This concluding chapter argues that many of the biological factors studied throughout the book, including hormones, psychophysiological measures, and brain structure and functioning, reflect the combined effects of both genetics and the environment. These findings provide a description of the biological pathway by which both genetic and environmental factors—the ultimate causes of behavior—have their effects. Moreover, the majority of the findings identify modest associations between psychopathic traits and biological factors. Results represent average differences between groups or correlations between biological measures and psychopathy scores, but they do not indicate that every individual with psychopathic traits will demonstrate these biological differences or that all individuals with such biological differences have psychopathic traits.
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