This chapter explores in detail the ways in which cowboys expressed masculinity through control of their working environment and their work skills, and the ways in which cattlemen increasingly limited their opportunities to do so. The rise of industrialization had brought about some marked complications for cowboys and cattlemen alike—as modern corporate methods became the norm, the cowboys were increasingly pressured to show their manliness despite the new restrictions imposed in their work, which had served as an outlet for their manly behavior. Cattlemen, on the other hand, viewed manliness as synonymous with economic success, and achieving it involved restricting the maverick inclinations of their employees. These competing definitions of manhood led to tension on the ranches on a daily basis which increased as the ranches became more corporatized and cowboys had fewer and fewer opportunities to show their independence.
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