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Christian Theologies of the SacramentsA Comparative Introduction$
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Justin S. Holcomb and David A. Johnson

Print publication date: 2017

Print ISBN-13: 9780814724323

Published to NYU Press Scholarship Online: September 2018

DOI: 10.18574/nyu/9780814724323.001.0001

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The Catholic Reform

The Catholic Reform

(p.233) 13 The Catholic Reform
Christian Theologies of the Sacraments

Donald S. Prudlo

NYU Press

This chapter describes the theologies of the sacraments as expressed in the Council of Trent (1546–63) and the subsequent “Catholic Reform.” Sacraments were reaffirmed as “channels of grace” available to believers through the medium of material things like bread, wine, and oil. Moreover, the validity of the seven sacraments—Baptism, Eucharist, Confirmation, Marriage, Ordination, Confession (Penance), and Extreme Unction—as instituted by Christ himself was also reaffirmed. While only Baptism and Eucharist are explicitly instituted by Christ in Scripture, church history and leadership (primarily bishops) were cited as advocating that the other five sacraments were ultimately also instituted by Christ. The Mass as a real sacrifice of Christ was also reaffirmed. The author also addresses how the sacramental theology that emerged from the Council of Trent impacted subsequent Catholic architecture, music, and devotional life.

Keywords:   sacrament, Eucharist, baptism, grace, Council of Trent, Mass

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