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Angel PatriotsThe Crash of United Flight 93 and the Myth of America$
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Alexander T. Riley

Print publication date: 2015

Print ISBN-13: 9781479870479

Published to NYU Press Scholarship Online: March 2016

DOI: 10.18574/nyu/9781479870479.001.0001

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PRINTED FROM NYU Press SCHOLARSHIP ONLINE (www.nyu.universitypressscholarship.com). (c) Copyright University of NYU Press, 2022. All Rights Reserved. An individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a monograph in NYSO for personal use.date: 27 May 2022

The Permanent Memorial

The Permanent Memorial

Symbolic Work and Conflict in the “Bowl of Embrace”

(p.156) 5 The Permanent Memorial
Angel Patriots

Alexander T. Riley

NYU Press

This chapter focuses on the design for the permanent Flight 93 National Memorial in Shanksville and the cultural context of its emergence. Drawing on the insights of Joanne Hanley and Barbara Black of the National Park Service, together with written records of the design and preparation process, the chapter examines the cultural narratives that informed the conception of the Flight 93 permanent memorial. It considers the actors involved in the production of the memorial as well as the process used in the selection of the winning memorial design, which turned out to be the creation of Paul and Milena Murdoch of Los Angeles, called “Crescent of Embrace.” It also discusses the controversy surrounding the use of the form of the crescent in the memorial, with particular emphasis on claims that the crescent moon and star is a traditional symbol for the Islamic faith. Finally, it explores the conspiracy theories concerning the Flight 93 National Memorial and 9/11 more generally by citing the arguments of Alec Rawls.

Keywords:   memorial design, Flight 93 National Memorial, Shanksville, Joanne Hanley, Barbara Black, permanent memorial, Crescent of Embrace, conspiracy theories, 9/11, Alec Rawls

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