This chapter examines the process of adding “value” to the diamonds, specifically discussing how the act of grading choreographs each gem into uniqueness and thereby enhancing its market value. It highlights the Gemological Institute of America (GIA), an institute dedicated to research and education in the field of gemology and the jewelry arts. Through their grading system the GIA acts as a vital resource of gem and jewelry information used in trade. In measuring a diamond's value, the GIA pays attention to microscopic differences commonly called “The 4 Cs,” which are carat, color, clarity, and cut. Diamonds with a GIA certificate are often believed to have special authenticity and prestige among collectors. The chapter also looks at some of the latest trends and developments in diamond grading, such as the use of laser saws, specialty cuts, and the branding of diamonds.
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