This chapter covers the sacramental theology of the scholastic theologian and bishop of Paris, Peter Lombard. Lombard’s Book of Sentences of the mid-twelfth century defined a sacrament as “a sign of God’s grace and the form of invisible grace, in such a way as to carry its image and be its cause.” Moreover, Lombard identified seven sacraments: Baptism, Eucharist, Confirmation, Marriage, Ordination, Confession (Penance), and Extreme Unction. This chapter also addresses how two sacraments in particular reveal unique aspects of Lombard’s sacramental theology: Marriage—an expression of Christ’s union with the church—and Confession (Penance)—contrition caused by grace being poured into the hearts of believers that leads to penance.
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