological elements of the discussion—materiality, interface, devices, and so on. I am not using the term “platform” in the strict computational sense, as the underlying programmable infrastructure that allows additional computing to be done. I instead employ the term as it has commonly come to be used—to refer to a range of digital services. This common usage is a structural metaphor that melds the computational definition of platform with nontechnological meanings that include the architectural meaning—“raised level surface on which people or things can stand, usually a discrete structure intended for a particular activity or operation”—and the figurative meaning—“the ground, foundation, or basis of an action, event, calculation, condition, etc.” It is important to remember, as Tarleton Gillespie highlights, that this structural metaphor is not neutral, but does discursive work that constructs platforms as “open, neutral, egalitarian and progressive support for activity.” (Tarleton Gillespie, “The Politics of ‘Platforms,’” New Media and Society 12, no. 3 [2010]: 347–63.)

(6) Henry Jenkins, Convergence Culture: Where Old and New Media Collide (New York: New York University Press, 2006).

(7) Matthew Freeman and Renira Rampazzo Gamabarato, The Routledge Companion to Transmedia Studies (New York: Routledge, 2019).

(8) Aymar Jean Christian, Open TV: Innovation beyond Hollywood and the Rise of Web Television (New York: New York University Press, 2018); Elizabeth Ellcessor, (p.222) “Tweet @Feliciaday: Online Social Media, Convergence, and Subcultural Stardom,” Cinema Journal 51, no. 2 (2012): 46–66; Lori Kido Lopez, Asian American Media Activism: Fighting for Cultural Citizenship (New York: New York University Press, 2016); Nancy K. Baym, Playing to the Crowd: Musicians, Audiences, and the Intimate Work of Connection (New York: New York University Press, 2018).

(9) Stuart Cunningham and David Craig, Social Media Entertainment: The New Intersection of Hollywood and Silicon Valley (New York: New York University Press, 2019), 5.

(10) André Jansson and Karin Fast, “Transmedia Identities: From Fan Cultures to Liquid Lives,” in The Routledge Companion to Transmedia Studies, ed. Matthew Freeman and Renira Rampazzo Gamabarato,340–49 (New York: Routledge, 2019), 304.

(11) Jillian M. Báez, “Spreadable Citizenship: Undocumented Youth Activists and Social Media,” in The Routledge Companion to Latina/O Media, ed. Maria Elena Cepeda and Dolores Inés Casillas (New York: Routledge, 2016).

(12) Manuel Castells, “A Network Theory of Power,” International Journal of Communications 5 (2011): 776.

(13) André Brock, Jr.“Beyond the Pale: The Blackbird Web Browser’s Critical Reception,” New Media and Society 13, no. 7 (2011): 1085–1103.

(14) Miriam E. Sweeney, “The Ms. Dewey ‘Experience’: Technoculture, Gender, and Race,” in Digital Sociologies, ed. Jessie Daniels, Karen Gregory, and Tressie McMillan Cottom (Chicago: Polity Press, 2017), 403.

(15) Miriam E. Sweeney, “The Intersectional Interface,” in The Intersectional Internet, ed. Safiya Umoja Noble and Brendesha M. Tynes (New York: Peter Lang, 2016), 215.

(16) Peter Nagy and Gina Neff, “Imagined Affordances: Reconstructing a Keyword for Communication Theory,” Social Media + Society 1, no. 2 (2015): 5.

(17) Lori Kendall coined the term “deep data” during the Q&A at the “‘Small Data’ in a ‘Big Data’ World” panel at the 2013 International Congress of Qualitative Inquiry (May 17). Objecting to the use of the term “small data” as the qualitative counterpart to “big data,” Kendall instead suggested using the descriptor “deep.” She argued, “There is nothing small about ethnographic data.” Tricia Wang has used the term “thick data” to refer similarly to robust but nonquantitative data. See Wang, “Why Big Data Needs Thick Data,” Ethnography Matters, January 20, 2016, https://medium.com/ethnography-matters/why-big-data-needs-thick-data-b4b3e75e3d7.

(18) Anna Everett, Digital Diaspora: A Race for Cyberspace (Albany: State University of New York Press, 2009), 1–20.

(19) David Harvey, A Brief History of Neoliberalism (New York: Oxford University Press, 2005): 2.

(20) Individualism, including Lockean individualism, which conceptualizes individual freedom as the freedom of “individuals to pursue profit in a marketplace,” has long been a strain of thought in US culture. But it was traditionally tempered by other discourses, including patriotism, civic republicanism, the labor movement, (p.223) and other conceptualizations of individualism. See Thomas Streeter, The Net Effect: Romanticism, Capitalism, and the Internet (New York: New York University Press, 2011), 72.

(21) Charles Gallagher, “Color-Blind Privilege: The Social and Political Functions of Erasing the Color Line in Post-Race America,” Race, Gender, and Class 10, no. 4 (2003) 1–17.

(22) Catherine Squires et al., “What Is This ‘Post-’ in Postracial, Postfeminist … (Fill in the Blank)?,” Journal of Communication Inquiry 34, no. 3 (2010): 167; see also David Goldberg, The Threat of Race: Reflections on Racial Neoliberalism (Malden, MA: Wiley-Blackwell, 2009), 334–35; Nisha Kapoor, “The Advancement of Racial Neoliberalism in Britain,” Ethnic and Racial Studies 36, no. 6 (2013): 1034.

(23) Herman Gray, Cultural Moves: African Americans and the Politics of Representation (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2005), 142–44.

(25) Michael Omi and Howard Winant, Racial Formations in the United States, 3rd ed. (New York: Routledge, 2014), 129; emphasis in the original.

(26) Richard Delgado and Jean Stefancic, Critical Race Theory: An Introduction (New York: New York University Press, 2001), 35–36.

(27) Henry Giroux, “Spectacles of Race and Pedagogies of Denial: Anti-Black Racist Pedagogy under the Reign of Neoliberalism,” Communication Education 52, no. 3/4 (2003): 200.

(30) Eduardo Bonilla-Silva, Racism without Racists: Color-Blind Racism and the Persistence of Racial Inequality in America, 5th ed. (Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield, 2018), 26–28; Delgado and Stefancic, Critical Race Theory, 23–24.

(32) Kent Ono, “Postracism: A Theory of the ‘Post’ as Political Strategy,” Journal of Communication Inquiry 34, no. 4 (2010): 227-33.

(33) Cathy J. Cohen, Democracy Remixed: Black Youth and the Future of American Politics (New York: Oxford University Press, 2010), 46.

(35) Michael I. Norton and Samuel R. Sommers, “Whites See Racism as a Zero-Sum Game That They Are Now Losing,” Perspectives on Psychological Science 6, no. 3 (2011): 215–18.

(36) I use the term “Hispanic” here because that is the designation used by both the US Census and the Pew Research Center. However, it is important to note that this term is problematic. It was created by the US government in the 1970s as a way to capture the number of people in the country who trace their roots to Spanish-speaking countries. Research from the Pew Research Center indicates that a slight majority of people in this artificial category identify most often by their family’s country of origin, with only 24 percent preferring a panethnic label. I place the term “Hispanic” in quotation marks to indicate its contested nature. (p.224) Paul Taylor, Mark Hugo Lopez, Jessica Martínez, and Gabriel Velasco,“When Labels Don’t Fit: Hispanics and Their Views of Identity,” Pew Research Center, April 3, 2012, www.pewhispanic.org.

(37) Jens Manuel Krogstad, “One-in-Four Native Americans and Alaska Natives Are Living in Poverty,” Pew Research Center, June 13, 2014, www.pewresearch.org; National Congress of American Indians, “Education,” accessed December 9, 2018, www.ncai.org.

(38) “Demographic Trends and Economic Well-Being,” Pew Research Center, June 27, 2016, accessed December 9, 2018, www.pewsocialtrends.org.

(39) “Unemployment on Indian Reservations at 50 Percent: The Urgent Need to Create Jobs in Indian Country,” Hearing before the Committee on Indian Affairs, United States Senate, Transcript, January 28, 2010. https://www.indian.senate.gov. https://www.indian.senate.gov/sites/default/files/upload/files/January2820102.pdf.

(40) John Gramlich, “The Gap between the Number of Black and Whites in Prison Is Shrinking,” Pew Research Center, January 12, 2018, accessed December 9, 2018, www.pewresearch.org.

(41) Gustavo López, Neil G. Ruiz, and Eileen Patten, “Key Facts about Asian Americans, a Diverse and Growing Population,” Pew Research Center, September 8, 2017, www.pewresearch.org.

(43) Matt Ford and Adam Chandler, “‘Hate Crime’: A Mass Killing at a Historic Church.” The Atlantic, June 19, 2015. www.theatlantic.com.

(44) Manoucheka Celeste, Race, Gender, and Citizenship in the African Diaspora: Traveling Blackness (New York: Routledge, 2016), 14.

(46) Chris Atton, “Reshaping Social Movement Media for a New Millennium,” Social Movement Studies 2, no. 1 (2003); Yochai Benkler, The Wealth of Networks: How Social Production Transforms Markets and Freedom (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2006); Jenkins, Convergence Culture; Sonia Livingstone, “What Is Media Literacy?,” Intermedia 32, no. 3 (2004): 18–20.

(48) Henry Jenkins, Sam Ford, and Joshua Green, Spreadable Media: Creating Value and Meaning in a Networked Culture (New York: New York University Press, 2013).

(49) André Brock, Jr. “‘Who Do You Think You Are?!’: Race, Representation, and Cultural Rhetorics in Online Spaces,” POROI [Project on Rhetoric of Inquiry] 6, no. 1 (2009): 346.

(50) Wendy Chun, Programmed Visions: Software and Memory (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2011), 8–10.

(51) Lisa Nakamura, Digitizing Race: Visual Cultures of the Internet (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2008), 2–3.

(52) Streeter, The Net Effect; Richard Barbrook and Andy Cameron, “The Californian Ideology,” The HRC Archive, accessed December 9, 2018, www.imaginaryfutures.net.

(p.225) (53) Gabriella E. Coleman, Coding Freedom: The Ethics and Aesthetics of Hacking (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2013), 72–73.

(54) Alice Marwick, Status Update: Celebrity, Publicity, and Branding in the Social Media Age (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2013), 50–51.

(56) Lee Rainie and Barry Wellman, Networked: The New Social Operating System (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2012).

(58) W. Lance Bennett and Alexandra Segerberg, “The Logic of Connection Action: Digital Media and the Personalization of Contentious Politics,” Information, Communication, and Society 15, no. 5 (2012): 739–40.

(59) Sherry Turkle, “Who Am We?” Wired. Janurary 1, 1996. www.wired.com; see also N. Katherine Hayles, How We Became Posthuman (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1999), 634–48; Sherry Turkle, “Cyberspace and Identity,” Contemporary Sociology 28 (1999): 643–48.

(60) Kalí Tal, “The Unbearable Whiteness of Being: African American Critical Theory and Cyberculture,” Wired, October 1996.

(61) Lisa Nakamura, “Race in/for Cyberspace: Identity Tourism and Racial Passing on the Internet,” in Reading Digital Culture, ed. David Trend (Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2001), 228.

(64) Ralina L. Joseph, Postracial Resistance: Black Women, Media, and the Uses of Strategic Ambiguity (New York: New York University Press, 2018), 2–15; emphasis in original.

(66) Jennifer Stoever, The Sonic Color Line: Race and the Cultural Politics of Listening (New York: New York University Press, 2016), 19.

(68) Kishonna L. Gray, Race, Gender, and Deviance in Xbox Live: Theoretical Perspectives from the Virtual Margins (New York: Routledge, 2014).

(69) Marisa Parham, “Sample, Signal, Strobe,” lecture, Digital Blackness in the Archive: A Documenting the Now Symposium, Ferguson/St. Louis, MO: DocNow, December 11, 2017. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=taCxTq5pdeY.

(70) Paul Gilroy, The Black Atlantic: Modernity and Double Consciousness (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1993); Tal, “The Unbearable Whiteness of Being.”

(72) Catherine Knight Steele, “Black Bloggers and Their Varied Publics: The Everyday Politics of Black Discourse Online” Television and New Media 19, no. 2 (2018): 113.

(73) Mark Dueze, “Participation, Remediation, Bricolage: Considering Principle Components of Digital Culture,” Information Society 22, no. 2 (2006): 63–75.

(p.226) (74) Portia Maultsby, “Africanisms in African-American Music,” in Africanisms in American Culture, ed. Joseph Holloway, 156–76 (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2005).

(75) Henry Louis Gates Jr., Signifying Monkey: A Theory of African-American Literary Criticism (New York: Oxford University Press, 1988), xxx; Veit Erlmann, “Communities of Style: Musical Figures of Black Diasporic Identity,” in The African Diaspora: A Musical Perspective, ed. Ingrid Monson, 92–109 (New York: Routledge, 2003).

(76) Limor Shifman, Memes in Digital Culture (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2013); Jenkins, Convergence Culture.

(78) I had initially defined the parameters of the study as including only noncommercial podcasts. But several of the podcasts I write about here have begun monetizing through subscriptions and donations, rendering the label inaccurate.

(79) The Loud Speaker Network (LSN) was created by Reggie Osse, aka Combat Jack, and his partner, Chris Morrow, in 2013, after a few years of Osse hosting his online radio show, The Combat Jack Show, for PNC Radio. They started LSN with $500 and built it into a fully independent, profitable venture, commanding advertising fees in the five figures. Despite this, I have opted to exclude it from this project, because although in many ways LSN fits the parameters I have outlined, Osse and Morrow’s connections to and understanding of media industries make LSN qualitatively different from the Chitlin’ Circuit podcasts. Prior to LSN, Osse was an entertainment lawyer who worked with top Hip-hop artists and a former manager for Source Magazine; Morrow had experience in radio and had ghost written for celebrities such as Russell Simmons. Consequently, both men had access to significant social and cultural capital that facilitated their generation of financial capital. In this way, LSN stands apart from the other podcasts discussed here.

(80) Meredith Clark, “To Tweet Our Own Cause: A Mixed-Method Study of the Online Phenomenon ‘Black Twitter.’” (PhD diss., University of North Carolina-Chapel Hill, 2014).

(81) André Brock, Jr. “From the Blackhand Side: Twitter as a Cultural Conversation,” Journal of Broadcasting and Electronic Media 56, no. 4 (2012): 529–49; Clark, “To Tweet Our Own Cause”; Sarah Florini, “Tweets, Tweeps, and Signifyin’: Communication and Cultural Performance on ‘Black Twitter,’” Television and New Media 15, no. 3 (2014): 223–37.

(82) “The Podcast Consumer 2012,” Edison Research, accessed March 1, 2015. www.edisonresearch.com.

(83) Maeve Duggan, Nicole B. Ellison, Cliff Lampe, Amanda Lenhart, and Mary Madden, “Demographics of Key Social Networking Platforms,” Pew Research: Internet and Technology, January 9, 2015, accessed June 10, 2015, www.pewinternet.org.

(84) Aaron Smith, “African Americans and Technology: A Demographic Portrait,” Pew Internet and American Life Project, accessed August 30, 2015. www.pewinternet.org.

(p.227) (85) John Hartley, Creative Industries (London: Blackwell, 2005).

(86) Jean Burgess and Joshua Green, Youtube: Online Video and Participatory Culture (Cambridge, MA: Polity, 2009), 58; Lopez, Asian American Media Activism, 157–63.

(88) Clemencia Rodríguez, Fissures in the Mediascape: An International Study of Citizens’ Media (Cresskill, NJ: Hampton Press, 2001), 20.

(90) Brooke Erin Duffy, (Not) Getting Paid to Do What You Love: Gender, Social Media, and Aspirational Work (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2017); Kathleen Kuehn and Thomas F. Corrigan, “Hope Labor: The Role of Employment Prospects in Online Social Production,” Political Economy of Communication 1, no. 1 (2013): 9–25; Gina Neff, Venture Labor: Work and the Burden of Risk in Innovative Industries (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2012).

(93) Earl Ofari Hutchinson, Blacks and Reds: Race and Class Conflict 1919–1990 (East Lansing: Michigan State University, 1995); Ann Garland Mahler, From the Tricontinental to the Global South: Race, Radicalism, and Transnational Solidarity (Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 2018); Timothy Tyson, Radio Free Dixie: Robert F. Williams and the Roots of Black Power (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1999); Robeson Taj Frazier, The East Is Black: Cold War China in the Black Radical Imagination (Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 2015).

(94) Kristian Davis Bailey, “Black-Palestinian Solidarity in the Ferguson-Gaza Era,” American Quarterly 67, no. 4 (2015): 1017–26.

(95) Alicia Garza, “A Herstory of the #BlackLivesMatter Movement by Alicia Garza,” Feminist Wire, accessed October 7, 2017, www.thefeministwire.com; President Lecture Series, Ted Constant Convocation Center, Old Dominion University, February 2, 2016.

(96) There is conflict over the role of “Black Lives Matter” in Ferguson. Garza has said that she, Cullors, and Tometi used their resources to participate in the Black Lives Matter Freedom Ride (www.colorlines.com) and bring journalists, creatives, and others to Ferguson. Some of the Ferguson protestors, however, have argued that this Black Lives Matter contingent spent time in the streets only when it was safe, stayed in their hotel, and coopted the momentum of the Ferguson movement.

(97) Abby Phillips, “Clinton to meet with Black Lives Matter Activists in Cleveland,” Washington Post, October 21, 2016, www.washingtonpost.com.

(98) Alicia Garza (@aliciagarza), Twitter post, July 27, 2017 (7:52 p.m.), https://twitter.com/aliciagarza/status/625816117307678720; Twitter post, July 28, 2015 (4:57 p.m.), https://twitter.com/aliciagarza/status/626134367094575108; Deray McKesson (@ deray), Twitter post, August 17, 2015 (9:21 a.m.), (p.228) https://twitter.com/deray/sta-tus/633267373534019584; Bernie Sanders (@BernieSanders), Twitter post, August 17, 2015 (11:29 a.m.), https://twitter.com/BernieSanders/status/633299592365350913.

(99) Barbie Zelizer, “Reading the Past against the Grain: The Shape of Memory Studies,” Critical Studies in Mass Communication 12, no. 2 (1995): 213–39.

Chapter 1. Mapping the Transplatform Network

(1) @nicju, Twitter post, January 28, 2016 (3:28 p.m.), https://twitter.com/nicju/sta-tus/692806382123245568.

(2) Harlem Pride, Inc. (@HarlemPride), Twitter post, January 28, 2016 (3:09 p.m.), https://twitter.com/HarlemPride/status/692801655826305024.

(3) Nancy K. Baym, “Fans or Friends?: Seeing Social Media Audiences as Musicians Do,” Particpations: Journal of Audience and Reception Studies 9, no. 2 (2012): 286–316; Manuel Castells, “Communication, Power and Counter-Power in the Network Society,” International Journal of Communcation 1 (2007): 773–87; Henry Jenkins, Convergence Culture: Where Old and New Media Collide (New York: New York University Press, 2006); Alice Marwick and danah boyd, “I Tweet Honestly, I Tweet Passionately: Twitter Users, Context Collapse, and the Imagined Audience,” New Media and Society 13, no. 1 (2010): 114–33.

(4) General William T. Sherman’s Special Field Order No. 15, issued in 1865, stipulated that land should be redistributed in forty-acre plots to emancipated slaves in the wake of the Civil War. Though Sherman issued the order, the idea originated with twenty Black ministers in Savannah, Georgia. In a later order, Sherman stipulated that the Army could lend mules to the Black farmers—thus the well-known phrase “forty acres and a mule.” Sherman’s Order was overturned by President Andrew Johnson. Black landowners were displaced and the land returned to the white Southern plantation owners. (Henry Louis Gates, Jr., “The Truth Behind 40 Acres and a Mule,” PBS, accessed May 16, 2019, www.pbs.org.)

(5) Kris Markman, “Doing Radio, Making Friends, and Having Fun: Exploring the Motivations of Independent Audio Podcasters,” New Media and Society 14, no. 4 (2012) 547–565; Dennis Mocigemba and Gerald Riechmann, “International Podcastsurvey: Podcasters-Who They Are, How and Why They Do It,” 2007, accessed September 18, 2014. http://podcastersurvey/ipcs07.pdf.

(6) Richard Berry, “Will the Ipod Kill the Radio Star?: Profiling Podcasting as Radio,” Convergence 12, no. 2 (2006): 146.

(7) The Black Guy Who Tips, “Ep. 683 Loving Black Women,” The Black Guy Who Tips, Podcast audio, April 14, 2014. http://theblackguywhotips.podOmatic.com/rss2.xml.

(8) “Ep. 46 Nerd Outrage,” What’s the Tea?, Podcast audio, April 7, 2014. http://what-sthet.podomatic.com/rss2.xml.

(9) The Black Astronauts, “Friends of the Show,” accessed November 17, 2015, www.blackastronauts.com.

(p.229) (11) “Ep. 126 Support Ya Own!” Single Simulcast, Podcast audio, November 20, 2013. http://singlesimulcast.com/category/episodes/feed/.

(12) “The Podcast Consumer 2012,” Edison Research, accessed March 1, 2015. www.edisonresearch.com.

(13) The Infinite Dial 2014, Edison Research and Triton Digital, 2014, www.edisonre-search.com.

(14) Rodimus Prime (@rodimusprime), Twitter post, June 19, 2015 (7:35 a.m.), https://twitter.com/rodimusprime/status/611859942685847555.

(15) Rodimus Prime, (@rodimusprime), Twitter post, June 19, 2015 (7:39 a.m.), https://twitter.com/rodimusprime/status/611860901969293312; Twitter post, June 19, 2015 (7:40 a.m.), https://twitter.com/rodimusprime/status/611861026196197376.

(16) Rodimus Prime, (@rodimusprime), Twitter post, June 19, 2015 (7:41 a.m.), https://twitter.com/rodimusprime/status/611861392174542848.

(17) Whiskey, Wine, and Moonshine, “Ep. 84: #WWMPod Reviews #BeingMary-Jane Pt. 1,” Podcast audio, January 9, 2015, http://whiskeywineandmoonshine.podomatic.com/rss2.xml; “Ep. 86: @WWMPod Reviews #BeingMaryJane Pt. 2,” Whiskey, Wine, and Moonshine, Podcast audio, January 17, 2015; “Ep. 87: #WWMPod Reviews #BeingMaryJane Pt. 3,” Whiskey, Wine, and Moonshine, Podcast audio, January 22, 2015; “Ep. 89: #WWMPod Reviews #BeingMaryJane Pt. 4,” Whiskey, Wine, and Moonshine, Podcast audio, February 1, 2015; “Ep. 97: Prime-Time Review of #BeingMaryJane,” Whiskey, Wine, and Moonshine, Podcast audio, April 15, 2015; “Ep. 99: #BeingMaryJane Season 2 Finale Review,” Whiskey, Wine, and Moonshine, Podcast audio, May 2, 2015.

(18) The Black Guy Who Tips, “Ep. 975: Don’t Save Rachel,” The Black Guy Who Tips, Podcast audio, June 20, 2015. http://theblackguywhotips.podOmatic.com/rss2.xml.

(19) Kristen J. Warner, The Cultural Politics of Colorblind TV Casting. (New York: Routledge, 2015).

(20) This Week in Blackness, “Ep. 102: Question Everything,” Blacking It Up!, Podcast audio, June 28, 2011. “Ratchet,” a term from Black Vernacular English, is used to refer to the practices, tastes, and aesthetics commonly characterized by dominant cultures as excessive, improper, and inappropriate. The term is also often used in a derogative manner to describe ways of being common among low-income Black women. TWiB! has since stopped using the term because of its sexist and classist implications.

(22) Elon James White. Personal Communication. n.d.

(23) This Week in Blackness, “Ep. 536: Daddy Doesn’t Care about Sports,” TWiB! Prime, Podcast audio, June 16, 2014. http://feeds.feedburner.com/twibradio.

(24) Tracie Powell, “The Demise of NPR’s Tell Me More Can Be Traced to Member Stations,” Columbia Journalism Review, June 5, 2014, accessed November 17, 2015. www.cjr.org.

(26) Gina Neff, Venture Labor: Work and the Burden of Risk in Innovative Industries (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2012), 16.

(27) Kathleen Kuehn and Thomas F. Corrigan, “Hope Labor: The Role of Employment Prospects in Online Social Production,” Political Economy of Communication 1, no. 1 (2013): 9–25.

(28) Brooke Erin Duffy, (Not) Getting Paid to Do What You Love: Gender, Social Media, and Aspirational Work (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2017).

(29) This Week in Blackness, “Ep. 536: Daddy Doesn’t Care About Sports,” TWiB! Prime, June 16, 2014. http://feeds.feedburner.com/twibradio.

(30) The Black Guy Who Tips, “Ep. 998: Hillary 2016,” The Black Guy Who Tips, Pod-cast audio, July 21, 2015. http://theblackguywhotips.podOmatic.com/rss2.xml.

(31) Pew Research, “Portrait of a Twitter User: Status Update Demographics,” October 21, 2009, www.pewinternet.org.

(32) Bloggers such as Choire Sicha, who wrote a blog post for The Awl titled “What Were Black People Talking about on Twitter Last Night?” and Alan Wolk, who wrote “What ‘Thuglife’ Can Teach Us about Twitter” in Advertising Age, were among the first to note “Black Twitter.” In 2011, Slate’s Farhad Manjoo wrote “How Black People Use Twitter,” starting a heated conversation about the Black presence on the platform.

(33) André Brock, Jr. “From the Blackhand Side: Twitter as a Cultural Conversation,” Journal of Broadcasting and Electronic Media 56, no. 4 (2012) 529–49.

(34) Meredith Clark, “To Tweet Our Own Cause: A Mixed-Method Study of the Online Phenomenon ‘Black Twitter,’” (PhD diss., University of North Carolina-Chapel Hill, 2014).

(38) Zoe Fox, “Travyon Martin Petition Is Fastest-Growing in Change.org History,” Mashable, March 28, 2012, http://mashable.com/.

(41) New York Magazine, July 27–August 9, 2015, www.nymag.com; Rachel Zarrell, “#DudesGreetingDudes Is One Guy’s Flawless Takedown of Catcalling,” Buzzfeed, November 5, 2014, www.buzzfeed.com; Nina Bahadur, “#DudesGreetingDudes Hilariously Proves Catcalling Isn’t ‘Just a Compliment,’” Huffington Post, November 4, 2014, www.huffingtonpost.com; Heidi Stevens, “#DudesGreetingDudes Skewers Catcalling, with Gleeful Success,” Chicago Tribune, November 5, 2014, www.chicagotribune.com; Wyatt Massey, “Cosby Cover Sparks #TheEmptyChair Discussion,” CNN, July 27, 2015, www.cnn.com; Lindsey Bever, “#TheEmptyChair on NY Magazine’s Cosby Cover Takes on a Life of Its Own,” Washington Post, July 28, 2015, http://www.washingtonpost.com; “#TheEmptyChair Amplifies Conversation about Sexual Assault,” Morning Edition, NPR, July 31, 2015, www.npr.org.

(p.231) (42) Imani Gandy (@AngryBlackLady), Twitter post, July 19, 2015 (10:23 a.m.), https://twitter.com/AngryBlackLady/status/622773873100980224.

(43) Rodimus Prime (@rodimusprime), Twitter post, July 19, 2015 (10:24 a.m.), https://twitter.com/rodimusprime/status/622774029796012032.

(44) Imani Gandy, (@AngryBlackLady), Twitter post, July 19, 2015 (10:37 a.m.), https://twitter.com/AngryBlackLady/status/622777372547284992.

(45) Rodimus Prime (@rodimusprime), Twitter post, July 19, 2015 (10:38 a.m.), https://twitter.com/rodimusprime/status/622777579800412161; Twitter post, July 19, 2015 (10:41 a.m.), https://twitter.com/rodimusprime/status/622778233092620288; Twitter post, July 19, 2015 (10:43 a.m.), https://twitter.com/rodimusprime/sta-tus/622778730100854784.

(46) Lena Masri, “Sander Hit by #BernieSoBlack,” Reuters, July 20, 2015, http://blogs.reuters.com; Martin Pengelly, “O’Malley and Sanders Take on Police Brutality after Protests Disrupt Forum,” Guardian, July 19, 2015, www.theguardian.com; Arti John, “What #BernieSoBlack Can Teach Bernie Sanders and His Supporters,” Bloomberg, July 19, 2015, www.bloomberg.com; Andrea Beasley, “#BernieSoBlack Becomes Trending Topic in Wake of Netroots,” MSBNC, July 19, 2015, www.msnbc.com; Jamelle Bouie, “More Than a Food Fight: Why Hillary Should Take the Black Lives Matter Netroots Fracas Seriously,” Slate, July 20, 2015, www.slate.com.

(47) Dara Lind, “#BernieSoBlack Creator Explains Why He’s So Frustrated with Sanders’s Supporters,” Vox, July 20, 2015, www.vox.com; Dexter Thomas, “Just How Black Is Bernie Sanders?” Los Angeles Times, July 19, 2015, www.latimes.com; Dan Merica, “How Hillary Clinton Will Go After Bernie Sanders on Race,” CNN, August 4, 2015, www.cnn.com; Asawin Suebsaeng, “#BlackTwitter Turns On Bernie Sanders,” Daily Beast, July 19, 2015, www.thedailybeast.com.

(48) Jonathan Sterne, Jeremy Morris, Michael Brendan Baker, and Ariana Moscote Freire, “The Politics of Podcasting,” Fiberculture Journal, no. 13 (2008), http://thir-teen.fibreculturejournal.org/fcj-087-the-politics-of-podcasting/.

(49) Richard Rogers, “Debanalising Twitter: The Transformation of an Object of Study,” in Twitter and Society, ed. Katrin Weller, Axel Bruns, Jean Burgess, Merja Mahrt, and Cornelius Puschmann (New York: Peter Lang, 2014), xv.

(50) Jay Rossen. “Help Me Explain Twitter to Eggheads,” Press Think, January 4, 2009, http://archive.pressthink.org.

(51) Kate Crawford, “Following You: Disciplines of Listening in Social Media,” Continuum: Journal of Media and Cultural Studies 23, no. 4 (2009): 527.

(52) Nancy K. Baym and danah boyd, “Socially Mediated Publicness: An Introduction,” Journal of Broadcasting and Electronic Media 56, no. 3 (2012): 322–23.

(55) Anamik Saha, Race and the Cultural Industries (Cambridge, MA: Polity, 2018), 136.

(p.232) (57) Catherine Squires, “Black Talk Radio: Defining Community Needs and Identity,” Harvard International Journal of Press/Politics 5, no. 2 (2000): 78.

(58) William Barlow, Voice Over: The Making of Black Radio (Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1999), 296.

(60) Laurence A. Breiner, “Caribbean Voices on the Air: Radio, Poetry, and Nationalism in the Anglophone Caribbean,” in Communities of the Air: Radio Century, Radio Culture, ed. Susan Merrill Squier 93–108 (Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 2003); Susan Douglas, Listening In: Radio and the American Imagination (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2004); Jason Loviglio, “Vox Pop: Network Radio and the Voice of the People,” in Radio Reader: Essays in the Cultural History of Radio, ed. Michele Hilmes and Jason Loviglio 89–112 (New York: Routledge, 2002).

(62) Vorris Nunely, Keepin’ It Hushed: The Barbershop and African American Hush Harbor Rhetoric (Detroit, MI: Wayne State University Press, 2011), 30–31.

(63) Jennifer Stoever, The Sonic Color Line: Race and the Cultural Politics of Listening (New York: New York University Press, 2016), 14.

(66) Lisa Reichelt, “Ambient Intimacy,” Disambiguity, March 1, 2007, www.disambigu-ity.com.

(68) Jan-Hinrik Schmidt, “Twitter and the Rise of Personal Publics,” in Twitter and Society, ed. Katrin Weller, Axel Bruns, Jean Burgess, Merja Mahrt, and Cornelius Puschmann (New York: Peter Lang, 2014).

(70) Axel Bruns and Hallvard Moe, “Structural Layers of Communication on Twitter,” in Twitter and Society, ed. Katrin Weller, Axel Bruns, Jean Burgess, Merja Mahrt, and Cornelius Puschmann, 15–28 (New York: Peter Lang, 2014).

(71) Melissa Harris-Lacewell, Barbershops, Bibles, and Bet: Everyday Talk and Black Political Thought (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2004), 1.

(72) ATLAH Worldwide, “White Homosexual Takes Black Woman’s Man,” You-Tube, Online Video Clip, February 25, 2014, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2JCJE0HaFek#t=185.

(73) This Week in Blackness, “Blackness. Today: #Homodemons,” You-Tube, Online Video Clip, February 27, 2014, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=g4j3MUURMkc.

(74) ATLAH Worldwide, “Mrs. Elon James White,” YouTube, Online Video Clip, March 6, 2014, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_SMut_sFirc.

(75) Elon James White (@elonjames), Twitter post, March 6, 2014 (12:32 p.m.), https://twitter.com/elonjames/status/441627503543582720; Twitter post, March 6, 2014 (11:10 p.m.), https://twitter.com/elonjames/status/441787934270701568; This (p.233) Week in Blackness, “Dear ‘Dr.’ James David Manning … A.K.A. Dr. #Homodemons,” YouTube, Online Video Clip, March 7, 2014, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pYGmdZlk0rs.

(76) Rodimus Prime (@rodimusprime), Twitter post, March 6, 2014 (1:58 p.m.), https://twitter.com/rodimusprime/status/441648955353743360.

(77) Rodimus Prime (@rodimusprime), Twitter post, March 6, 2014 (2:01 p.m.), https://twitter.com/rodimusprime/status/441649773066846208.

(78) “Questions about the Real Mrs. Elon James White: Dr. #Homodemons Gives Rod of The Black Guy Who Tips Podcast, and ALL of Us, a Thing or 21 to Think About,” Storify, March 2014.

(79) The Black Guy Who Tips, “Ep. 657 #DrManningBars,” The Black Guy Who Tips, Podcast audio, March 9, 2014. http://theblackguywhotips.podOmatic.com/rss2.xml.

(80) In Hip-hop, “diss,” a shortened iteration of the word “disrespect,” is used to refer to insult or harsh criticism. Hip-hop MCs, who have a long tradition of verbal sparring and braggadocio, may release what is known as a “diss track,” a song that insults or attacks another MC. In the late 1990s and early 2000s, Hip-hop stars Jay-Z and Nas released a series of diss tracks attacking and disparaging one another. Among these was Nas’s “Ether,” which has become one of the most well-known and influential diss tracks in American Hip-hop.

Chapter 2. Enclaves and Counter-Publics

(1) Jürgen Habermas, The Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere, trans. Thomas Burger and Frederick Lawrence (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1991); Sonia Livingstone, “On the Relation between Audiences and Publics,” in Audiences and Publics: When Cultural Engagement Matters for the Public Sphere, ed. Sonia Livingstone (Portland, OR: Intellect, 2005), 17.

(2) Nancy Fraser, “Rethinking the Public Sphere: A Contribution to the Critique of Actually Existing Democracy,” Social Text, no. 25/26 (1990): 68–69; Michael Warner, Publics and Counterpublics (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2002).

(3) André Brock, Jr., “Black Joy as Frame for Digital Practice: A Libidinal Economic Approach to Black Online Culture,” lecture, Arizona State University, May 18, 2017; Catherine Knight Steele and Jessica Lu, “Defying Death: Black Joy as Resistance,” paper presented at International Communication Association, Prague, May 28, 2018.

(4) danah boyd, “Social Networking Sites as Networked Publics: Affordances, Dynamics, and Implications,” in Networked Self: Identity, Community, and Culture on Social Networking Sites, ed. Zizi Papacharissi, 47-66 (New York: Routledge, 2010), 39; emphasis added.

(5) danah boyd, “Why Youth <3 Social Networking Sites: The Role of Networked Publics in Teenage Social Life,” in Youth Identity and Digital Media, ed. D Buckingham, 119–42 (Cambridge MA: MIT Press, 2007); Ganaele Langlois, Greg Elmer, Fenwick McKelvey, andZachary Devereaux, “Networked Publics: The (p.234) Double Articulation of Code and Politics on Facebook,” Canadian Journal of Communication 34, no. 3 (2009) https://cjc-online.ca/index.php/journal/article/view/2114/3031; Zizi Papacharissi and Maria de Fatima Oliveira, “Affective News and Networked Publics: The Rhythms of News Storytelling on #Egypt,” Journal of Communication 62, no. 2 (2012) 266–282; Bjarki Valtysson, “Facebook as a Digital Public Sphere: Processes of Colonization and Emancipation,” Journal for a Global Sustainable Information Society 10, no. 1 (2012) 77–91; McKelvey Karissa, Joseph DiGrazia, and Fabio Rojas, “Twitter Publics: How Online Political Communities Signaled Electoral Outcomes in the 2010 US House Election,” Information, Communication & Society 17, no. 4 (2014) 436-50; Schmidt, “Twitter and the Rise of Personal Publics,” 4–13; Axel Bruns and Jean Burgess, “Twitter Hashtags from Ad Hoc to Calculated Publics,” in Hashtag Publics: The Power and Politics of Discursive Networks, ed. Nathan Rambukkana 13–28 (New York: Peter Lang, 2015); Bryce J. Renninger, “‘Where I Can Be Myself … Where I Can Speak My Mind: Networked Counterpublics in a Polymedia Environment,” New Media and Society 17, no. 9 (2015) 1513–1529; Alexander Cho, “Queer Reverb: Tumblr, Affect, Time,” in Networked Affect, ed. Ken Hillis, Susanna Paasonen, and Michael Petit 43–58 (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2015).

(6) Catherine Squires, “Rethinking the Black Public Sphere: An Alternative Vocabulary for Multiple Public Spheres,” Communication Theory 12, no. 4 (2002): 448, 463.

(7) Catherine Squires, “Black Talk Radio: Defining Community Needs and Identity,” The Harvard International Journal of Press/Politics 5, no. 2 (2000): 91. emphasis original.

(9) Catherine Knight Steele, “Black Bloggers and Their Varied Publics: The Everyday Politics of Black Discourse Online,” Television and New Media 19, no. 2 (2017): 112–27.

(10) James C. Scott, Domination and the Arts of Resistance: Hidden Transcripts (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1990); Squires, “Rethinking the Black Public Sphere.”

(11) Karma Chávez, “Counter-Public Enclaves and Understanding the Function of Rhetoric in Social Movement Coalition-Building,” Communication Quarterly 59, no. 1 (2011): 3.

(12) Melissa Harris-Lacewell, Barbershop, Bibles, and Bet: Everyday Talk and Black Political Thought (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2004); Quincy T. Mills, Cutting along the Color Line: Black Barbers and Barber Shops in America (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2013).

(13) Mark Anthony Neal, What the Music Said: Black Popular Music and Black Public Culture (New York: Routledge, 1999).

(14) Vorris Nunely, Keepin’ It Hushed: The Barbershop and African American Hush Harbor Rhetoric (Detroit, MI: Wayne State University Press, 2011), 18–19.

(17) The Black Guy Who Tips, “Ep. 979: Black on Black Love,” The Black Guy Who Tips, June 24, Podcast audio, 2015. http://theblackguywhotips.podOmatic.com/rss2.xml.

(19) Deltagal2, “3 Guys on Podcast Game Changer!” iTune review, October 7, 2014, https://itunes.apple.com/us/podcast/three-guys-on/id357001831?mt=2.

(20) The Black Guy Who Tips, “Ep. 844: 5 Star Reviews for Christmas,” The Black Guy Who Tips, Podcast audio, 2014. http://theblackguywhotips.podOmatic.com/rss2.xml.

(21) its_always_golden, “Country Play Cousin,” iTunes review, September 4, 2012, https://itunes.apple.com/us/podcast/the-black-guy-who-tips-podcast/id349830668?mt=2.

(22) Deltagril29, “Love you all!” iTunes review, April 24, 2019, https://itunes.apple.com/us/podcast/whiskey-wine-and-moonshine/id664691796?mt=2.

(23) RawWhite24, “Great Show!” iTunes review, November 4, 2014, https://itunes.apple.com/us/podcast/whats-the-tea/id648598889?mt=2.

(24) JayKing717, “Great Content & Crew!” iTunes review, June 2, 2014, https://itunes.apple.com/us/podcast/black-astronauts-podcast/id592681501?mt=2; ElliRed, “Love LL,” iTunes review, August 25, 2014, https://itunes.apple.com/us/podcast/black-astronauts-podcast/id592681501?mt=2.

(25) P. Andre Joseph, “Break Out Those Good Plates!” iTunes review, January 19, 2014, https://itunes.apple.com/us/podcast/whats-the-tea/id648598889?mt=2.

(26) This Week in Blackness, “Ep. 63: Barbershop,” Blacking It Up!, Podcast audio, 2011. http://feeds.feedburner.com/twibradio.

(27) @CarlTheHaitan, “Barber Shop (or Beauty Shop) Talk for You [sic] iPod and MP3 Player,” iTunes review, May 6, 2011, https://itunes.apple.com/us/podcast/the-black-guy-who-tips-podcast/id349830668?mt=2.

(28) cor3na, “am i in the barber shop?!” iTunes review, December 19, 2014, https://itunes.apple.com/us/podcast/three-guys-on/id357001831?mt=2.

(29) Shane Paul Neal, “Black Podcasts Bring the Barbershop to the Internet,” Huffing-ton Post, March 13, 2013, www.huffingtonpost.com.

(30) TAYREL713, “Now Listen,” iTunes review, May 9, 2014, https://itunes.apple.com/us/podcast/whats-the-tea/id648598889?mt=2.

(31) realness, “What can I say,” iTunes review, January 22, 2014, https://itunes.apple.com/us/podcast/whats-the-tea/id648598889?mt=2.

(34) Jomokee, “Cool, cool, cool,” iTunes review, January 16, 2013, https://itunes.apple.com/us/podcast/straight-outta-lo-cash/id482570636?mt=2.

(35) Alexander Weheliye, Phonographies: Grooves in Sonic Afro-Modernity (Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 2005).

(36) Shuhei Hosokawa, “The Walkman Effect,” Popular Music 4 no. (1984): 165–80; Mack Hagood, “Quiet Comfort: Noise, Otherness, and the Mobile Production of (p.236) Personal Space,” American Quarterly 63, no. 3 (2011) 573–89; Alex V. Blue, “‘Hear What You Want’: Sonic Politics, Blackness, and Racism-Canceling Headphones,” Current Musicology nos. 99–100 (2017) 87–106.

(37) Michael Bull, “iPod Use, Mediation, and Privatization in the Age of Mechanical Reproduction,” in The Oxford Handbook of Mobile Music Studies, vol. 1, ed. Sumanth Gopinath and Jason Stanyek (New York: Oxford University Press, 2014), 105.

(39) Hagood, “Quiet Comfort,” 574; emphasis in original.

(45) André Brock, Jr. “‘Who Do You Think You Are?!’: Race, Representation, and Cultural Rhetorics in Online Spaces,” POROI [Project on Rhetoric of Inquiry] 6, no. 1 (2009): 346.

(46) André Brock, Jr. “From the Blackhand Side: Twitter as a Cultural Conversation,” Journal of Broadcasting and Electronic Media 56, no. 4 (2012) 529–49.

(48) Elon James White (@elonjames), Twitter post, August 7, 2015 (9:55 p.m.), https://twitter.com/elonjames/status/629833209371607040.

(49) @SayDatAgain, Twitter post, July 12, 2015 (5:25 p.m.), https://twitter.com/SayDat-Again/status/620343547900768256.

(50) @SayDatAgain,, Twitter post, July 12, 2015 (5:30 p.m.), https://twitter.com/SayDat-Again/status/620344425621798912.

(51) The Black Guy Who Tips, “Ep. 1025: Are You Pressed?” The Black Guy Who Tips, Podcast audio, September 6, 2015.

(53) Susannah Fox, Kathryn Zickuhr, and Aaron Smith, “Twitter and Status Updating, Fall 2009,” Pew Research Center, October 21, 2009, www.pewinternet.org.

(54) Bloggers such as Choire Sicha, who wrote a blog post in 2009 titled, “What Were Black People Talking about on Twitter Last Night?” and Farhad Manjoo, who wrote “How Black People Use Twitter” in 2010, started a heated conversation about the Black presence on the platform. Manjoo’s article was accompanied by the image of what has become known as the “Brown Twitter Bird,” a brown bird in a fitted baseball cap holding a cell phone, presumably tweeting. One of the primary criticisms of Manjoo’s article was that it was reductive, homogenizing Black users and treating them as an undifferentiated monolith. The critique manifested in the response from the blog Instant Vintage and its readers, who photoshopped the Brown Twitter Bird with a variety of different hats, hairstyles, accessories, and backgrounds to represent the fullness of Black life. By (p.237) 2011, the Root was writing regular articles about Black Twitter, and in 2012 Dr. Goddess presented her panel “The Bombastic Brilliance of ‘Black Twitter’” at SXSW (South by Southwest). Choire Sicha, “What Were the Black People Talking about on Twitter Last Night?” The Awl, November 11, 2009, www.theawl.com; Farhad Manjoo, “How Black People Use Twitter,” August 10, 2010, www.slate.com; “… oh, Slate …” Instant Vintage, August 10, 2010, www.innyvinny.com; Kimberly Ellis, “The Bombastic Brilliance of ‘Black Twitter,’” presented at South by Southwest (SXSW), March 9, 2012.

(55) Tracy Clayton, “The 21 Biggest #Blacktwitter Moments of 2013,” Buzzfeed, December 23, 2013, www.buzzfeed.com.

(56) Axel Bruns and Hallvard Moe, “Structural Layers of Communication on Twitter,” in Twitter and Society, ed. Katrin Weller, Axel Bruns, Jean Burgess, Merja Mahrt, and Cornelius Puschmann, 15–28 (New York: Peter Lang, 2014).

(57) Alain Sherter, “In Day of Protests, ‘Occupy Wall Street’ Faces Police Violence,” CBS News, November 17, 2011, www.cbsnews.com; Laurie Penny, “Occupy Wall Street: Police Violence Reveals a Corrupt System,” Guardian, November 15, 2011, www.theguardian.com; Michael Tracey, “The NYPD’s Violent Crackdown on Occupy Wall Street Protestors,” Mother Jones, October 6, 2011, www.motherjones.com; Rania Khalek, “Why Are Police Attacking Peaceful Protesters? How OWS Has Exposed the Militarization of US Law Enforcement,” AlterNet, October 20, 2011, www.alternet.org.

(58) Elon James White (@elonjames), Twitter post, November 17, 2011 (1:53 p.m.), https://twitter.com/elonjames/status/137241989417668608.

(59) Elon James White, “Dear OWS: Welcome to Our World,” Root, November 29, 2011, www.theroot.com.

(60) Elon James White (@elonjames), Twitter post, November 29, 2011 (10:49 a.m.), https://twitter.com/elonjames/status/141544281776201728; Twitter post, November 29, 2011 (11:41 a.m.), https://twitter.com/elonjames/status/141557285561438208; Twitter post, November 29, 2011 (2:22 p.m.), https://twitter.com/elonjames/sta-tus/141597870217379840.

(61) @popfreeradio, Twitter post, November 29, 2011 (10:10 a.m.), https://twitter.com/popfreeradio/status/141534581869395968.

(62) @LJbouge, Twitter post, November 29, 2011 (5:12 p.m.), https://twitter.com/LJbouge/status/141640719587753984.

(63) @V3rsus, Twitter post, November 29, 2011, deleted.

(64) @Belle_Todrani, Twitter post, November 29, 2011 (10:12 p.m), https://twitter.com/Belle_Todrani/status/141716194792185856.

(65) Elon James White (@elonjames), Twitter post, November 29, 2011 (3:45 p.m.), https://twitter.com/elonjames/status/141618916458889219.

(66) @solbutterfly, Twitter post, November 29, 2011 (4:06 p.m.) accessed September 19, 2017 https://twitter.com/solbutterfly/status/141624149654245376.

(67) Elon James White (@elonjames), Twitter post, November 29, 2011 (4:09 p.m.), https://twitter.com/elonjames/status/141624897276346368; Twitter post, November (p.238) 29, 2011 (5:16 p.m.), https://twitter.com/elonjames/status/141641670520344576; Twitter post, November 29, 2011 (5:29 p.m.), https://twitter.com/elonjames/sta-tus/141644863132278784; Twitter post, November 29, 2011 (5:32 p.m.), https://twit-ter.com/elonjames/status/141645793084964864; Twitter post, November 29, 2011 (5:56 p.m.), https://twitter.com/elonjames/status/141651682714071040.

(68) This was prior to the addition of features that allowed easy creation of threads on Twitter. In 2014, Twitter added a reply feature that connected a tweet with the one to which it was a reply. At this point, users began replying to their own tweets to connect the tweets in their tweetstorms. In 2017, Twitter added the ability to thread the tweets of tweetstorms together, and similar practices are now often referred to as a “thread.”

(69) Blair L. M. Kelley (@profblmkelley), Twitter post, November 29, 2011 (11:02 p.m.), https://twitter.com/profblmkelley/status/141728727200567296; Elon James White (@elonjames), Twitter post, November 29, 2011 (11:04 p.m.), https://twitter.com/elonjames/status/141729163471101953; Blair L. M. Kelley (@profblmkelley), Twitter post, November 29, 2011 (11:04 p.m.), https://twitter.com/profblmkelley/sta-tus/141729258841178113; Elon James White (@elonjames), Twitter post, November 29, 2011 (11:05 p.m.), https://twitter.com/elonjames/status/141729547837128705.

(70) Rebecca Wanzo, “African American Acafandom and Other Strangers: New Genealogies of Fan Studies,” Transformative Works and Cultures 20 (2015) https://doi.org/10.3983/twc.2015.0699.

(71) Mel Stanfill, “Doing Fandom, (Mis)Doing Whiteness: Heteronormativity, Racialization, and the Discursive Construction of Fandom,” Transformative Works and Cultures 8 (2011) https://doi.org/10.3983/twc.2011.0256; Wanzo, “African American Acafandom and Other Strangers.”

(72) Mary Bucholtz, “The Whiteness of Nerds: Superstandard English and Racial Markedness,” Journal of Linguistic Anthropology 11, no. 1 (2001) 84–100; Ron Eglash, “Race, Sex, and Nerd: From Black Geeks to Asian American Hipsters,” Social Text 20 (2002) 49–64; Lori Kendall, “‘White and Nerdy’: Computers, Race and the Nerd Stereotype,” Journal of Popular Culture 44, no. 3 (2011) 505–24.

(73) Lori Kendall, “‘Oh No! I’m a Nerd!’: Hegemonic Masculinity on an Online Forum,” Gender and Society 14, no. 2 (2000) 256–74.

(74) Kristen J. Warner, “ABC’s Scandal and Black Women’s Fandom,” in Cupcakes, Pinterest, and Ladyporn: Feminized Popular Culture in the Early Twenty-First Century, ed. Elana Levine (Champaign: University of Illinois Press, 2015), 37.

(76) Often the network participates as part of the larger Black Twitter. Since 2009, the annual BET Awards has dominated the national Trending Topics on Twitter. In fact, it was this event that began to bring the Black Twitter network to greater attention. For example, the 2009 BET Awards’ domination of the Trending Topics sparked commentary on what many white users felt was a surprising and inappropriate use of Twitter by Blacks.

Several of the problematic responses were cataloged at the website “OMG! Black People!” which had the stated purpose of highlighting “some (p.239) of the interesting reactions to the trending topics related to the 2009 BET Awards.” Tweets highlighted on the site include comments such as “The trending topics a disturbing today. BET awards [sic] are number 1!” and “i’m [sic] sad that the first 7 of 10 trending topics on twitter have to do with the BET awards [sic].” The overtly racist tone of some tweets highlight the perils of Black users engaging in visible fan practices—“Did anyone see the new trending topics? I don’t think this is a very good neighborhood. Lock the car doors kids” and “wow!! too [sic] many negros in the trending topics for me. I may be done with this whole twitter thing.” https://omgblack-people.wordpress.com.

(77) Black Girl Nerds, “About,” accessed November 15, 2017, http://blackgirlnerds.com.

(78) FiyaStarter, audio podcast, July 7, 2012; @TheREALHeemDee, Twitter post, May 13, 2012 (9:06 p.m.), https://twitter.com/TheREALHeemDee/sta-tus/201840833136308224.

(79) The Black Guy Who Tips, “Ep. 315: Girls and Dem Thrones,” The Black Guy Who Tips, Podcast audio, May 31, 2012. http://theblackguywhotips.podOmatic.com/rss2.xml; “Ep. 443: Return of #Demthrones,” The Black Guy Who Tips, Podcast audio, April 4, 2013.

(80) Ava DuVernay (@ava), Twitter post, May 4, 2014 (9:03 p.m.), https://twitter.com/ava/status/463121761387941889; Netta Elzie, Twitter post, account deactivated, accessed September 19, 2017.

(81) Sarah Florini, “Enclaving and Cultural Resonance in Black ‘Game of Thrones’ Fandom,” Transformative Works and Cultures, vol. 29, 2019. https://doi.org/10.3983/twc.2019.1498.

(82) Sidney Fussell, “If You’re Using the ‘Game of Thrones’ Hashtag, You’re Missing out on the Show’s Best Commentary,” Business Insider, May 16, 2016. www.businessin-sider.com.

(83) The Gadsden flag is the iconic yellow flag depicting a coiled snake inscribed with the phrase, “Don’t Tread on Me.” It gets its name from Christopher Gadsden who designed it during the American Revolutionary War.

(84) @Wes_St_Clair, Twitter post, May 8, 2016 (9:44 p.m.), https://twitter.com/Wes_St_Clair/status/729487272354172929.

(85) Bipartisan Report (@Bipartisanism), Twitter post, July 19, 2015 (12:07 p.m.), https://twitter.com/Bipartisanism/status/622800050440122368.

(86) Roderick Morrow (@rodimusprime), Twitter post, July 21, 2015 (10:46 p.m.), https://twitter.com/rodimusprime/status/623685519155683328.

(87) The Black Guy Who Tips, “Ep. 997: Brought to You By HRC and the Kock Bros,” The Black Guy Who Tips, Podcast audio, July 20, 2015. http://theblackguywhotips.podOmatic.com/rss2.xml.

(88) Brock, Jr. “From the Blackhand Side”; Sarah Florini, “Tweets, Tweeps, and Signifyin’’: Communication and Cultural Performance on ‘Black Twitter,’” Television and New Media 15, no. 3 (2014) 223–37.

(p.240) (89) The Black Guy Who Tips, “Ep. 997: Brought to You by HRC and Koch Bros,” The Black Guy Who Tips, Podcast audio, July 20, 2015. http://theblackguywhotips.podOmatic.com/rss2.xml.

(90) @saleemjourney, Twitter post, July 19, 2015 (5:04 p.m.), https://twitter.com/sal-eemjourney/status/622874692492374016.

(91) @MJGWrites, Twitter post, July 19, 2015 (5:14 p.m.), https://twitter.com/MJG-Writes/status/622877156167696384.

(92) @kidfick, Twitter post, July 19, 2015 (5:17 p.m.), https://twitter.com/damonfick/status/622877990934986752.

(93) @trayNTP, Twitter post, July 19, 2015 (12:00 p.m.), https://twitter.com/trayNTP/status/622798198365683713.

(94) Lena Masri, “Sanders Hit by #BernieSoBlack,” Reuters, July 20, 2015, http://blogs.reuters.com; Martin Pengelly, “O’Malley and Sanders Take on Police Brutality after Protests Disrupt Forum,” Guardian, July 19, 2015, http://www.theguardian.com; Andrea Beasley, “#BernieSoBlack Becomes Trending Topic in Wake of Netroots,” MSNBC, July 19, 2015, www.msnbc.com; Jamelle Bouie, “More Than a Food Fight: Why Hillary Should Take the Black Lives Matter Netroots Fracas Seriously,” Slate, July 20, 2015, www.slate.com.

(95) Dara Lind, “#BernieSoBlack Creator Explains Why He’s So Frustrated with Sanders’s Supporters,” Vox, July 20, 2015, www.vox.com; Dexter Thomas, “Just How Black Is Bernie Sanders?,” Los Angeles Times, July 19, 2015, www.latimes.com/; Dan Merica, “How Hillary Clinton Will Go after Bernie Sanders on Race,” CNN, August 4, 2015, www.cnn.com; Asawin Suebsaeng, “#BlackTwitter Turns on Bernie Sanders,” Daily Beast, July 19, 2015, www.thedailybeast.com.

(96) The Black Guy Who Tips, “Ep. 996: #BernieSoBlack,” The Black Guy Who Tips, Podcast audio, July 19, 2015. http://theblackguywhotips.podOmatic.com/rss2.xml.

(97) Rita, Spreecast Chatroom Post, “Ep. 996: #BernieSoBlack,” The Black Guy Who Tips, July 19, 2015.

(98) Cedric, Spreecast Chatroom Post, “Ep. 996: #BernieSoBlack,” The Black Guy Who Tips, July 19, 2015.

(101) The Black Guy Who Tips, “Ep. 1000: Twiterary Genius,” The Black Guy Who Tips, Podcast audio, July 25, 2015. http://theblackguywhotips.podOmatic.com/rss2.xml.

(103) The Black Guy Who Tips, “Ep. 999: Bernie Marched Way in the Back,” The Black Guy Who Tips, Podcast audio, July 22, 2015. http://theblackguywhotips.podOmatic.com/rss2.xml.

(104) Marisa Kabas, “Twitter Takes Aim at Bernie Sanders’ Minority Strategy with #BernieSoBlack,” Daily Dot, July 19, 2015, www.dailydot.com; “#BernieSoBlack: Sanders’ Supporters Tout His Civil Rights Record, #Blacktwitter Cracks Jokes,” NewsOne, July 19, 2015, https://newsone.com; David Ferguson, “Twitter Users Debate Bernie (p.241) Sanders’ Civil Rights Credibility with #BernieSoBlack Hashtag,” Raw Story, July 19, 2015, http://www.rawstory; Beasley, “#BernieSoBlack Becomes Trending Topic in Wake of Netroots”; Tom McKay, “Here’s What Happened When #BlackLivesMatter Activists Confronted Bernie Sanders,” Mic, July 19, 2015, https://mic.com; D. L. Chandler, “Black Twitter Goes in with #BernieSoBlack,” Hip-Hop Wired, July 19, 2015, http://hiphopwired.com; Dara Lind, “#BernieSo-Black: Why Progressives Are Fighting about Bernie Sanders and Race,” Vox, July 20, 2015, https://www.vox.com.

(106) The Black Guy Who Tips, “Ep. 998: Hillary 2016,” The Black Guy Who Tips, Pod-cast audio, July 21,2015. http://theblackguywhotips.podOmatic.com/rss2.xml.

(110) For example, Karen tweeted, “Some of them Bernie stands [sic] through they were gonna get in our private Facebook group? Hahahahahahahahahahahahahahahahahahahahahahahahahahaha” (@SayDatAgain, Twitter post, August 10, 2015 [9:21 p.m.], https://twitter.com/SayDatAgain/status/630911915930226688).

(111) The Black Guy Who Tips, “Ep. 999: Bernie Marched Way in the Back,” The Black Guy Who Tips, Podcast audio, July 22, 2015. http://theblackguywhotips.podO-matic.com/rss2.xml.

Chapter 3. “MLK, I Choose You!”

(1) This Week in Blackness, “Ep. 21.5: Even Professors Dougie,” Blacking It Up!, Pod-cast audio, January 28, 2011. http://feeds.feedburner.com/twibradio.

(3) Astrid Erll, “Cultural Memory Studies: An Introduction,” in Cultural Memory Studies Reader: An International and Interdisciplinary Handbook, ed. Astrid Erll and Ansgar Nügging, 38–65 (New York: Walter de Gruyter, 2008).

(4) Pierre Nora, “Between Memory and History: Les Lieux De Mémoire,” Representations 26 (1989): 8.

(6) Melvin Dixon, “The Black Writer’s Use of Memory,” in History and Memory in African-American Culture, ed. Geneviéve Fabre and Robert O’Meally (New York: Oxford University Press, 1994), 19.

(p.242) (7) Stuart Hall, “Cultural Identity and Diaspora,” in Theorizing Diaspora, ed. Jana Evans Braziel and Anita Mannur 35–47 (Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2003). It is important to note that Hall also emphasizes the fluid and ever-changing nature of identity. These points of identification are by no means static or stable.

(8) Jean-Christophe Marcel and Laurent Mucchielli, “Maurice Halbwach’s Mémoire Collective,” in Cultural Memory Studies Reader: An International and Interdisciplinary Handbook, ed. Astrid Erll and Ansgar Nügging (New York: Walter de Gruyter, 2008), 142; Barbie Zelizer, “Reading the Past against the Grain: The Shape of Memory Studies,” Critical Studies in Mass Communication 12, no. 2 (1995): 218–19.

(9) Patrick H. Hutton, “Collective Memory and Collective Mentalities: The Halbwachs-Aries Connection,” Historical Reflections/Reflexions Historique 15, no. 2 (1988): 314.

(10) Michael Schudson, Watergate in American Memory: How We Remember, Forget, and Reconstruct the Past (New York: Basic Books, 1992), 53.

(11) Barry Schwartz, “Memory as a Cultural System: Abraham Lincoln in World War II,” American Sociological Review 61, no. 5 (1996): 911.

(13) Emily S. Rosenberg, A Date Which Will Live: Pearl Harbor in American Memory (Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 2003), 4.

(17) Peniel E. Joseph, Dark Days, Bright Nights: From Black Power to Barack Obama (New York: Basic Civitas, 2010); Manning Marable, Beyond Black and White: From Civil Rights to Barack Obama, 2nd ed. (Brooklyn, NY: Verso, 2009).

(18) Eduardo Bonilla-Silva, Racism without Racists: Color-Blind Racism and Racial Inequality in Contemporary America, 3rd ed. (New York: Rowman & Littlefield, 2010).

(19) Michael Kammen, Mystic Chords of Memory: The Transformation of Tradition in American Culture (New York: Knopf, 1991).

(20) Edward P. Morgan, “The Good, the Bad, and the Forgotten: Media Culture and Public Memory of the Civil Rights Movement,” in Interpreting the Civil Rights Movement: Contradiction, Confirmation, and the Cultural Landscape, ed. Renee Romano and Leigh Raiford 5–27 (Athens: University of Georgia Press, 2006).

(21) Jennifer Fuller, “Debating the Present through the Past: Representations of the Civil Rights Movement in the 1990s,” in Interpreting the Civil Rights Movement: Contradiction, Confirmation, and the Cultural Landscape, ed. Renee Romano and Leigh Raiford 167-96 (Athens: University of Georgia Press, 2006).

(22) I draw on Foucault’s descriptors of “dominant” versus “counter-“ to indicate how differing versions the past relate to larger sociocultural relations of power. I refer to versions of the past that emerge from and perpetuate hegemonic power relations and dominance as “dominant” histories, while I term accounts of the past (p.243) that make visible and challenge these hierarchies of power “counter-histories.” Neither dominant histories nor counter-histories are monolithic, unified constructions. Both are complex, multilayered, contingent, and in constant dialectic interaction with one another. Given the role of remembering in our interpretation of the present, the interactions and tension between histories and counter-histories are central to the maintenance or transformation of social relationships. Foucault, Michel. “Nietzsche, Genealogy, History,” Language, Counter-Memory, Practice: Selected Essays and Interviews with Michel Foucault. Edited and with introduction by Donald F. Bouchard. Translated from French by Donald F. Bouchard and Sherry Simon, 139-64. (New York: Cornell University Press, 1977).

(23) Manning Marable, Living Black History: How Reimagining the African-American Past Can Remake America’s Racial Future (New York: Civitas Books, 2011): 9–13.

(25) This Week in Blackness, “Ep. 74: A Life of Reinvention,” Blacking It Up!, Podcast audio, May 10, 2011. http://feeds.feedburner.com/twibradio.

(26) Blair L. M. Kelley, Right to Ride: Streetcar Boycotts and African American Citizenship in the Era of Plessy v. Ferguson (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2010).

(27) This Week in Blackness, “Ep. 23: Historical Beef,” Historical Blackness, Podcast audio, April 23, 2015. http://feeds.feedburner.com/101619781770377.

(29) This Week in Blackness, “Ep. 14: The Red Pill,” Historical Blackness, Podcast audio, September 26, 2014. http://feeds.feedburner.com/101619781770377.

(34) This Week in Blackness, “Ep. 2: We’ve Been Here Before,” Historical Blackness, Podcast audio, Februrary 26, 2014. http://feeds.feedburner.com/101619781770377.

(36) Renee Romano, “Narratives of Redemption: The Birmingham Church Bombing Trials and the Construction of Civil Rights Memory,” in The Civil Rights Movment in American Memory, ed. Renee Romano and Leigh Raiford (Athens: University of Georgia Press, 2006), 122–24, 40.

(37) Owen Dwyer, “Interpreting the Civil Rights Movement: Contradiction, Confirmation, and the Cultural Landscape,” in The Civil Rights Movement in American Memory, ed. Renee Romano and Leigh Raiford (Athens: University of Georgia Press, 2006).

(38) Jacquelyn Dowd Hall, “The Long Civil Rights Movement and the Political Uses of the Past,” Journal of American History 91, no. 4 (2005): 1234.

(43) Nikhil Pal Singh, Black Is a Country: Race and the Unfinished Struggle for Democracy (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2004), 5.

(45) Fred Powledge, Free at Last (New York: Harper Collins, 1991), xiv.

(51) Denise M. Bostdorff and Steven R. Goldzwig, “History, Collective Memory, and the Appropriation of Martin Luther King Jr.: Reagan’s Rhetorical Legacy,” Presidential Studies Quarterly 35, no. 4 (2005): 662.

(57) Drew D. Hansen, The Dream: Martin Luther King Jr. and the Speech That Inspired a Nation (New York: Harper Collins, 2003), 222, 676.

(59) This Week in Blackness, “Ep. 451: The ‘This Motherf*cker Right Here’ Hour,” TWiB! Radio, Podcast audio, July 17, 2013. http://feeds.feedburner.com/twibradio.

(60) Kate Zernike, “Where Dr. King Stood, Tea Party Claims His Mantle,” New York Times, August 27, 2010, www.nytimes.com.

(62) Kathleen McKinley (@KatMcKinley), Twitter post, August 27, 2010, (10:04 a.m.), https://twitter.com/KatMcKinley/status/22269254956.

(63) In 2011, the state of Wisconsin saw massive protests over collective bargaining rights of state workers. The Republican governor, Scott Walker, supported a bill that would lessen budget shortfalls by limiting raises for public employees and by taking away the rights of state workers, with the exclusion of law enforcement, to collectively bargain for pensions and healthcare benefits. Protests against the bill lasted for months and, at their height, reached crowd sizes of up to 100,000 people.

(64) AFL-CIO, “King’s Call for Worker Justice,” accessed March 28, 2011, www.aflcio.org.

(65) “Glenn Beck,” Fox News, April 4, 2011, http://mediamatters.org.

(66) “Glenn Beck,” Fox News, March 21, 2011, http://mediamaters.org.

(p.245) (67) This Week in Blackness, “Ep. 47: MLK <3’ed Unions,” Blacking It Up!, Podcast audio, March 21, 2011. http://feeds.feedburner.com/twibradio.

(68) “Neil Cavuto,” Fox News, April 4, 2011, http://mediamatters.org.

(70) David Sirota (@davidsirota), Twitter post, July 16, 2013 (12:57 p.m.), https://twitter.com/davidsirota/status/357182242864373760; Twitter post, July 16, 2013 (12:54 p.m.), https://twitter.com/davidsirota/status/357181355873935360; Twitter post, July 16, 2013 (12:55 p.m.), https://twitter.com/davidsirota/status/357181751698784256.

(71) David Sirota (@davidsirota), Twitter post, July 16, 2013 (11:20 p.m.), https://twitter.com/davidsirota/status/357338918498205698.

(72) Martin Luther King Jr., “Beyond Vietnam—Breaking the Silence.” April 4, 1967. Riverside Church, New York. Beyond Vietnam: An Address Sponsored by the Clergy and Laymen Concerned about Vietnam (Palo Alto, Altoan Press, 1967).

(73) David Sirota (@davidsirota), Twitter post, July 16, 2013 (11:24 p.m.), https://twitter.com/davidsirota/status/357340121449771008.

(74) Elon James White (@elonjames), Twitter post, July 16, 2013 (11:32 p.m.), https://twitter.com/elonjames/status/357341922731360256; Twitter post, July 16, 2013 (11:35 p.m.), https://twitter.com/elonjames/status/357342696538505219; Twitter post, July 16, 2013 (11:36 p.m.), https://twitter.com/elonjames/status/357342983223382017.

(75) David Sirota (@davidsirota), Twitter post, July 16, 2013 (11:30 p.m.), https://twitter.com/davidsirota/status/357343857127591936.

(76) This Week in Blackness, “The ‘This Motherf*cker Right Here’ Hour,” TWiB! Radio, Podcast audio, July 17, 2013. http://feeds.feedburner.com/twibradio.

(78) Eclectablog, “White Progressives Get a Taste of Anger and Frustration as #BlackLivesMatter Activist Upstage Bernie Sanders,” July 18, 2015, www.eclectablog.com; Imani Gandy (@AngryBlacklady), Twitter post, July 18, 2015 (9:34 p.m.), https://twitter.com/AngryBlackLady/status/622580210693570561.

(79) Triple J (@TripleJ666), Twitter post, Jul7 21, 2015 (9:50 a.m.), https://twitter.com/TripleJ666/status/623535419960000514.

(80) Elon James White, “A Message from Elon James White,” Daily Kos, July 21, 2015, www.dailykos.com.

(81) @JamiaStarheart, Twitter post, July 18, 2015 (3:47 p.m.), https://twitter.com/Jamia-Starheart/status/622493030172487681.

(82) @yippigirl, Twitter post, July 18, 2015 (12:15 p.m.), https://twitter.com/yippigirl/status/6224847850767974w40.

(83) @annagalland, Twitter post, July 18, 2015 (2:25 p.m.), https://twitter.com/an-nagalland/status/622517671729299456; Brian Stewart, “MoveOn Response to Netroots Nation Presidential Town Hall,” July 18, 2015, http://front.moveon.org; @AliAkink, Twitter post, July 18, 2015 (2:30 p.m.), https://twitter.com/AliAkinK/status/622518888283176960.

(84) @NifMuhammad, Twitter post, July 18, 2015 (5:25 p.m.), https://twitter.com/NifMuhammad/status/622562984154501120.

(p.246) (85) This Week in Blackness, “Ep. 360: IGNANT-ASS MUSIC,” TWiB! Radio, Podcast audio, January 22, 2013. http://feeds.feedburner.com/twibradio.

(87) “Community Organizer on Violence in Baltimore Protests,” The Situation Room with Wolf Blitzer, CNN, accessed September 19, 2017, www.cnn.com.

(88) The Black Guy Who Tips, “Ep. 940: Well Just Call Em… ,” The Black Guy Who Tips, Podcast audio, April 28, 2015. http://theblackguywhotips.podOmatic.com/rss2.xml.

(90) DeRay McKesson, Vine Video, January 17, 2015, https://vine.co/v/Oj69Ori2Qjj.

(91) Kathleen McKinkley, Twitter post, January 17, 2015 (6:08 p.m.), tweet deleted.

(92) @loltanisha, Twitter post, January 17, 2015 (6:50 p.m.), https://twitter.com/loltani-sha/status/556599425167273984; Kathleen McKinley, Twitter post, January 17, 2015 (7:02 p.m.), https://twitter.com/KatMcKinley/status/556602598719897602.

(93) Kathleen McKinley, Twitter post, January 28, 2011 (11:13 a.m.), https://twitter.com/KatMcKinley/status/31022122277019648; Twitter post, October 11, 2011 (12:18 p.m.), https://twitter.com/KatMcKinley/status/123794640255188992; Twitter post, October 11, 2011 (3:55 p.m.), https://twitter.com/KatMcKinley/sta-tus/123849276215410688; Twitter post, April 16, 2012 (3:36 p.m.), https://twitter.com/KatMcKinley/status/191973320550400000; Twitter post, April 22, 2013 (4:41 p.m.), https://twitter.com/KatMcKinley/status/326435546924732417.

(94) Joe Walsh (@WalshFreedom), Twitter post, January 18, 2016 (8:56 a.m.), https://twitter.com/WalshFreedom/status/689083917853429765; Twitter post, January 18, 2016 (10:29 a.m.), https://twitter.com/WalshFreedom/status/689107320538816513; Twitter post, January 18, 2016 (12:17 p.m.), https://twitter.com/WalshFreedom/status/689137165369012229.

(95) Joe Walsh (@WalshFreedom), Twitter post, August 28, 2013 (11:24 a.m.), https://twitter.com/WalshFreedom/status/372741605150568449; Twitter post, August 28, 2013 (12:49 p.m.), https://twitter.com/WalshFreedom/status/372762961011437568.

(96) Ferguson Action, “Reclaim MLK,” accessed September 19, 2017 http://fergusonac-tion.com.

(97) Coalition against Police Violence, Facebook page, accessed September 19, 2017, https://www.facebook.com/TheCAPV/info/?tab=page_info.

(98) jpmassar, “New Mayor Gets a Wake-Up Call,” Daily Kos, January 19, 2015, http://m.dailykos.com.

(99) Zizi Papacharissi and Maria de Fatima Oliveira, “Affective News and Networked Publics: The Rhythms of News Storytelling on #Egypt,” Journal of Communication 62, no. 2 (2012) 266-82.

(100) @WyzeChef, Twitter post, January 19, 2015 (5:10 p.m.), https://twitter.com/WyzeChef/status/557299184337174528.

(101) This Week in Blackness, “Ep. 729: The Great Oath Keeper Experiment.” TWiB! Prime, Podcast audio, August 19, 2015. http://feeds.feedburner.com/twibradio.

(p.247) (102) Ferguson Response Network, “Ep. 4: #ReclaimMLK,” Ferguson Response Network Podcast, Podcast audio, January 9, 2015. http://feeds.feedburner.com/FergusonRe-sponseNetworkPodcast.

(103) Martin Luther King Jr., “Beyond Vietnam—Breaking the Silence.”

(107) This Week in Blackness, “Ep. 729,” TWiB! Prime. http://feeds.feedburner.com/twibradio.

(108) @EbonyDigest, Twitter post, January 13, 2015 (5:57 p.m.), https://twitter.com/eb-onydigest/status/555136631166877697.

(109) Elon James White (@elonjames), Twitter post, May 12, 2015 (11:31 p.m.), https://twitter.com/elonjames/status/598329590793183232.

(110) King Jr, Martin Luther. “Letter from Birmingham Jail.” UC Davis L. Rev. 26 (1992): 835.

(111) This Week in Blackness, “Ep. 721: #EarnThisDamnVoteOrLose,” TWiB! Prime, Podcast audio, July 28, 2015. http://feeds.feedburner.com/twibradio.

(112) Imani Gandy (@AngryBlackLady), Twitter post, August 14, 2015 (9:44 p.m.), https://twitter.com/AngryBlackLady/status/632050160214786048.

(113) Imani Gandy, “Dr. King and White ProgressivesTM,” ReWire, August 13, 2015, https://rewire.news.

(115) This Week in Blackness, “THE BROOKLYN SITUATION,” TWiB! In the Morning, Podcast audio, March 12, 2013. http://feeds.feedburner.com/amTWIB.

Chapter 4. “This is the Resource Our Community Needed Right Now”

(1) Brent McDonald and John Woo, “They Helped Make Twitter Matter in Ferguson Protests,” New York Times, August 10, 2015, www.nytimes.com.

(2) Kate Crawford, “Following You: Disciplines of Listening in Social Media,” Continuum: Journal of Media and Cultural Studies 23, no. 4 (2009) 525-35; Alfred Hermida, “From TV to Twitter: How Ambient News Became Ambient Journalism,” M/C Journal 13, no. 2 (2010) http://journal.media-culture.org.au/index.php/mcjournal/article/view/220.

(3) Alfred Hermida, “Twittering the News: The Emergence of Ambient Journalism,” Journalism Practice 4, no. 3 (2010) 297–308.

(5) Axel Bruns and Jean Burgess, “Researching News Discussion on Twitter,” Journalism Studies 13, nos. 5–6 (2012): 801.

(7) J. D. Lasica, “Blogs and Journalism Need Each Other,” Blog post, September 8, 2003, www.jdlasica.com.

(p.248) (8) Mark Deuze, “The Changing Context of News Work: Liquid Journalism and Monitorial Citizenship,” International Journal of Communcation 2 (2008): 852.

(9) Axel Bruns, Gatewatching: Collaborative Online News Production (New York: Peter Lang, 2005), 17.

(10) John Zaller, “A New Standard of News Quality: Burglar Alarms for the Monitorial Citizen,” Political Communication 20, no. 2 (2003): 122.

(13) Farhad Manjoo, “How Black People Use Twitter,” Slate, August 10, 2010, www.slate.com.

(14) Topix San Francisco (@topix_sf), Twitter post, January 2, 2009 (9:30 a.m.), https://twitter.com/topix_sf/status/1091588648; KTVU (@KTVU), Twitter post, January 1, 2009 (10:56 a.m.), https://twitter.com/KTVU/status/1090057212; Twitter post, January 5, 2009 (3:58 p.m.), https://twitter.com/KTVU/status/1097935901; “Video of California Police Shooting Spurs Investigation,” CNN, January 7, 2009, www.cnn.com.

(15) TWiB! Nation (@TWiBnation), Twitter post, January 6, 2009 (1:00 p.m.), https://twitter.com/TWIBnation/status/1099972399.

(16) Mary Grace Anthony and Ryan J. Thomas, “‘This Is Citizen Journalism at Its Finest’: YouTube and the Public Sphere in the Oscar Grant Shooting Incident,” New Media and Society 12, no. 8 (2010) 1280–96.

(17) Youth Radio, “Oscar Grant Case: Eyewitness Karina Vargas,” YouTube video, May 19, 2009, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dZ1mCTQx3UI; “What Makes Oscar Grant’s Incident Different?” YouTube video, June 15, 2010, https://www.you-tube.com/watch?v=kXtVZQwegBI; “ Oscar Grant: Protests Lead to Arrests,” You-Tube video, November 8, 2010, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HtASU2HAb-4&list=PL3067F44827CDEBAC.

(18) Thandisizwe Chimurenga, “Emancipatory Journalism,” n.d., accessed October 12, 2017, http://www.thandisizwe.net/what-is-emancipatory-journalism/.

(19) @InvincibleDET, Twitter post, May 16, 2010 (5:22 p.m.), https://twitter.com/invin-cibleDET/status/14120702131.

(20) Erhardt Graeff, Matt Stempeck, and Ethan Zuckerman, “The Battle for ‘Trayvon Martin’: Mapping a Media Controversy Online and Off-Line,” First Monday 19, no. 2 (2014) https://doi.org/10.5210/fm.v19i2.4947.

(21) Manjoo, “How Black People Use Twitter”; “Why Black Twitter Trending Topics Paint Wrong Picture of Us,” NewsOne, January 18, 2011, https://newsone.com/985275/why-black-twitter-trending-topics-paint-wrong-picture-of-us/; Nicole Hardesty, “Top 10 All-Time #Blacktwitter Trends,” NewsOne, December 16, 2011, https://newsone.com/2000035/top-10-all-time-black-twitter-trends/; Jeff Bercovici, “Twitter Gets Even More Popular with Black Users. Why?,” June 1, 2011, https://www.forbes.com/sites/jeffbercovici/2011/06/01/twitter-gets-even-more-popular-with-black-users-why/#75cf113fb1b3.

(p.249) (22) “How Blogs, Twitter and Mainstream Media Have Handled the Trayvon Martin Case,” Pew Research Center, Journalism and Media, March 30, 2012, www.jour-nalism.org.

(23) For example, this exchange: Elon James White (@elonjames), Twitter post, July 5, 2013 (1:23 p.m.), https://twitter.com/elonjames/status/353202403148972032; @Hol-laBlackGirl, Twitter post, July 5, 2013 (1:29 p.m.), https://twitter.com/HollaBlack-Girl/status/353204093965189120.

(24) Elon James White (@elonjames), Twitter post, July 11, 2013 (3:27 p.m.), https://twitter.com/elonjames/status/355407952775102466; L. Joy Williams (@ljoywilliams), Twitter post, July 11, 2013 (3:44 p.m.), https://twitter.com/ljoywilliams/sta-tus/355412300175384576; Tracy Clayton (@brokeymcpoverty), Twitter post, July 11, 2013 (3:48 pm.), https://twitter.com/brokeymcpoverty/status/355413349162418177; Dacia Mitchell (@daciatakesnote), Twitter post, July 11, 2013 (3:50 p.m.), https://twitter.com/daciatakesnote/status/355413890005352449.

(25) @GayPatriot, Twitter post, July 13, 2013 (10:19 p.m.), https://twitter.com/GayPa-triot/status/356236430256775172; @KennethWebster3, Twitter post, July 13, 2013 (10:25 p.m.), tweet deleted.

(26) This Week in Blackness, “Ep. 452: The TMFRH Hour 2,” TWiB! Radio, July 18, 2013. http://feeds.feedburner.com/twibradio.

(27) Phylis Johnson, “Black Radio Politically Defined: Communicating Community and Political Empowerment through Stevie Wonder’s Kjlh-Fm, 1992–2002,” Political Communication 21, no. 3 (2004): 355.

(28) William Barlow, Voice Over: The Making of Black Radio (Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1999), 214.

(30) Ghasson Hage, “The Affective Politics of Racial Mis-Interpellation,” Theory, Culture, and Society 27, nos. 7–8 (2010) 112–29.

(33) W. E. B. DuBois, The Souls of Black Folks (Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press, 2007).

(34) This Week in Blackness, “Ep. 447: #ZimmermanTrial Verdict,” TWiB! Radio, Podcast audio, July 14, 2013. http://feeds.feedburner.com/twibradio.

(35) This Week in Blackness, “Ep. 449: Understanding the Term ‘Hiatus’,” TWiB! Radio, Podcast audio, July 16, 2013. http://feeds.feedburner.com/twibradio.

(37) Elon James White (@elonjames), Twitter post, July 13, 2013 (10:21 p.m.), https://twitter.com/elonjames/status/356234595882119172.

(38) Monica Roberts (@TransGriot), Twitter post, July 14, 2013 (1:50 a.m.), https://twitter.com/TransGriot/status/356289502790164480.

(p.250) (41) @lilsoulsista, Twitter post, July 14, 2013 (2:26 am), https://twitter.com/lilsoulsista/status/356298604488568832.

(42) Jeffrey C. Alexander, “Toward a Theory of Cultural Trauma,” in Cultural Trauma and Collective Identity, ed. Jeffery C. Alexander, Ron Eyerman, Bernard Giesen, Neil J. Smelser, and Piotr Sztompka (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2004), 10, 22.

(44) Elon James White, personal communication, 2013.

(45) Laurence A. Breiner, “Caribbean Voices on the Air: Radio, Poetry, and Nationalism in the Anglophone Caribbean,” in Communities of the Air: Radio Century, Radio Culture, ed. Susan Merrill Squier 93–108 (Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 2003); Susan Douglas, Listening In: Radio and the American Imagination (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2004).

(46) André Brock, Jr. “From the Blackhand Side: Twitter as a Cultural Conversation,” Journal of Broadcasting and Electronic Media 56, no. 4 (2012); 531–38.

(48) Elon James White, personal communication, 2013.

(49) @AwakeBlackWoman, Twitter post, July 14, 2013 (12:53 a.m.), https://twitter.com/AwakeBlackWoman/status/356275256308150274.

(50) @CoquiNegra, Twitter post, July 14, 2013 (2:19 a.m.), https://twitter.com/Co-quiNegra/status/356477981650194433.

(53) @HaggsBoson, Twitter post, July 14, 2013 (1:23 a.m.), https://twitter.com/Haggs-Boson/status/356282739772755968.

(54) The Black Guy Who Tips, “Ep. 507: Just Us for Trayvon,” The Black Guy Who Tips, Podcast audio, July 14, 2013. http://theblackguywhotips.podOmatic.com/rss2.xml.

(55) “Ep. 11: Justice for Trayvon,” What’s the Tea?, Podcast audio, July 16, 2013. http://whatsthet.podomatic.com/rss2.xml.

(56) This Week in Blackness, “Ep. 453: The Obama Plantation,” TWiB! Radio, Podcast audio, July 22, 2013. http://feeds.feedburner.com/twibradio.

(57) This Week in Blackness, “Ep. 451: The ‘This Motherf*cker Right Here’ Hour,” TWiB! Radio, Podcast audio, July 17, 2013. http://feeds.feedburner.com/twibradio.

(58) Elon James White (@elonjames), Twitter post, July 13, 2013 (4:04 p.m.), https://twitter.com/elonjames/status/359041295496396800.

(59) David Sirota, “George Zimmerman Killed the Presumption of Innocence,” Salon, July 15, 2013, http://www.salon.com.

(60) dvnix, “Of Drones, MLK, Condescension, and Snatching Wigs,” https://storify.com/dvnix/of-drones-mlk-condescension-and-snatching-wigs.

(61) Elon James White (@elonjames), Twitter post, July 16 2013 (11:03 p.m.), https://twitter.com/elonjames/status/357334816032694272.

(62) Elon James White (@elonjames), Twitter post, July 16, 2013 (11:06 p.m.), https://twitter.com/elonjames/status/357335558877478912.

(p.251) (63) Elon James White (@elonjames), Twitter post, July 16, 2013 (11:19 p.m.), https://twitter.com/elonjames/status/357338618177658882.

(66) The Black Guy Who Tips, “Ep. 509: F#cking with Black People,” The Black Guy Who Tips, Podcast audio, July 16, 2013. http://theblackguywhotips.podOmatic.com/rss2.xml.

(67) Betsy Bruce, “Teenager Shot, Killed in Ferguson Apartment Complex,” Fox 2 Now, August 9, 2014, http://fox2now.com.

(68) Betsy Bruce, “Teenager Shot, Killed in Ferguson Apartment Complex,” KPLR11. com, August 9, 2014, http://kplr11.com; Beth O’Malley, “Social Media Posts from Scene of Ferguson Shooting,” St. Louis Dispatch, August 9, 2014, http://www.stltoday.com; STL Today, Twitter post, August 9, 2014 (5:48 p.m.), https://twitter.com/stltoday/status/498224424688967680.

(69) I am deliberately obscuring the details of these posts because of the sensitive nature of their content. As of the time of writing, the tweets were still available and still led to images of Mike Brown’s body. Brown’s family has publicly requested such images be removed and not circulated. Because of this, and sense of general human decency, I have deliberately made an exception to the citational practices otherwise adhered to throughout and have opted to omit details that could enable readers to seek these posts themselves or tweets that are threaded with others containing these images. These posts are recorded elsewhere and can be found by other means if one feels a strong need to verify my claims. But, I chose not to facilitate their further circulation.

(70) Brittany Noble-Jones, Instagram post, August 9, 2014, https://www.instagram.com/p/rfiFVYyq0T/; (@noblejonesonTV) Twitter post, August 9, 2014 (5:31 p.m.), https://twitter.com/noblejonesontv/status/498219985735790592.

(71) Wesley Lowery (@WesleyLowery), Twitter post, August 11, 2014 (1:51 p.m.), https://twitter.com/WesleyLowery/status/498889331919290369.

(72) Brittany Noble-Jones, Twitter post, August 9, 2014 (8:25 p.m.), https://twitter.com/noblejonesontv/status/498263738013585408; Twitter post, August 9, 2014 (6:42 p.m.), https://twitter.com/noblejonesontv/status/498238132597178368.

(73) Ashley Yates (@brownblaze), Twitter post, August 10, 2014 (6:57 p.m.), https://twitter.com/brownblaze/status/498604009867849728; Twitter post, August 10, 2014 (7:03 p.m.), https://twitter.com/brownblaze/status/498605610418860032; Twitter post, August 10, 2014 (7:05 p.m.), https://twitter.com/brownblaze/sta-tus/498605920864043009; Twitter post, August 10, 2014 (7:05 p.m.), https://twitter.com/brownblaze/status/498606065320091648; Twitter post, August 10, 2014 (7:06 p.m.), https://twitter.com/brownblaze/status/498606299441930241; Twitter post, August 10, 2014 (7:08 p.m.), https://twitter.com/brownblaze/sta-tus/498606951979163648; @WyzeChef, Twitter post, August 9, 2014 (11:12 p.m.), https://twitter.com/WyzeChef/status/498305962726273024; Twitter post, August 9, 2014 (11:47 p.m.), https://twitter.com/WyzeChef/status/498314736845324288; (p.252) Twitter post, August 9, 2014 (11:50 p.m.), https://twitter.com/WyzeChef/sta-tus/498315402506539009; Twitter post, August 9, 2014 (11:51 p.m.), https://twitter.com/WyzeChef/status/498315601777934336.

(74) T-Dubb-O (@T_DUBB_O), Twitter post, August 9, 2014 (3:19 p.m.).

(75) Tef Poe, Instagram post, August 9, 2014.

(76) Tef Poe (@TefPoe), Twitter post, August 9, 2015 (5:09 p.m.), https://twitter.com/TefPoe/status/498229501911121920.

(77) Feminista Jones (@FeministaJones), Twitter post, August 9, 2014 (7:19 p.m.), https://twitter.com/FeministaJones/status/498247271516225541.

(78) Feminista Jones (@FeministaJones), Twitter post, August 9, 2014 (7:21 p.m.), https://twitter.com/FeministaJones/status/498247673741602816.

(79) Baratunde Thurston (@baratunde), Twitter post, August 11, 2014 (6:54 p.m.), https://twitter.com/baratunde/status/498965606222139392.

(80) Tracy Clayton (@BrokeyMcPoverty), Twitter list, https://twitter.com/brokeym-cpoverty/lists/ferguson.

(81) Maeve Duggan, Nicole B. Elison, Cliff Lampe, Amanda Lenhart, and Mary Madden, “Demographics of Key Social Networking Platforms,” Pew Internet Research Center, January 9, 2015, http://www.pewinternet.org.

(82) Michael Calderone, “How Volunteer-Run Argus Radio Broadcast Ferguson Protests Live to the World,” HuffPost, August 14, 2014, http://www.huffingtonpost.com; Rebelutionary_z LIVE, UStream, http://www.ustream.tv/z; Bassem Masri, Ustream, http://www.ustream.tv/channel/bassemmasri; Boston University School of Theology, Livestream, https://livestream.com/accounts/4958196/Ferguson.

(83) Chris McDaniel, Vine post, September 26, 2014, https://vine.co/v/OZKAF-BFFqH3; Ryan Reilly, Vine post, August 13, 2014, https://vine.co/v/MYH3t-mYBn9X.

(84) Kyli Singh, “It Would Take You 8 Years to Watch a Vine Video from Every User,” Mashable, July 16, 2014, http://mashable.com.

(85) Tef Poe (@TefPoe), Twitter post, August 9, 2014 (6:21 p.m.), https://twitter.com/TefPoe/status/498232750336643072.

(86) @Khan_SHEGOG, Twitter post, August 9, 2014 (10:34 p.m.).

(88) C. Jay Conrod (@cjayconrod), Twitter post, August 9, 2014 (8:30 p.m.), https://twitter.com/cjayconrod/status/498265073161220096.

(89) C. Jay Conrod(@cjayconrod), Twitter post, August 9, 2017 (3:58 p.m.), https://twitter.com/cjayconrod/status/498196619959889920; Twitter post, August 9, 2014 (8:18 p.m.), https://twitter.com/cjayconrod/status/498262113404461056; Twitter post, August 9, 2014 (8:22 p.m.), https://twitter.com/cjayconrod/sta-tus/498262984095846401; Twitter post, August 9, 2014 (8:31 p.m.), https://twitter.com/cjayconrod/status/498265417958191104; Twitter post, August 11, 2014 (10:19 a.m.), https://twitter.com/cjayconrod/status/498836073686913025.

(90) C. Jay Conrod(@cjayconrod), Twitter post, August 11, 2014 (10:33 a.m.), https://twitter.com/cjayconrod/status/498839719367561217.

(p.253) (91) C. Jay Conrod(@cjayconrod), Twitter post, August 11, 2014 (10:35 a.m.), https://twitter.com/cjayconrod/status/498840052651151360; Twitter post, August 11, 2014 (10:35 a.m.), https://twitter.com/cjayconrod/status/498840194850635776.

(92) C. Jay Conrod(@cjayconrod), Twitter post, August 11, 2014 (10:48 a.m.), https://twitter.com/cjayconrod/status/498843482539040769.

(93) T-Dubb-O (@T_DUBB_), Twitter post, August 9, 2014 (7:41 p.m.), https://twitter.com/T_DUBB_O/status/498252645698506753.

(94) T-Dubb-O, Instagram post, August 11, 2014, https://www.instagram.com/p/rk-c2a2COFR/.

(95) @GeekNStereo, Twitter post, August 9, 2014 (6:26 p.m.), https://twitter.com/GeekNStereo/status/498233852523859968; Twitter post, August 9, 2014 (6:28 p.m.), https://twitter.com/GeekNStereo/status/498234333056860161.

(96) @WyzeChef, Twitter post, August 11, 2014 (4:57 a.m.), https://twitter.com/WyzeChef/status/498755102002266112; wyze43, Instagram post, August 11, 2014, http://instagram.com/p/rjVbMmBVwO/.

(97) @WyzeChef, Twitter post, August 9, 2014 (9:13 p.m.), https://twitter.com/WyzeChef/status/498275827130171392.

(98) @WyzeChef, Twitter post, August 9, 2014 (9:13 p.m.), https://twitter.com/WyzeChef/status/498276031392804864.

(99) @STLtoday, Twitter post, August 9, 2014 (5:48 p.m.), https://twitter.com/stltoday/status/498224424688967680.

(100) Antonio French (@AntonioFrench), Twitter post, August 9, 2014 (6:02 p.m.), https://twitter.com/AntonioFrench/status/498227883488587777.

(101) “Police’s Fatal Shooting of Black Teenager Draws Angry Crowd in St. Louis Suburb,” Guardian, August 10, 2014, www.theguardian.com; “Fatal Police Shooting of Michael Brown Sparks Protests in Missouri,” NBC News, August 10, 2014, accessed December 12, 2018, www.nbcnews.com.

(102) Ashley Yates (@brownblaze), Twitter post, August 9, 2014 (11:16 p.m.), https://twitter.com/brownblaze/status/498306887557738496.

(103) @Vandalyzm, Twitter post, August 10, 2014 (2:38 p.m.), https://twitter.com/Van-dalyzm/status/498538839125016576.

(104) C. Jay Conrod, Twitter post, August 11, 2014 (9:23 a.m.), https://twitter.com/cjay-conrod/status/498821981349752833.

(105) C. Jay Conrod, Twitter post, August 11, 2014 (12:59 a.m.), https://twitter.com/cjay-conrod/status/498695180958973953.

(106) C. Jay Conrod, Twitter post, August 11, 2014 (10:00 a.m.), https://twitter.com/cjay-conrod/status/498831277236039680.

(107) Ashley Yates, Twitter post, August 10, 2014 (8:22 p.m.), https://twitter.com/brownblaze/status/498625549254676485; Twitter post, August 10, 2014 (8:24 p.m.), https://twitter.com/brownblaze/status/498625923139137536; Twitter post, August 10, 2014 (8:25 p.m.), https://twitter.com/brownblaze/status/498626158569615361.

(108) C. Jay Conrod, Twitter post, August 11, 2014 (2:51 a.m.), https://twitter.com/cjay-conrod/status/498723243927158784; Twitter post, August 10, 2014 (10:54 a.m.), https://twitter.com/cjayconrod/status/498482409650667520; @GeekNStereo, Twitter post, August 9, 2014 (7:13 p.m.), (p.254) https://twitter.com/GeekNStereo/sta-tus/498245746869547010.

(109) This Week in Blackness, “Ep. 557: #Ferguson,” TWiB! Prime, Podcast audio, August 11, 2014.

(110) This Week in Blackness, “Ep. 557: #Ferguson,” (http://feeds.feedburner.com/twibradio.)

(111) @tealdeer, Twitter post, August 11, 2014 (10:54 a.m.), https://twitter.com/tealdeer/status/498844847776993280.

(112) Elon James White (@elonjames), Twitter post, August 11, 2014 (6:55 p.m.), https://twitter.com/elonjames/status/498965982954549248.

(113) This Week in Blackness, “Ep. 558: OMG KKK WTF,” TWiB! Prime, Podcast audio, August 12, 2014.

(114) Elon James White (@elonjames), Twitter post, August 12, 2014 (11:10 p.m.), https://twitter.com/elonjames/status/499392534599454720.

(115) Brittany Packnett, Twitter post, August 13, 2014 (12:56 a.m.), https://twitter.com/MsPackyetti/status/499419235958132736.

(116) @GeekNStereo, Twitter post, August 13, 2014 (12:10 p.m.), https://twitter.com/GeekNStereo/status/499588801980014592.

(117) @TheREAL_MBrooks, Twitter post, August 13, 2014 (1:36 a.m.), 2017 https://twitter.com/TheREAL_MBrooks/status/499429187392790528; Twitter post, August 13, 2014 (1:40 a.m.), https://twitter.com/TheREAL_MBrooks/sta-tus/499430338125246465.

(118) Elon James White (@elonjames), Twitter post, August 13, 2014 (6:30 p.m.), https://twitter.com/elonjames/status/499684402616864768.

(119) Elon James White (@elonjames), Twitter post, August 13, 2014 (3:19 p.m.), https://twitter.com/elonjames/status/499636457607540736; Twitter post, August 14, 2014 (1:48 a.m.), https://twitter.com/elonjames/status/499794703475159040.

(120) Emily Epstein-White, Instagram post, August 13, 2014, https://www.instagram.com/p/rp_uRezdnl/; Twitter post, August 13, 2014 (7:02 p.m.), https://twitter.com/EmEps/status/499692539889213443.

(122) This Week in Blackness, “Ferguson Dispatch #1,” YouTube video, August 14, 2014, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=80rYm8-ISrQ; Elon James White (@elonjames), Twitter post, August 14, 2014 (2:28 p.m.), https://twitter.com/elonjames/status/499985828945215488.

(123) Elon James White (@elonjames), Twitter post, August 14, 2014 (7:18 p.m.), https://twitter.com/elonjames/status/500058927321858049.

(124) Elon James White (@elonjames), Twitter post, August 16, 2014 (2:49 a.m.), https://twitter.com/elonjames/status/500534862168989698.

(125) Michael Kolisha and Jessica Roberts, “Selfies: Witnessing and Participatory Journalism with a Point of View,” International Journal of Communication 9 (2015) 1672–85.

(p.255) (126) Elon James White, Instagram post, August 20, 2014, https://www.instagram.com/p/r7c5v-D9BY/?taken-by=elonjames.

(127) This Week in Blackness, “Ferguson Dispatch #3: #MikeBrown Was Murdered and We Want Justice,” Podcast audio, August 15, 2014. http://feeds.feedburner.com/twibradio.

(128) This Week in Blackness, “Ferguson Dispatch #5: Protestors and Looters Are Different,” Podcast audio, August 16, 2014. http://feeds.feedburner.com/twibradio.

(129) Emily Epstein-White, Instagram post, August 15, 2014, https://www.instagram.com/p/rvcO8Ozdiy/; Twitter post, August 15, 2014 (9:47 p.m.), https://twitter.com/EmEps/status/500458921535229953.

(130) This Week in Blackness, “Ferguson Dispatch #3: #MikeBrown Was Murdered and We Want Justice,” Podcast audio, August 15, 2014. http://feeds.feedburner.com/twibradio.

(133) This Week in Blackness, “Ferguson Dispatch #5”; Elon James White (@elonjames), Twitter post, August 16, 2014 (1:22 p.m.), https://twitter.com/elonjames/status/500694004850511872; Twitter post, August 16, 2014 (2:45 p.m.), https://twit-ter.com/elonjames/status/500715021383393281.

(134) Aaron Rand Freeman (@ANSFreeman), Twitter post, August 16, 2014 (4:50 a.m.), https://twitter.com/ANSFreeman/status/500565143017639937.

(135) Aaron Rand Freeman, Twitter post, August 16, 2014 (4:52 a.m.), https://twitter.com/ANSFreeman/status/500565635038851072.

(137) Elon James White (@elonjames), Twitter post, August 19, 2014 (1:34 a.m.), https://twitter.com/elonjames/status/501603161124372480.

(138) This Week in Blackness, “#FergusonDispatch: Gassed (Snippet),” YouTube post, August 19, 2014, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DA4IT-rGNDg.

(140) Elon James White (@elonjames), Instagram post, August 18, 2014, https://www.instagram.com/p/r3pCDHj9Ml/?hl=en&taken-by=elonjames.

(141) Elon James White (@elonjames), Twitter post, August 19, 2014 (2:39 a.m.), https://twitter.com/elonjames/status/501619322419425280.

(142) Elon James White (@elonjames), Twitter post, August 19, 2014 (2:42 a.m.), https://twitter.com/elonjames/status/501620132515696640.

(143) Elon James White (@elonjames), Twitter post, August 19, 2014 (2:51 a.m.), https://twitter.com/elonjames/status/501622375361032192.

(144) Elon James White (@elonjames), Twitter post, August 19, 2014 (5:10 a.m.) https://twitter.com/elonjames/status/501657323857657857; This Week in Blackness, “#FergusonDispatch.”

(145) Associated Press, “Police: Gunfire, Molotov Cocktails in Ferguson,” YouTube video, August 18, 2014, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OCZ6zikvJQo.

(p.256) (146) “The Effects of Tear Gas,” Melissa Harris-Perry Show, August 24, 2014, www.msnbc.com; “The Physiological Effects of Tear Gas,” Melissa Harris-Perry Show, August 24, 2014, www.msnbc.com.

(148) “#BlackLivesMatter,” Nerdgasm Noire Network, Podcast audio, August 8, 2014.

(149) “Ep. 67: The Revolution Will Not Be Televised,” Whiskey, Wine, and Moonshine, Podcast audio, August 17, 2014. http://whiskeywineandmoonshine.podomatic.com/rss2.xml.

(150) Movie Trailer Review Network, “The Black Episode,” Insanity Check, Podcast audio, August 16, 2014. https://www.mtrnetwork.net/feed/mtr-network/.

(151) “Ep. 355: Hands Up, We Are Ferguson,” Where’s My 40 Acres?, Podcast audio, August 16, 2014. http://www.thetearsoforphans.com/feed/podcast.

(153) “Ep. 67: The Revolution Will Not Be Televised,” Whiskey, Wine, and Moonshine, Podcast audio, August 17, 2014. http://whiskeywineandmoonshine.podomatic.com/rss2.xml.

(154) The Black Guy Who Tips, “Ep. 760 #IGotTheTalk,” The Black Guy Who Tips, Podcast audio, August 10, 2014. http://theblackguywhotips.podOmatic.com/rss2.xml.

(155) Spawn on Me, “Ep. 26: #MikeBrown Lived in Brookago Too,” Spawn on Me, Pod-cast audio, August 18, 2014. https://feedpress.me/som.

(156) In Deep Show, “Vol. 174,” In Deep Show, Podcast audio, August 11, 2014. https://indeepshow.podbean.com/feed.xml.

(158) “Ep. 147: I Deserve, Featuring Rod from The Black Guy Who Tips,” Fiyastarter Podcast, Podcast audio, August 20, 2014. http://fiyastarter.podomatic.com/rss2.xml.

Conclusion

(1) Anne Helmond, “The Platformization of the Web: Making Web Data Platform Ready,” Social Media + Society 1, no. 2 (2015) https://doi.org/10.1177/2056305115603080; David Nieborg and Thomas Poell, “The Platformization of Cultural Production: Theorizing the Contingent Cultural Commodity,” New Media and Society 20, no. 11 (2018) 4275-92.

(2) Don Norman, The Design of Everyday Things, rev. and exp. ed. (New York: Basic Books, 2013).

(3) André Brock, Jr., Distributed Blackness: African American Online Technoculture (New York: New York University Press, 2019); Farhad Manjoo, “How Black People Use Twitter,” Slate, August 10, 2010, www.slate.com.

(4) Will Oremus, “Why Twitter’s Confusing New ‘Conversations’ Actually Make Sense,” Slate, August 23, 2013, www.slate.com.

(5) André Brock, Jr. “From the Blackhand Side: Twitter as a Cultural Conversation,” Journal of Broadcasting and Electronic Media 56, no. 4 (2012): 529–49.

(p.257) (6) Lori Kido Lopez, “Mobile Phones as Participatory Radio: Developing Hmong Mass Communication in the Diaspora,” International Journal of Communication 10 (2016) 2038–55.

(7) Lee Rainie and Barry Wellman, Networked: The New Social Operating System (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2012).

(8) Andrew Theen, “Umpqua Community College Shooting: Killer’s Manifesto Reveals Racist, Satanic Views,” Oregonian, September 8, 2017, www.oregonlive.com; Jessica Valenti, “Elliot Rodger’s California Shooting Spree: Further Proof That Misogyny Kills,” Guardian, May 24, 2014, www.theguardian.com.

(9) Hannah Dreier, “I’ve Been Reporting on MS-13 for a Year. Here Are the 5 Things Trump Gets Most Wrong,” ProPublica, June 25, 2018, www.propublica.org; Tessa Berenson, “Donald Trump Calls for ‘Complete Shutdown’ of Muslim Entry to U.S.,” Time, December 7 2015, http://time.com; Michael D. Shear and Julie Hirschfeld Davis, “Stoking Fears, Trump Defied Bureaucracy to Advance Immigration Agenda,” New York Times, December 23, 2017, www.nytimes.com.

(10) Hatewatch, “Breitbart Exposé Confirms: Far-Right News Site a Platform for the White Nationalist ‘Alt-Right,’” Southern Poverty Law Center, October 6, 2017, www.splcenter.org; Joseph Bernstein, “Here’s How Breitbart and Milo Smuggled White Nationalism into the Mainstream,” Buzzfeed, October 5, 2017, www.buzzfeednews.com; Alexander Smith and Vladimir Banic, “Sebatian Gorka Made Nazi-Linked Vitezi Rend ‘Proud’ by Wearing Its Medal,” NBC News, April 8, 2017, www.nbcnews.com; William D. Cohan, “How Stephen Miller Rode White Rage from Duke’s Campus to Trump’s West Wing,” Vanity Fair, May 30 2017, www.vanityfair.com.

(11) Ronald Inglehart and Pippa Norris, “Trump, Brexit, and the Rise of Populism: Economic Have-Nots and Cultural Backlash,” Harvard JFK School of Government Faculty Working Papers Series (2016): 1–52.; Matthew Luttig, Christopher Federico, and Howard Lavine, “Supporters and Opponents of Donald Trump Respond Differently to Racial Cues: An Experimental Analysis,” Research and Politics 4, no. 4 (2017) 1–8; Brenda Major, Alison Blodorn, and Gregory Blascovich, “The Treat of Increasing Diversity: Why Many White Americans Support Trump in the 2016 Presidential Election,” Group Process and Intergroup Relations, October 20, 2016; Brian F. Schaffner, Matthew MacWilliams, and Tatishe Nteta, “Explaining White Polarization in the 2016 Vote for President: The Sobering Role of Racism and Sexism,” Political Science Quarterly, 133, no. 1 (2018): 9-34.

(12) “The Year in Hate: Trump Buoyed White Supremacists in 2017, Sparking Backlash among Black Nationalist Groups,” Southern Poverty Law Center, February 21, 2018, www.splcenter.org; Hatewatch, “FBI: Hate Crimes Reach 5-Year High in 2016, Jumped as Trump Rolled toward Presidency,” Southern Poverty Law Center, November 12, 2017, www.splcenter.org; Richard Cohen, “Hate Crimes Rise for Second Straight Year; Anti-Muslim Violence Soars amid President Trump’s Xenophobic Rhetoric,” Southern Poverty Law Center, November 13, 2017, www.splcenter.org; Abigail Hauslohner, “Hate Crimes Jump for Fourth Straight Year in (p.258) Largest U.S. Cities, Study Finds,” Washington Post, May 11, 2018, www.washington-post.com.

(13) Sabrina Tavernise, “A Boom in Confederate Monuments, on Private Land,” New York Times, August 30, 2017, www.nytimes.com; John Haltiwanger, “A Record Number of White Nationalists Are Running for National Office in 2018,” Business Insider, June 1, 2018, accessed December 16, 2018, www.businessinsider.com.

(14) Joe Heim, “Charlottesville—Recounting a Day of Rage, Hate, Violence, and Death,” Washington Post, August 14, 2017, www.washingtonpost.com.

(15) “Full Text: Trump’s Comments on White Supremacists, ‘Alt-Left’ in Charlottesville,” Politico, August 15, 2017, www.politico.com.

(16) Eduardo Bonilla-Silva, Racism without Racists: Color-Blind Racism and the Persistence of Racial Inequality in America, 5th ed. (Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield, 2018).

(17) Benjamin Fearnow, “White Woman Arrested after Racist Bus Rant Using N-Word, ‘Illegal Immigrant’ Deportation Threats,” NewsWeek, July 5, 2018, www.newsweek.com; Alanne Orjoux, Paul P. Murphy, and Ray Sanchez, “Attorney in Rant That Went Viral Says He’s Not a Racist and Offers an Apology,” CNN, May 22, 2018, www.cnn.com; Parker Riley, “Video: Man Screams Racial Slurs at Black Man and Says ‘White Men Built These Streets,” NewsOne, June 19, 2018, https://newsone.com; Emily Shugerman, “Woman Fired after Screaming Racist Slurs at Black Couple on California Freeway,” Independent, July 14, 2018, www.indepen-dent.co.uk.

(18) Terrell Jermaine Starr, “White Fox News Guest: ‘There’s Nothing Worse than Being Called a Racist,’” Root, July 14, 2018, www.theroot.com; Stacey Patton, “Sorry, ‘Deplorables’: Being Called Racists Doesn’t Mean You’re Being Oppressed,” Washington Post, September 15, 2016, www.washingtonpost.com.

(19) Richard B. Spencer (@RichardBSpenser), Twitter post, January 23, 2017 (10:29 a.m.), https://twitter.com/RichardBSpencer/status/823553243921821697.

(20) Imani Gandy, “#Twitterfail: Twitter’s Refusal to Handle Online Stalkers, Abusers, and Haters,” Rewire, August 12, 2014, https://rewire.news.

(21) Kishonna L. Gray, “Deviant Bodies, Stigmatized Identities, and Racist Acts: Examining the Experiences of African-American Gamers in Xbox Live,” New Review of Hypermedia and Multimedia 18, no. 2 (2012) 261-76; Whitney Phillips, “The House That Fox Built: Anonymous, Spectacle, and Cycles of Amplification,” Television and New Media 14, no. 6 (2012) 494-509.

(22) Gandy, “#Twitterfail”; Terrell Jermaine Starr, “The Unbelievable Harassment Black Women Face Daily on Twitter,” AlterNet, September 16, 2014, www.alternet.org.

(23) Imani Gandy, Tumblr post, “Marc Rattay aka @M_Shale is the Man Behind Assholster, Twitter’s Most Notorious Troll Account,” 2015, http://angryblacklady.tumblr.com/post/120369559471/marc-rattay-assholster-racist-misogynist.

(24) Lindy West, “Now Roosh V and His Band of Sad Men in Dark Rooms Know How It Feels to Be Bombarded with Bile,” Guardian, February 7, 2016, www.theguardian.com.

(p.259) (25) Douglas Heppner, “Black Propaganda in Feminism,” Return of the Kings, October 4, 2013. https://archive.is/IaCtn.

(26) Ryan Broderick, “Here’s How a Fake Feminist Hashtag Like #Endfathersday Gets Started and Why It’ll Keep Happening,” Buzzfeed News, June 16, 2014, 018, www.buzzfeednews.com.

(27) #WhitesCantBeRaped, Imgur post, June 8, 2014, https://imgur.com/r/TumblrIn-Action/XzPSSvh.

(28) Broderick, “Here’s How a Fake Feminist Hashtag Like #Endfathersday Gets Started”; “Activists Are Outing Hundreds of Twitter Users Believed to Be 4chan Trolls Posing as Feminists,” Buzzfeed News, June 17, 2014, 2018, www.buzzfeed-news.com.

(29) Kishonna L. Gray, Bertan Buyukozturk, and Zachary G. Hill, “Blurring the Boundaries: Using Gamergate to Examine ‘Real’ and Symbolic Violence against Women in Contemporary Gaming Culture,” Sociology Compass 11, no. 3 (2017) https://doi.org/10.1111/soc4.12458.

(30) Shira Chess and Adrienne Shaw, “A Conspiracy of Fishes, or, How We Learned to Stop Worrying About #Gamergate and Embrace Hegemonic Masculinity,” Journal of Broadcasting and Electronic Media 59, no. 1 (2015) 208–20.

(31) Leslie Mac (@LeslieMac), Twitter post, August 9, 2015 (3:29 P.M.), https://twitter.com/LeslieMac/status/630460888663859204.

(32) Neha Rashid, “The Emergence of the White Troll behind a Black Face,” Codeswitch, March 21, 2017, www.npr.org.

(33) Zack Beauchamp, “Milo Yiannopoulos: Breitbart’s Star Provocateur and Trump Champion, Explained,” Vox, February 20, 2017, www.vox.com.

(35) Mike Cernovich, “Why #Gamergate Is Important,” Danger and Play, November 22, 2014. http://archive.is/QaXCY#selection-441.18-441.71.

(36) Gregor Aisch, Jon Huang, and Cecilia Kang, “Dissecting the #Pizzagate Conspiracy Theories,” New York Times, December 10, 2016, www.nytimes.com.

(37) Matt Lees, “What Gamergate Should Have Taught Us about the ‘Alt-Right’,” Guardian, December 1, 2016, www.theguardian.com; Ian Sherr and Erin Carson, “Gamergate to Trump: How Video Game Culture Blew Everything Up,” CNET, November 27, 2017, www.cnet.com.

(38) April Glaser, “Russian Trolls Were Obsessed with Black Lives Matter,” Slate, May 11, 2018, accessed December 16, 2018, https://slate.com.

(39) U.S. House of Representatives Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence Democrats, “Exposing Russia’s Effort to Sow Discord Online: The Internet Research Agency and Advertisements” (2018). https://intelligence.house.gov/social-media-content/.

(40) Leo G. Stewart, Ahmer Arif, and Kate Starbird, “Examining Trolls and Polarization with a between Network” In Proc. ACM WSDM, Workshop on Misinformation and Misbehavior Mining on the Web. 2018.

(p.260) (41) Kevin Winstead, “Caping for Crystal: Crystal Johnson, Digital Propaganda, and Black Political Currency,” unpublished manuscript.

(43) Sam Levin, “Did Russia Fake Black Activism on Facebook to Sow Division in the U.S.?,” Guardian, September 30, 2017, www.theguardian.com.

(44) I am certain that some of the conflict around racial lines in the 2016 Democratic primary were stoked by Russian intelligence deploying sock puppet accounts. Some of the “Bernie Bros” were real American citizens. Many of the people in the network I write about in this book personally knew some who were arguing with them about Sanders. It would require further analysis, but, I am inclined to believe that Bernie Bots were being deployed to amplify the “Bernie Bros” and exacerbate tension, a known tactic of this Russian campaign.

(45) Aymar Jean Christian, Open TV: Innovation beyond Hollywood and the Rise of Web Television (New York: New York University Press, 2018), 68–69; Stuart Cunningham and David Craig, Social Media Entertainment: The New Intersection of Hollywood and Silicon Valley (New York: New York University Press, 2019).

(46) Hamid Naficy, An Accented Cinema: Exilic and Diasporic Filmmaking (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2001), 134–36.

(47) Naficy argues that the interstitial mode of production is multilingual. He is speaking specifically of filmmakers living in exile from their homelands and notes that the films feature the use of two or more languages. This could apply to TWiB!, given that Black Vernacular English is a distinct form of English and one that many consider a dialect. The phenomenon of code-switching, shifting between ways of speaking based on context and audience, is well documented in Black American communities. Given TWiB!’s priority of functioning as a counter-public, addressing white progressives on issues of race, multiplicity, and language are relevant here, although this characteristics of interstitial modes of production is not immediately relevant to my discussion above. Naficy, Accented Cinema.

(49) Amazon’s affiliates program pays a small fee to a website if that site refers users to Amazon and they make a purchase. Each affiliate was assigned a unique Amazon link; for TWiB! it was amazon.com/twib, and purchases made by users arriving at Amazon via that link yielded a small percentage for TWiB!. Many of the podcasts in the network used this program to generate revenue, until Amazon changed the program in 2017, causing revenues to decline.

(50) Mathias Bärtl, “Youtube Channels, Uploads and Views a Statistical Analysis of the Past 10 Years,” Convergence 24, no. 1 (2018) 16–32.

(p.261) (52) Craft Beer Killah, Instagram, accessed August 18, 2018, https://www.instagram.com/craftbeerkillah/.

(53) Black Astronauts Podcast Network, Patreon, accessed August 18, 2018, https://www.patreon.com/Blackastronauts/overview.

(54) Black Astronauts Podcast Network, Patreon.

Methodological Appendix

(1) Statista, “Number of Monthly Active Twitter Users in the United States from 1st Quarter 2010 to 3rd Quarter 2017,” accessed November 10, 2017, https://www.statista.com/statistics/274564/monthly-active-twitter-users-in-the-united-states/.

(2) Jennifer Van Grove, “How Twitter Users Changed in 2010,” Mashable, December 16, 2010, http://mashable.com.

(3) Elon James White (@elonjames), Twitter post, January 3, 2009 (2:24 p.m.), https://twitter.com/elonjames/status/1093827706.

(4) Nick Saint, “Everything You Need to Know about Who’s Using Twitter,” Business Insider, April 30, 2010, www.businessinsider.com.

(5) Nancy K. Baym, “Fans or Friends?: Seeing Social Media Audiences as Musicians Do,” Particpations: Journal of Audience and Reception Studies 9, no. 2 (2012) 286–316; Manuel Castells, “A Network Theory of Power,” International Journal of Communications 5 (2011) 773–87; Henry Jenkins, Convergence Culture: Where Old and New Media Collide (New York: New York University Press, 2006); Alice Marwick and danah boyd, “I Tweet Honestly, I Tweet Passionately: Twitter Users, Context Collapse, and the Imagined Audience,” New Media and Society 13, no. 1 (2010).

(6) Twitter, Terms of Service, accessed November 10, 2017, https://twitter.com/en/tos#usContent.

(7) “More Information on Fair Use,” Copyright.gov, accessed November 10, 2017, https://www.copyright.gov/fair-use/more-info.html.

(8) Unfortunately, I have not always adhered to this self-imposed ethical guideline. In my earlier work, particularly that written between 2010–12, I followed the academic standard, which holds that anything publicly available online could be quoted. As the issue of citation and quotation was discussed more and more online, I began adjusting my methods in response to the critiques and concerns coming from marginalized users. (p.262)