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Children and Youth in a New Nation$
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James Marten

Print publication date: 2009

Print ISBN-13: 9780814757420

Published to NYU Press Scholarship Online: March 2016

DOI: 10.18574/nyu/9780814757420.001.0001

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PRINTED FROM NYU Press SCHOLARSHIP ONLINE (www.nyu.universitypressscholarship.com). (c) Copyright University of NYU Press Press, 2019. All Rights Reserved. An individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a monograph in NYSO for personal use.date: 14 November 2019

Growing up on the Middle Ground

Growing up on the Middle Ground

Bicultural Creeks on the Early American Frontier

Chapter:
(p.91) 5 Growing up on the Middle Ground
Source:
Children and Youth in a New Nation
Author(s):

Andrew K. Frank

Publisher:
NYU Press
DOI:10.18574/nyu/9780814757420.003.0006

This chapter explores the bicultural upbringing of mixed-race children produced via intermarriages between Creek Indians and southern colonists. On a daily basis, white and Native American parents struggled to find compromises and common ground in the socialization of their children, resulting in a bicultural upbringing. This process of middle-ground parenting defied and adhered to many of the norms that structured southeastern Indian society, but it almost always reflected the interests of Native society. Most fathers had the ability to influence the upbringing of their Creek children only when it suited their Indian mothers and families. Creek women and their matrilineal kin maintained the upper hand in this process, carefully regulating the actions of intermarried white men.

Keywords:   bicultural upbringing, mixed-race children, Creek Indians, southern colonists, white parents, Native American parents, Creek children, Creek society, intermarriage

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