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Haiti's Paper WarPost-Independence Writing, Civil War, and the Making of the Republic, 1804-1954$
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Chelsea Stieber

Print publication date: 2020

Print ISBN-13: 9781479802135

Published to NYU Press Scholarship Online: January 2021

DOI: 10.18574/nyu/9781479802135.001.0001

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Nationals and Liberals, 1904/1906

Nationals and Liberals, 1904/1906

(p.201) 6 Nationals and Liberals, 1904/1906
Haiti's Paper War

Chelsea Stieber

NYU Press

This chapter traces the continued civil war in Haiti that manifested itself along these newly formed post-1869 divides: between Liberals and Nationals in politics, divergent approaches to education and cultural policy, and new approaches to commemorating Haiti’s foundational 1804/1806 division at the turn of the new century. Yet these new divides are not invented out of whole cloth: they draw heavily upon Haitian history while responding to ever-changing Atlantic currents of thought. That is, the post-1869 divides are marked by both the divides that shaped Haiti’s first fifty years of civil war and the ideological debates that marked the nineteenth-century Atlantic world—specifically, France’s Third Republican debates on nationhood and imperial republicanism and the rise of a new US hemispheric imperialism at the turn of the century. Thus, the divides between government forms that had driven the first fifty years of Haitian civil war gave way to a new set of factions that reactivated and adapted these earlier divisions.

Keywords:   National Party, Liberal Party, Louis Joseph Janvier, Jean-Jacques Dessalines, centennial, Haitian independence

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