This epilogue examines the legacy of the American Colonization Society and how some black Americans came to the realization that leaving the South was the only alternative after the collapse of Reconstruction. It cites Marcus Garvey's charismatic leadership during the 1920s as a clear example of the legacy of emigrationism among twentieth-century activists who rejected the American racial caste system and argued that African resettlement was an important expression of black pride. It also considers some of the reasons why African Americans continued to embrace nineteenth-century emigrationism into the early part of the twentieth century. In particular, it explores why many black Americans who believed that America could one day live up to its ideals as a land of liberty and justice reconsidered emigration to Haiti or colonization to Liberia as a last resort.
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