The Modernization of Amputation
This chapter examines how phantom–prosthetic relations unfolded in the context of the modernization of amputation, including the rapid state-sponsored expansion and maturation of the prosthetic industry and the collaboration between amputation surgery and prosthetic science. It first considers the debate between practitioners and researchers about the nature of phantom–prosthetic relations, a debate that was engendered by two apparently contradictory findings: prostheses both provoked phantom limbs and cured phantom limb syndrome. It then analyzes phantom limbs and prostheses in order to show how phantom–prosthetic relations have evolved over the twentieth and into the twenty-first century from the prosthetization of phantoms to the phantomization of prostheses and to phantom–prosthetic reciprocity. It also discusses the potential for prosthetic animation to prevent phantom pain and enable facile prosthesis use as well as the fundamental utility of phantom exercise to prevent or reverse cortical reorganization.
Keywords: phantom–prosthetic relations, amputation, amputation surgery, prosthetic science, prostheses, phantom limbs, phantom limb syndrome, prosthetic animation, phantom pain, cortical reorganization
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