This chapter provides a brief history of education in Turkey and how the Gülen Movement (GM) was able to carve a niche in the area of private education and test preparation. It begins with an overview of Mustafa Kemal Atatürk's educational policy that tied “youth and education” with nation and prosperity. It then looks at the development of nation and identity in the Turkish context as well as the educational reforms pursued by the government sincen 1924. It shows how Turkey's turn toward liberalization and market competition enaled the GM to become a transnationally active and powerful advocacy community. In particular, it considers how the GM mastered the Turkish education system through initiatives such as the construction of private for-profit schools as well as student dormitories and buying student-intended apartments. By offering an alternative form of Turkish nationalism to Turkish and global consumers, the GM made education a key component of its transnational advocacy campaign.
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