This chapter argues that the prevailing notion of schools reproducing social inequalities is partly true, but somewhat of an oversimplification with regard to school punishment. Race/ethnicity, class, and gender shape school punishment, but not in some of the ways that one might expect. Rather, some of the punitive practices that were historically used only in mostly low-income or minority schools are now used in middle-class white schools as well, even if they are used in different ways and have different consequences. When comparing experiences of individual students, however, one sees that biases about racial/ethnic minorities, poor students, and female students substantially shape school discipline within schools. As a result, the contemporary discipline regime further marginalizes students who enter school already facing social and academic disadvantages.
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