This chapter presents Dr. Robert Hare's book, Without Conscience, in which he describes a set of female twins who drastically differ in personality. One twin grows up to be a lawyer with ambitious career prospects, while the other develops drug addiction, has numerous encounters with the law, and demonstrates many of the traits of psychopathy. In relation to this, the chapter outlines evidence from two overarching fields of genetic research: behavioral genetics and molecular genetics. Behavioral genetics studies aim to disentangle how much a disorder is the result of genes versus environmental factors; this approach includes twin and adoption studies. Meanwhile, molecular genetics identifies specific genes that may confer risk for the disorder.
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