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Trans-Affirmative ParentingRaising Kids Across the Gender Spectrum$

Elizabeth Rahilly

Print publication date: 2020

Print ISBN-13: 9781479820559

Published to NYU Press Scholarship Online: January 2021

DOI: 10.18574/nyu/9781479820559.001.0001

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(p.223) Index

(p.223) Index

Source:
Trans-Affirmative Parenting
Publisher:
NYU Press
advocacy:
conferences, 186–87;
forums and workshops, 98;
infrastructure, 64;
of parents, 5, 21;
privacy and, 136–37. See also parent-advocacy community
advocate/educators, 64, 70, 71;
conference director, 187–88;
Gail, 50, 76, 78, 128, 151;
Meryl, 77, 155–56;
Neil, 76–77, 159
agender, 93, 94, 166
Agnes, in gender theory, 133
anti-trans agenda, 28, 30
assigned sex at birth, 39, 40, 195n2
attention deficit disorder (ADD), 120
attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), 121
autistic/autism-spectrum, 2, 3, 4, 5, 121, 149, 207n23
Bem, Sandra, 23
Bettcher, Talia, 158
binary/nonbinary identities and possibilities, 5, 7, 8, 9, 10, 35, 93–129, 166–69. See also nonbinary
biological/biomedical frameworks:
alternative discourses and, 151–56, 171–72;
birth defect analogies, 129, 132, 133, 134, 146–53, 157, 158, 171, 207n25;
body dysphoria in, 142–45, 154, 158–59, 170–71;
body logics, 146–51, 153, 154, 170–72;
body modification and, 142–45, 157–58, 170–71;
children’s embodiment perspectives in, 142–45;
disability analogies, 129, 133, 134, 135, 146–50, 157;
medical interventions/medical treatment and, 143–45, 151, 170–71;
natural biological variation in, 151–52;
parents’ deliberations over children’s privacy and, 132–42, 156–57
biomedical frameworks, 142–45, 157–58, 170–71;
LGBTQ politics and, 171;
of medical professionals, 151;
pregnancy comparison, 207n5
biopathologizing, 134, 151, 155, 189. See also biological/biomedical frameworks
birth defect analogies, 129, 132, 133, 134, 146–54, 157, 158, 170–72, 207n25
birth sex. See assigned sex at birth
Black feminist theory/thought, 16, 21
bodies/behaviors distinctions, 47, 51, 66, 97, 158, 196n14. See also Seeber, Andrew
body dysphoria, 9, 58, 66, 142–45, 154, 158–59, 170–71;
body logics, 146–51, 153, 154, 170–72
body modification, of trans children:
interests different from wrong body narratives, 95–96, 110–11, 142–45, 157–58;
verbal declarations of desire for, 58–59, 158–59 (p.224)
“born this way,” 16, 90, 132, 147
boygir, 93, 118, 169
brain, transgender/transsexual, 147, 158
Bryant, Karl, 25, 72, 198n66, 199n68
Butler, Judith, 72
child-centered/child-driven/child-rooted parenting, 18–23, 34, 38, 64, 105, 157, 162, 165, 172–73. See also intensive parenting
childhood development/socialization, 21–23
childhood gender transition, 27–28;
as easier than other possibilities, 128
childhood, historical conceptions, 18–19
Child Protective Services (CPS), 72, 141
cisgender, 10, 113–14, 121–26, 167–68;
birth defect analogies and, 171;
parents as heterosexual and, 33, 190;
queer deconstructionist questioning of, 171
cisgender boys, 10, 113–14, 121–26, 167–68. See also cisgender
cisgender gay adults, 73, 82–85, 163
Clare, Eli, 134
class:
gender/sexuality distinction and, 30–31, 71, 164;
intensive child-centered parenting and, 18–21;
parents’ demographics and, 12–13, 190, 206n25;
trans healthcare and, 134–35, 205n10. See also intersectionality
clinic, 3, 14, 27, 63, 77, 134, 136, 149, 156, 171
Collins, Patricia Hill, 16
comorbidities, 120–21, 147, 148, 149
concerted cultivation, 20, 21
conferences, 12, 13–15, 19, 22, 29, 42, 98, 144, 148, 182, 186–87, 197n20, 201n107, 206n1;
trans child’s resistance to, 120, 169
conversion therapy, 26–27, 199n77
Corsaro, William, 22, 173
Defense of Marriage Act, 29, 200n85
desist/desistence. See persist, desist trends
de-transgendered, 169–70
Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM), 25, 26, 62, 81, 151, 198n65, 199n76, 204n20
disability analogies, 129, 133, 134, 135, 146–50, 157
disability rights, 134, 157
“Don’t Ask Don’t Tell” policy, 29, 200n85
Dutch Model, 27
effememania, 97
essentialist frameworks/biological essentialism, 16, 109, 189
ethnomethodology/ethnomethodological, 39, 97, 202n6
female masculinity, 34, 97, 167;
as compared to parents of trans girls, 103–4, 106;
tomboys and, 39, 43, 44, 50, 51–53, 203n16, 205n19. See also Halberstam, Judith Jack
feminine boys, 25
femininity:
parental rejection of idealized, 41, 168;
trans girls and, 2, 45, 47
feminism:
feminist or gender-neutral parenting and, 23–24, 38, 40, 43, 47, 67, 162;
reifying-the-binary debates and, 35, 107;
in research and ethnography, 188–89;
second-wave, 40;
trans-exclusion/TERF and, 67, 206n23 (p.225)
feminist. See feminism
follow-up cases, 10, 11–12, 15, 95–96, 112–26, 181
forums, 12, 15, 22, 28, 35, 65, 75, 98, 109, 136, 148, 182, 185, 197n20
Foucault, Michel, 17
Gamson, Joshua, 201n1
Garfinkel, Harold, 132
gay:
biology and genetics, 85, 90–91;
older brother effect and male gay children, 204;
same-sex marriage, 29, 200n85. See also LGBT; homosexuality
gay identity:
normalization of, 29;
social constructionism on, 209n12
gay rights, 29–32, 200n85;
trans rights and, 29–32, 200n99. See also LGBT
gay rights movement. See LGBT
gay/trans distinction. See gender/sexuality distinction
gender:
biology and genetics, 90, 109;
more or less progressive, 96, 205n10;
social construction of, 108–9, 151, 152
gender binary, 39, 92;
limits and fallacies of, 165;
effect on nonbinary genders, 96–97;
queer deconstructionist debates over, 7, 169. See also gender stereotypes
gender dysphoria:
DSM classification of, 26, 62, 81, 151, 199n76, 204n20. See also body dysphoria
gender-expansive parenting, 7, 36, 67, 127, 163, 169. See also trans-affirmative parenting
gender-fluid, 4, 93, 115, 127, 164, 168, 169
gender hedging, 2, 44
gender identity:
definition of, 10;
gendered behaviors and expressions as separate from, 106;
in research, 24–25, 26;
sex identity and, 47, 158
gender identity disorder, 25, 26, 72, 199n76, 207n5
gender identity/sexual orientation distinction. See gender/sexuality distinction
gender inequality, 97
gender-neutral parenting, 23–24, 41–44, 64, 162. See also feminism
gender-nonconforming/gender nonconformity:
overview, 8–11;
children in participant reference chart, 179–80;
children in research (see research);
children who have changed to transgender or cisgender identifications, 95, 100, 112–126;
compared to transgender terminology, 3–4, 8;
figures in history, 5, 71, 196n6, 204n8;
gay adults, 82–85, 163;
relationship to gay identity and homosexuality, 25–28, 34–35, 69–73, 74–75;
transgender boys who are, 104–07
gender-nonconforming boys, 10;
Phillip, 122–23;
social pressures on, 128, 167–68;
Tim, 123–26;
participant reference chart, 179–80
gender-nonconforming girls:
Jackie 96, 169;
participant reference chart, 179–80
gender-nonconforming/truly trans distinction, 69
gender-normative, 121
genderqueer, 93, 111, 112, 115, 116, 127–28, 168
gender revolution, 93
gender/sexuality distinction, 203n1;
alternative understandings from, 164–165;
Bryant’s scholarship and, 72;
Butler’s heterosexual matrix and, 72;
mainstream LGBT rights/discourses and, 30–31, 35, 69, 70, 88;
overview, 30–31;
parents’ understandings of, 6, 31, 34–35, 67–68, 69–73, 162–65, 196n14, 203n4;
race, class and, 30–31, 164;
social constructionism on, 71–72;
Valentine’s discussion of, 30–31, 71, 164
gender spectrum. See spectrum
Gender Spectrum (organization), 196n10 (p.226)
gender stereotypes:
masculinist, 106;
parents’ observations and, 39–40, 45–52, 65–67;
social construction of, 108–9;
transgender adults and, 66
gender transition:
childhood, 27–28, 128;
roles of race and class in, 205n10
gender-variant, 117, 147, 196n11
girly boys, 50, 80, 106, 118
Green, Richard, 196n7
Hagerman, Margaret, 20
Halberstam, Judith Jack, 203n16
Halloween, 49
Hays, Sharon, 19–20
hegemonic masculinity, 39, 166–67. See also male femininity
heteronormative:
in trans-affirmative parenting paradigm, 155–56
heterosexual matrix, 72, 94
heterosexuals, parents as, 33, 183
hierarchies of stigma, 96
homonormative, 31, 200n96
homophobia, 31, 72
homosexuality, 17;
as gender inversion condition, 71;
GNC, gender/sexuality distinction and, 24–27, 30–31, 34–35, 69–75, 199n68;
transgender and, 25, 30–31. See also gay identity; LGBT
hormone blockers/puberty blockers, 63, 110, 156, 191–92
hormones, 90, 91
hormone treatment, 27, 28, 196n15, 199n78;
parents, medical professionals and, 63; 96;
race and, 156
Imagining Transgender (Valentine), 30, 71, 164
indicators of trans children’s identities:
child’s distress as, 81;
gender therapists on, 54–55, 203n17
intensive mothering, 19–20
intensive parenting, 8, 18–21, 65, 162, 172–73;
intersectionality, race, class and, 18–21;
internet community of parents, 28, 60–61. See also advocacy
internet research, 60
intersectionality/intersections with race and class, 6, 18–21, 31, 32, 132, 134–35, 182. See also class; race
intersex, 115
intersex rights, 134, 157
Jacobs, Jason, 156
Jennings, Jazz, 136–37, 150, 154
Jennings, Jeanette, 136–37
just gay, truly trans and, 6–7, 25–28, 67, 69–92, 163. See also gender/sexuality distinction
Kane, Emily, 24
Lamble, Sarah, 21
Lareau, Annette, 20, 172
Latinx, 12, 197n23
LGBT:
as assimilationist, 31;
binary/nonbinary identities and, 7, 94–96, 168;
biomedical frameworks and, 90–91, 132, 135, 171;
distinctions from queer, 32–33, 94–95;
gender/sexuality distinction, 6, 30–31, 69–70, 88;
as homonormative, 31, 200n96;
persons on talk shows, 37–38, 201n1;
regionality in studies on, 12, 197n22;
relationship to social constructionism, 16–17, 189–90;
rights/discourses/movement, (p.227) 6, 29–34, 95, 120,162, 171, 200n100, 201n104
LGBTQ, distinctions between mainstream LGBT movement and, 32, 201n104. See also LGBT
LGBTQ youth:
genderfluidity of older, 116, 169;
parents of, 162. See also trans youth
listserv, 12, 13, 14, 60, 108, 147. See also forums
male femininity, 34, 38, 52, 97, 123, 166–68, 205n19;
anxiety of parents of trans boys over, 104–7
marriage:
Defense of Marriage Act, 29, 200n85;
same-sex, 29, 200n85
Martin, Karin, 24
masculinity:
female, 39, 53, 97, 103–4, 106, 167, 205n19;
hegemonic, normative, 97, 105, 107, 39, 166;
trans girls’ masculine interests, 47, 103
matrix of domination, 21, 135
Meadow, Tey, 6, 33, 131–32, 156, 188–89
medical interventions/medical treatment:
biomedical frameworks and, 95–96, 110–11, 142–45, 151, 170–71, 191–92;
children’s desire for, 59, 158–59;
hormone blockers/puberty blockers, 63, 110, 156, 191–92. See also body modification; hormones
medical professionals:
biomedical frameworks, 151;
hormones, 63;
parents’ education of, 21, 62–63
methodology:
children of parents, 183–84;
insider/outsider status of researcher and, 16–17, 186–88;
overview, 5, 11–17, 181, 184–86;
participant demographics, 12–13, 181–83, 208n1–2;
participant reference chart, 179–80;
political and ethical considerations in, 13–16, 186–93;
Molio, Dr., 156
mothering, intensive, 19–20
neoliberal/neoliberalism, 200n96, 202n11
normalization:
of gay identity, 29;
of gender nonconforming, 136;
by parents of LGBTQ youth, 156;
of transgender, 135
normative masculinity, 97, 105, 107. See also hegemonic masculinity
neurodivergence, 4,121
ontology/ontological, 69, 73, 203n1
parent-advocacy community, 28–29, 60–61, 82, 103, 156, 161. See also advocacy
parents’ acceptance of children, 34, 55, 59–65, 202n11. See also transition
parents and families of GNC and LGBTQ youth, 12, 162. See also trans youth
parents in sample:
assigned sex of GNC and trans children and, 39, 40;
Becca, 58, 118–21, 138, 143–44, 149, 156, 158, 164;
Beth and Barry, 123–26;
Bill, 140;
binary gender identity of trans children and, 96;
body modification and, 95–96, 110–11, 143–45, 157–58;
Bruce, 37, 43–44, 76, 85, 94, 99, 145, 153–54, 168–70;
Carolyn, 51;
children’s transgender identities and, 32, 33;
as cisgender and heterosexual, 33;
Clarise, 66–67, 203n23;
Dan, 53, 54, 150;
Dana, 102–3, 206n21;
deliberations over their children’s binary/nonbinary possibilities, 93–129, 166; (p.228)
deliberations over their children’s privacy, 131–42, 206n1;
deliberations over their children’s trans/gender-nonconforming possibilities, 93–129;
demographics, 12–13, 181–83, 208nn1, 2;
de-transgendered children of, 169–70;
discomfort with transgender idea, 37–38, 42, 201n2;
Elias, 114–18, 206n28;
Emilio, 59;
gender binary and nonbinary politics of, 107–12;
on gender-nonconforming/truly trans distinction, 69;
gender spectrum and, 93;
gender stereotypes and, 173;
Glenn, 1–5, 39, 59, 73, 132, 154, 161;
Grace, 52–53, 54, 56, 61, 82–83, 85, 154;
Harmony, 63–64, 147–48;
hormone treatment and, 96;
intensive child-centered parenting of, 173;
Janice, 69, 74, 89, 103–4, 106, 107, 127, 136, 137;
Jayne, 1–5, 39, 59, 73, 132, 173;
Julie, 44, 45–46, 48, 59, 60, 67, 74;
Karen, 44, 49, 51, 57, 59, 61, 63, 102, 131, 136–37, 139, 146, 148, 154;
Kari, 43, 58, 141, 152–53, 154;
Laurie, 122–23, 167–68;
Madalyn, 46, 150–51;
mainstream LGBT rights/discourses and, 94–95;
Marco, 40–42;
Marie, 48–49, 56–57, 86, 91, 144;
medical interventions/medical treatment and, 95–96, 110–11, 143–45, 151, 170–71, 191–92;
Meredith, 43, 47–48, 62, 132;
Michelle, 87;
Monica, 53, 74–75, 147, 150, 158;
Nancy, 37–38, 48, 50, 52, 55–56, 105–6, 132;
Nathaniel, 118–21, 138;
overview, 11–16, 34;
Patrice, 60;
as queer, 33;
race and, 108, 152–53, 206n25;
reasons for participation of, 16;
Rick, 38, 46, 55, 60, 86, 109, 141, 201n2, 204n23, 206n25;
Rita, 55;
Sam, 110–11;
Sara, 96, 191–92;
Shella, 84, 95;
Sheryl and Richard, 44, 104;
Theresa, 14, 37, 140;
Tory, 51, 83, 109–11, 133, 143, 207n21;
two cohorts and samples of, 13–16;
Wendy, 44, 45, 54–55, 58, 61, 75, 77, 86, 93, 94, 98, 99, 148–49, 203n17. See also specific topics
parents of trans boys:
anxiety over male femininity of, 104–7, 166–67;
parents of trans girls compared to, 49–50;
participant reference chart, 179–80
parents of trans girls:
anxiety over female masculinity of, 103–4, 106;
parents of trans boys compared to, 49–50;
rejection of idealized femininity by, 41, 168;
participant reference chart, 179–80
Pascoe, C. J., 202n4, 204n14, 205n16
passing, 134, 153
persist, desist trends of GNC children, 27–28, 76, 199n81
Pogrebin, Letty Cottin, 198n57
privacy, 7, 36, 129;
biomedical frameworks and, 132–42, 146, 156–57;
coaching children in bodily comportments and, 132–33;
overview, 131–34, 156–57, 159;
parents’ alternative open position to, 136–39;
parents’ preference for, 136–39;
power of others who know and, 139–42;
public advocacy and, 136–37;
risk and safety in, 138–39;
with school personnel, 132, 137–39, 141;
state interventions and, 131–32, 141–42;
stealth and, 131, 137–39, 146, 206n1;
stigma and, 141
pronouns, 3, 15, 38, 93, 116, 195n5, 201n2
purposive sample, 12, 197n20
qualitative analyses, 195n3
queer, 7, 32–33, 35, 94–95, 162, 169, 171. See also LGBT; LGBTQ
queer-of-color critiques, 32 (p.229)
race:
gender/sexuality distinction and, 30–31, 71, 164;
intensive child-centered parenting and, 18–21;
LGBT movement and, 32;
parents’ demographics and, 12–13, 108, 152–53, 190, 206n25;
trans healthcare and, 134–35, 156, 205n10. See also intersectionality
Raymond, Janice, 206n23
reifying-the-binary debates, 35, 107, 168
reparative therapy, 25, 26, 77, 81. See also conversion therapy
research:
on cognitive psychology assessments of trans kids, 26, 199n75;
on LGBTQ youth and their families, 162;
on normative gender development, 24–25;
psychiatric studies on gender-nonconforming and trans kids, 25–28, 70, 72, 75–82, 89–90, 199n69–71, 199n78, 199n81, 204n18;
on trans youth and homelessness, 197n21
Robertson, Mary, 10
same-sex marriage, 29, 200n85
second-wave feminism, 40
Seeber, Andrew, 47, 51, 66, 96, 97, 158
Serano, Julia, 96, 97, 107, 158
sex change, 95, 206n23. See also body modification
sex identity, gender identity and, 47, 158
sexuality, 6, 30–31, 69–72;
Butler’s heterosexual matrix and, 72, 94;
of children, 71, 203n4;
trans teens and, 138–39. See also gender/sexuality distinction
sexual orientation, 3, 6, 26, 30–31, 35, 67, 69–71, 199n71;
of transgender persons, 70. See also homosexuality; sexuality
Singal, Jesse, 28
The “Sissy Boy Syndrome” (Green), 196n7
social constructionism/constructionist, 16–17, 71–72, 108–9, 151, 152, 189–90, 209n12
sociology, of trans-affirmative parenting, 36
Spade, Dean, 197n16, 200n97
spectrum, 8, 35, 69–70, 82, 83, 88, 92, 93–94, 127, 196n10
Stonewall, 31–32, 200n98
subversivism, 96, 107. See also Serano, Julia
support groups and resources, 5, 14–15, 17, 28–29;
internet research and, 60;
Leigh and, 1, 26, 79–81, 89
talk shows, LGBT persons on, 32, 37–38, 201n1
therapists, 14, 19, 26, 42, 53, 54–55, 56, 61–62, 65, 78, 100, 148–49, 151, 203n17;
Lina, 151
they/them pronouns, 93
tomboys, 34, 39, 43, 44, 50, 51–53, 123, 203n16, 205n19
tomgirls, 167–68
trans-affirmative parenting:
as fad, 80;
feminist parenting and, 67;
overview, 5–8;
sociology of, 36;
summary of, 161–74
trans boys:
anxiety of parents over male femininity of, 104–7, 166–67;
social pressures on, 128;
society’s allowances for gender nonconforming for, 50, 65
trans boys of parents/in sample:
Baldwin, 63–64;
Connor, 51, 83, 110, 133, 143, 207n21;
as gay, 104, 206n22;
Gil, 44, 104;
Hayden, 53, 74;
Izzy, 44, 49, 51, 57, 59, 61, 63, 102, 139, 148;
Jamie, 106, 110–12;
Jared, 1–4;
Joe, 63, 88, 202n14;
Martin, 43, 47–48;
Mickey, 37, 48, 50, 52, 55–56, 105–6, 132;
Milo, 49, 144;
Nick, 52–53, 56, 61;
Vic, 51, 94, 166 (p.230)
trans children:
accounts by, 10;
with autism, 2–5;
behavioral comorbidities among, 120–21, 147, 148, 149;
body dysphoria of, 9, 58, 66, 142–45, 158–59;
childhood gender transition, 27–28;
embodied sensibilities of, 7, 9, 36, 58;
gender-neutral parenting and, 23–24, 41–44, 64;
“invention” of, 17;
LGBTQ politics and binary-identity of, 168, 169;
as not included in research on trans-affirmative parenting, 11;
other sex’s toys, clothes, preferences of, 44–51, 65–66;
trans embodiment issues of, 142–45. See also trans boys; trans girls; trans youth; specific topics
trans children, in research on trans-affirmative parenting:
binary gender identity of, 94, 96, 168, 169;
as de-transgendered, 169–70. See also trans boys; trans girls
trans children, self-identifications:
therapists on, 78–79;
verbal declarations of trans identity, 53–59, 78, 158–59, 169–70
trans embodiment:
transer-than-thou, 96
trans-exclusion:
feminism and, 67, 206n23;
in gay rights movement, 30;
in health care policies, 29–30
trans-exclusionary radical feminist (TERF), 67, 206n23. See also feminism
trans-feminine, 37, 39, 43, 115, 135, 156, 167
transgender, 8–11;
children’s dis-identification with identity, community of, 120, 156, 169;
gender-nonconforming terminology compared to, 3–4, 8;
parents’ acceptance of child as, 59–64;
transsexual terminology compared to, 9. See also transgender adults/persons
transgender adults/persons:
as activists in LGBT movement, 31–32, 200n99;
awareness of, 93, 161;
biological theories and, 90–91, 158, 205n25;
Cory, 111–112;
medico-psychological establishment and, 66;
passing privilege and, 134–35;
policies for, 29–30, 200n87;
role in parent-advocacy community, 82;
sexual orientation and, 25, 70;
trans-misogyny and, 97;
visibility politics and, 133
transgender brain, 147, 158. See also brain; transgender adults/persons
transgender child, 8–11, 17, 24–29. See also trans boys, trans girls, specific topics
transgendered, terminology, 195n5, 196n8, 201n106
(trans)gendered possibilities, 7, 70, 73, 164
trans/gender-nonconforming possibilities:
deliberations of parents over their children’s, 92, 93–129;
politics of, 107–12;
terminology of, 10
transgender, parents’ discomfort with idea of, 37–38, 42, 201n2. See also transphobia
transgender studies, 189;
scholars on assigned sex references, 39
The Trans Generation (Travers), 6, 10, 149
trans girls:
anxiety of parents over female masculinity of, 103–4, 106;
bullying of, 3;
feminist parenting and, 47;
masculine interests of, 47;
society’s allowances for gender nonconforming for, 50, 65
trans girls of parents/in sample:
Amy, 1–4, 154, 161, 173;
Andy, 38, 46, 55, 60, 141, 170;
Casey, 60;
Cindy, 40–43, 49, 131;
Eileen, 74, 103–4;
Emma, 43, 58, 141, 154;
as girly girls, 41, 168;
Hazel, 44, 45, 54–55, 203n17;
Holden, 43–44, 145;
Lisa, 140;
Macy, 44, 45–46, 59;
movement from gender-nonconforming (p.231) to trans, 113–21, 126;
Raya, 115–18, 166;
Rian, 87;
Sadie, 62, 76, 138–39, 142–43;
Samantha, 71, 100–101, 137–38;
Talia, 46;
Tegan, 84, 95;
Violet, 46–47, 57
transition, 11, 86, 104, 201n2;
concerns over, 27–28;
as easier than other possibilities, 95–96, 127–128;
meaning of, 11;
of parents, 11, 15–16, 86, 104, 127, 161, 201n2;
roles of race and class in, 205n10. See also parents’ acceptance of children
Trans Kids (Meadow), 6
trans-masculine, 86, 98, 104
trans-normative politics, 32
trans-of-color critiques, 32
trans persons. See transgender adults/persons
transphobia, 72, 97, 158;
of parents, 34, 60
trans political consciousness, 36, 155, 159, 170
trans rights, 200n91;
gay rights and, 29–32, 200n99. See also LGBT
transsexuality, 107, 206n23;
GNC children and adult, 27
transsexual medicine, 25, 198n66
transsexual terminology, transgender terminology compared to, 9
trans youth:
of gender revolution, 93;
loss of families, 12, 197n21;
mental health risks of, 81, 162, 204n19
Travers, Ann, 6, 10, 149, 197n17, 207n4
two-spirit, 93;
Skylar as, 102–3, 165, 166, 206n21
Valentine, David, 30–31, 71, 161, 164
verbal declarations, 53–59; 78, 158–59, 169–70;
absence of, 57, 66, 78–79
Ward, Jane, 205n5
wrong body narratives, 146–47;
children’s verbal declarations, 59, 154, 158–59, 170–71;
more nuanced relationships to bodies than, 9, 58, 66, 142;
youth. See LGBTQ youth, trans youth (p.232)