This epilogue discusses the role of English colonists in the establishment of permanent human habitation in New England and Bermuda during the seventeenth century. It considers how understandings of human difference had changed in much of the puritan Atlantic and indeed among Europeans in the Atlantic world. In particular, it examines how the sometimes flexible racialist thinking more prevalent in the mid-seventeenth century transformed into less malleable categories that highlighted the connections between skin color and specific sets of intrinsic, embodied, and heritable characteristics. It also examines the loosening of the close relationship between ministerial articulation of sinful behavior and magisterial enforcement of social order among English puritans. Finally, it reflects on how some Natives and Africans fought hard to be recognized as Christian by puritans in New England.
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