In order to assess who is empowered by technologies and practices of personalized medicine, we need to look at how structural aspects of power interact with the self-governance of people. After a discussion of how we can see and analyze power, this chapter illustrates the dynamics of empowerment and disempowerment by using two cases, direct-to-consumer (DTC) genome-wide testing, and the (re-)quantification of medical imaging. In both cases, technologies and practices of personalization lead to new ways of discriminating between people on the basis of seemingly “objective” individual somatic characteristics. This has consequences for social and political categories such as fairness, as well as for seemingly factual notions such as age.
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