What Counts as a Sport, Which Sports Should Women Play, and Which Women Should Play Them?
This chapter focuses on Title IX's three-part test for measuring equal participation opportunities. It first examines what counts as a sport for Title IX purposes, with particular emphasis on the case of cheerleading. It then considers whether some sports are more worthy contenders for addition to the women's program than others, and whether Title IX takes (or should take) a position on which sports to prioritize in the push to expand women's opportunities. More specifically, it asks whether Title IX should push harder for contact sports for women. It also discusses the mixed success of Title IX's effort to secure equal sports participation opportunities, noting that women of color remain significantly underrepresented in intercollegiate athletic participation, in part because much of the growth in women's sports in recent years has been in sports that are disproportionately played by white women.
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