Retaliation, Coaching, And Sexual Harassment
This chapter examines three issues that are central to Title IX's gender equality goals beyond getting women into sports and providing equal support and benefits: protection of individuals who are bold enough to speak out about discrimination, representation of women in coaching and athletic administration jobs, and the sexual harassment of female athletes by their coaches. After discussing Title IX's response to retaliation against athletes and coaches who complain about gender inequality, the chapter considers the reasonable belief doctrine and its pitfalls. It then explores what kinds of punishments count as unlawful retaliation under Title IX and the significance of the Supreme Court ruling in Jackson v. Birmingham Board of Education that retaliation is a form of sex discrimination. It also looks at gender disparities in sports leadership, including women's lack of representation in college coaching, and concludes with an assessment of Title IX's response to the problem of sexual harassment involving the coach and the athlete.
Keywords: gender equality, sexual harassment, female athletes, coaches, Title IX, retaliation, reasonable belief doctrine, Jackson v. Birmingham Board of Education, sex discrimination, college coaching
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