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Caribbean Religious HistoryAn Introduction$

Ennis B. Edmonds and Michelle A. Gonzalez

Print publication date: 2010

Print ISBN-13: 9780814722343

Published to NYU Press Scholarship Online: March 2016

DOI: 10.18574/nyu/9780814722343.001.0001

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(p.257) Index

(p.257) Index

Source:
Caribbean Religious History
Publisher:
NYU Press
Abakuá (religion), 107–9, 215, 218, 232n40
ABC Islands, 66–68. See also Aruba; Bonaire; Curaçao
Acculturation, 103
Act of Toleration, 72, 83
Act of Uniformity, 77
Adefunmi, Nana Oseijeman, 101–2
Adrián, Trajana, 170
Afonso (king of Congo), 59
African culture, 8–11;
Afro-Christian, 121–54;
Afro-Jamaican, 131–38, 184–85;
Afro-Trinidadian, 138–54;
cabildos and, 98–100, 103, 227n9;
creolization and, 93–119, 121;
drumming and, 51, 58, 96, 211;
music and, 210–11;
re-Africanization, 154. See also specific ethnicities
African Methodist Episcopal Church, 133–34
African people:
African Americans, 146–47, 161–62, 207–8;
in Cuba, 98–102;
demographics of, 55–56;
diaspora of, 47, 119, 142, 158, 175, 185, 194, 204, 206, 208, 215, 218;
indentureship of, 81, 122, 129, 141;
population estimates for, 98, 112, 138;
Roman Catholicism and, 43, 50–52, 59–64. See also Slavery
Afroz, Sultana, 182
Agriculture, 18–19
Ahye, Molly, 142
Albear, Timotea “Latuán,” 99
Alexander VI (pope), 34
Alvaranga, Philmore, 194
Álvarez, Adalberto, 214
Americanization:
in Cuba, 163, 165;
of Puerto Rico, 160–61
American Revolution, 75, 80–81, 84, 146
Amerindians, 2–3;
atrocities against, 37–39;
de las Casas and, 36, 42–43, 57;
population estimates for, 37;
slavery of, 39;
social conventions of, 17–22;
Spanish Catholics and, 15–43. See also specific ethnicities
Anacaona, 21, 38
Ancestor worship:
Ciboneys and, 22;
Kumina and, 130;
Myal and, 125;
Tainos and, 24–25
Animal sacrifice, 130, 152
Antigua, 67, 70, 80
Antoine, Robert, 145
Apostles of Infinite Love, 215
Arawak people (Caiquetos), 16, 56, 67–68, 139
Arieto (ceremonial dance), 22, 29
Aristide, Jean-Bertrand, 115–16
Arnaz, Desi, 215
Aroyinde, Christine, 118
Art, and Yoruba traditions, 214
Aruba, 2, 66–67
Arya Samaj (religion), 180
Ashanti people, 182
Assembly of God Church, 169–70, 172–73
Atabeira/Atabey, 23, 28
Atheism, 164
Atrocities, against Amerindians, 37–39
Augier, Roy, 193
Austin-Broos, Diane, 218
Auto-sacramentals, 49–50
Ayorinde, Christine, 204
Azor (band), 214
Babalawos (high priests), 95–96, 204–5, 218
Babalu-Ayé (spirit), 95, 215
(p.258) Bahamas, 2, 15, 31
Baker, Moses, 81, 126–27
Ball courts, 28
Ball games, 29
Bananas, 6
Banton, Buju, 200
Bantú traditions, 102–4
Baptism:
certificates of, 68;
forced, 113, 179;
in Myal, 127;
in Palo Monte, 103;
in Revival Zion, 134–35;
by Spiritual Baptists, 149–51
Baptist Church:
cosmology of, 126;
in Dominican Republic, 162;
in Jamaica, 81–83, 86–88, 126–27, 131;
Native Baptists, 126–28, 131;
in Puerto Rico, 160;
Spiritual Baptists, 121, 139–40, 144–54, 206;
syncretism and, 87;
West Indian Evangelical Spiritual Baptist Faith, 148. See also Native Baptists; Spiritual Baptists
Baptiste, Jeanette, 216
Baptist Missionary Society of London, 81, 127
“Baptist War,” 81–82, 126–27
Barbados:
Church of England in, 83, 85, 90;
Protestantism in, 67, 70–71, 75, 77;
Spiritual Baptists in, 153
Barham, John Foster, 78
Bath, Muhammad, 183
Bauxite, 6
Baxter, John, 79
Bay of Pigs invasion, 166
Bean, Joseph N., 160
Beckford, George, 8, 211
Bedward, Alexander, 122, 135–36
Behique (practitioner), 24, 30, 225n42
Belize, 2
Bell, J. Wilson, 136, 173
Benítez-Rojo, Antonio, 221
Berbice, 69–70
Bilby, Kenneth, 131
Black Carib people, 17
Black liberation theology, 207–8
Black Nationalism, 219
Black Power movement, 197
Black Star Line, 185–86
Blackwell, Chris, 212
Bobadilla, Francisco de, 37
Bobo Dreads, 191, 197–99, 218
Bode Nasyonal, 205
Bolland, O. Nigel, 9, 11
Bonaire, 2, 66–67
Book of the Spirits (Rivail), 117
Boukman, Dutty, 113
Boukman Eksperyans (band), 214
Boyer, Jean-Pierre, 114, 161
Boyl, Bernardo, 35, 40
Boza, Juan, 214
Bradley, Lloyd, 196
Brahmanization, 179–80
Braithwaite, Edward, The Development of Creole Society in Jamaica, 1770–1820, 10–12
Breathett, George, 63
Brethren in Christ, 166
Bristol, Joan Cameron, 51–52
British Guyana (Essequibo), 69–70, 180
Briyumba (religion), 103
Brown, David, 214
Brown, Dennie, 198
Brujería (witchcraft), 108
Bryan, Andrew, 81
Buddhism, 178
Burchell, Thomas, 81–82
Burial rites:
Revival Zion and, 133;
of Tainos, 29–30
Bustamante, Alexander, 187, 194
Butler, Uriah, 148
Cabildos (councils):
Abakuá and, 107–8;
African culture and, 98–100, 103, 227n9;
Roman Catholicism and, 50–51, 157;
suppression of, 105
Cabrera, Lydia, 107
Cacao, 6
Caciques (chiefs), 16, 19–25, 28–30
Caiquetos. See Arawak people
Caldecott, Alfred, 73–74
Calixtus II (pope), 182
Canonization, 59
Caonabó, 16, 21, 35–36
Capleton, Anthony B., 200
(p.259) Capuchin order, 63
Caribbean region:
colonial, Protestantism in, 65–92;
colonial, Roman Catholicism in, 45–64;
diaspora from, 12–13, 207–9, 219–20;
geography of, x, 1–2;
theology of, 207–10, 221;
theoretical perspectives on, 8–14
Caribbean School of Theology, 209
Carib people, 2, 15–19, 22, 139
La Caridad del Cobre, 9, 49, 156–58, 204, 221
Carrington, Vernon “Gad,” 197, 199
Cassava, 18, 22–23, 27
Castellanos, Isabel, 50
Castellanos, Jorge, 50
Castro, Fidel, 164, 203
Catholicism. See Roman Catholicism
Cayman Islands, 6
Center poles, 133–34, 138
Cespedes, Manuel de, 156
Charismatic Christianity, 174, 199, 216
Charles I (king of Spain). See Charles V
Charles V (emperor of Spain), 52, 56
Chevannes, Barry, 138, 187
Christian, William, 47
Christian Methodist Episcopal Church, 133–34
Christian Missionary Alliance, 160
Christophe, Henri, 114
Church of England (Anglican), 70–77, 79;
in Barbados, 83, 85, 90;
disestablishment of, 87–92;
in Grenada, 88;
in Jamaica, 83, 85;
in Puerto Rico, 159–60;
slavery and, 85–86;
in Trinidad, 88–89
Church of God in Christ, 172–74
Church of God of Prophecy, 136, 170, 172–73
Church/state separation, 75, 90
Ciboney people, 2, 15–16, 18–19, 22
Ciqueyo people, 15
Clark, Mary Ann, 218
Cleary, Edward, 166
Code noir (legal code governing plantation life in French colonies), 58
Codrington, Christopher, III, 74–75, 77
Codrington College, 86, 88, 91
Codrington Trust, 86, 88
Cofradías (confraternities), 50–51, 55
Cohoba (hallucinogen), 24, 28–30
Coke, Thomas, 79, 84
Cold War, 4
Coleridge, William Hart, 86
Collins, Loretta, 217
Colonial era:
education in, 74–75;
Methodist Church in, 79–81, 84, 86, 90;
Protestantism in, 65–92;
Roman Catholicism and, 45–64;
Spanish Catholics in, 30–40
Columbus, Bartolomé, 21, 31
Columbus, Christopher, 1, 12;
El Cruz del Santo Cerro and, 57;
Isabella and, 30–31;
Islam and, 180–81;
Roman Catholicism and, 40;
Tainos and, 15–19, 22, 32–39
Communism, 101, 165
Cone, James H., 208
Congo: Roman Catholicism in, 52, 58–62;
traditions from, 102–3, 105, 111, 129, 146
Congregationalist Church, 160
Conservative Baptists, 166
Conuco agriculture, 18–19, 22, 27
Convivencia (coexistence of religion and government), 203
Coore, David, 197
Coore, Mary, 136
Coore, Stephen “Cat,” 197
Cordoneros (spirits), 118
Corpus Christi (feast day), 49
Cosentino, Donald J., Sacred Arts of Haitian Vodou, 11, 112–13
Cosmogram, 106
Cosmology:
of Baptist Church, 126;
of Santería, 94–97;
of Tainos, 22–24, 111;
of Vodou, 111
Council of Martinique, 63
Council of Trent, 46–47
Counter-Reformation, 53
Cowan, Tommy, 200
Creation myths, 25–28
Cremation, 179
Creolization, 8–12;
African culture and, 93–119, 121;
in Cuba, 157;
of French language, 3;
syncretism and, 10
Cresciendo en Gracia (religion), 171
(p.260) Criollos, 10
Cros Sandoval, Mercedes, 93
Crossroads, 12–13
El Cruz del Santo Cerro, 57
Cuba, 2–3;
Africans in, 98–102;
Afro-Cuban culture, 50–51, 98–102, 155–57, 203–4;
Americanization in, 163, 165;
creolization in, 157;
Espiritismo in, 205;
independence in, 5;
Methodist Church in, 164;
Pentecostal churches in, 171;
Protestantism in, 163–66;
racial stratification in, 156, 214, 220;
Roman Catholicism in, 54, 98–99, 103;
secularization in, 54;
socialist revolution in, 4, 101, 165;
War of Independence in, 156, 163–64
Curaçao, 2, 66–68, 70
Dahomean traditions, 58, 145
Deculturation, 103
de las Casas, Bartolomé:
advocacy for Amerindians of, 36, 42–43, 57;
writings of, 18, 31, 33–34, 40
Delavante, Isaac, 136
De Mello de Souza, Laura, 46
Demerara, 69–70
Democratic Socialism, in Jamaica, 4
D’Epinday, Christian Lalive, 158
Dessalines, Jean Jacques, 114
The Development of Creole Society in Jamaica, 1770–1820 (Braithwaite), 10–12
Diaspora:
African, 47, 119, 142, 158, 175, 185, 194, 204, 206, 208, 215, 218;
Caribbean, 12–13, 207–9, 219–20;
of Rastafarians, 200–201;
South Asian, 180
Díaz, Alberto J., 164
Disciples of Christ, 209
Disestablishment, of Church of England, 87–92
Divali (festival of lights), 179
Divine service, 134
DNA studies, 16
Dober, Leonard, 78
Domenica, 2–3, 67, 70, 88
Dominican Republic, 2–3, 5;
after 1900, 161–62;
Baptist Church in, 162;
Moravians in, 161;
Pentecostal churches in, 170–71;
Roman Catholicism in, 55–57, 162
Drake, Francis, 66
Dreadlocks, 188
Drug trafficking, 6
Drumming:
in African culture, 51, 58, 96, 211;
Kumina and, 130–31;
in Myal, 124;
in Orisha, 140;
in Rastafarianism, 192–93, 211;
by Spiritual Baptists, 148
Drummond, Don, 196
Duarte y Domínguez, Pedro, 164
DuBois, John C., 159
Dunkley, Henry Archibald, 186
Dunn, Katherine, 102
Dutch Antilles, 3
Dutch Reformed Church, 69–70, 91
Dutch settlements, 66–70
Dutch West India Company, 67, 69
Duvalier, François, 115, 205–6
Duvalier, Jean-Claude, 115
Earth People (religion), 216
East India Association, 178
Ebbo (offerings), 97
Ecumenism, 166, 207, 209
Education:
in colonial era, 74–75;
Hindu, 179
Edwards, Emmanuel, 191–92, 199
Ekue (God), 107–8, 232n40–41
Elegguá (spirit), 94, 214
Elliot, Ebenezer (“Papa Neezer”), 142
Emancipation, of slaves, 84–92, 99, 129, 177
Emmanuel, William George, 100
Empiricism, 100
Encomienda system, 37, 39–42
Endo-cannibalism, 25, 27, 30
England:
Grenada and, 70;
Jamaica and, 67, 70;
Roman Catholicism and, 63;
settlements by, 66, 70–71
English patois (patwa), 3
Episcopal Church, 75, 161–64
Eshu (spirit), 94, 141
Espiritismo, 116–19;
in Cuba, 205;
Marian devotions in, 118;
Pentecostal churches and, 168;
Roman Catholicism and, 47;
Santería and, 118
(p.261) Essequibo. See British Guyana
Estimé, Dumarsais, 115
Ethiopianism, 126, 185–86. See also Rastafarianism
Ethiopian Orthodox Church, 194–96
Europeans:
Jews, 3, 67, 71, 77;
slaves, 181
Evangelical churches, 155, 161, 166–69, 210
Evangelical Seminary of Puerto Rico, 210
Evil eye, 47
Ewe (herbs), 97
Ezili, 53, 158
Faerkenius, Johan Henrik, 70
Farris Thompson, Robert, 106
Fatiman, Cecile, 113
Feliciano Quiñones, Salomón, 170
Feminism, 207
Ferdinand (king of Spain), 31, 33–34, 39
Firepass festival, 179
Firma (signature), 106, 109
Fleurant, Gerdès, 213
Folklorization, of religion, 115
Fon tradition, 58, 61
Ford, Clarence, 143
Ford, Clementina, 148
Foster, William, 78
Francis (of Assisi), 41
Franciscan order, 41, 63, 68
Frazier, E. Franklin, 8
Free Methodist Church, 161
French Antilles, 58
French creole language, 3
French Guiana, 2
French Revolution, 84
French settlements, 67
Fuente, Alejandro de la, 214
Fuentes Guerra, Jesús, 103–4
Ganja (marijuana), 186, 188, 190, 193, 198–99
Garcia Peraza, Juanita, 169
Gardner, William James, 131
Garifuna people, 2, 17
Garvey, Marcus Mosiah, 184–86, 191
Gaynair, Bra, 196
Gaynair, Bunny, 196
Geffrard, Fabre Nicolas, 64, 114
Gender issues:
in Abakuá, 108, 218;
feminism, 207;
in Pentecostal churches, 218;
Rastafarianism and, 217–18;
segregation, 19–20;
womanist theology, 207–8;
Yoruba traditions and, 218
George, David, 81
Gerig, Zenas, 209
Gilbert, Nathaniel, 79
Glazier, Stephen D., 139, 146–47, 152–53
Goat sacrifice, 130
Gold, 6, 17, 33, 38, 43
Gomes, Albert, 148
Gómez Gómez, Grisel, 103–4
Gordon, William, 72
The Gospel According to Spiritism (Rivail), 119
Gospelypso music, 213
Government support, for religion, 89–90
Grant, J. P., 89
Greater Antilles, 2, 15–17
Great Revival, 131–32, 135
Grenada, 2, 138;
Church of England in, 88;
England and, 70;
socialist revolution in, 4;
Spiritual Baptists in, 145–46
Grenadines, 2, 224n1
Griffiths, Elton George, 148–49
Guacanagari (Taino leader), 21, 32
Guadalupe, Lady of, 48
Guadeloupe (island), 67
Guanahatabey people. See Ciboney people
Guarionex, 19, 21
Guatemala, 2
Gumbay (drumming ritual), 131
Guyana, 2–4, 177–78
Haile Selassie, 183–84, 186, 191, 194–96, 198–99
Haiti, 4, 138;
Pentecostal churches in, 172;
Protestantism in, 64, 162;
racial stratification in, 58;
revolution in, 5, 59, 84, 98, 113–15;
Roman Catholicism in, 57–64
Hall, Gwendolyn Minlo, 181
Hall, Linda B., 48
Ham Reyes, Adolfo, 163, 207
The Harder They Come (film), 199
(p.262) Hausa, Muhammad, 183
Hausa traditions, 122
Hawkins, John, 66
Healing rituals, 129, 147–48;
by healer, 132–34, 145, 152;
herbal, 103, 111, 123–25;
magical, 123, 125;
by spirits, 144–45
Henry, Claudius, 191–92
Henry, Frances, 143
Henry, Ronald, 192
Herbal healing rituals, 103, 111, 123–25
Hernández González, Francisco, 170
Hernández-Hiraldo, Samiri, 159
Herne, Vital, 172
Hibbert, Joseph Nathaniel, 186
Hinds, Robert, 186–87
Hinduism, 140, 142, 150, 177–80, 201
Hip-hop music, 214
Hispaniola, 2, 15, 31, 58, 67
Hojeda, Alonso, 36
Holiness Church, 136–37, 158, 168, 173
Homiak, John P., 187
Hopkins, Dwight, 208
Houk, James T., Spirit, Blood and Drums: The Orisha Religion in Trinidad, 145, 147, 150
House of Youth Black Faith (HYBF), 187–89
Howell, Leonard Percival, 186, 188, 199
Hoyos, Juan de, 156
Hoyos, Rodrigo de, 156
Hudson, Henryu, 173
Huguenots, 65, 71
Hunte, Keith, 86
Hunter-gatherer culture, 18
Hurbon, Laënnec, 168, 206, 215
Hyperventilation shouting, 135, 146–47, 152, 153
Ifá Iranlowo (priests’ association), 204
I-gelic House, 187–89
Illegal trading, 65–66
Indentureship, 12;
of Africans, 81, 122, 129, 141;
of South Asians, 88, 129, 138, 177–78
Indian Arrival Day, 149
Indians. See Amerindians; South Asians; specific ethnicities
Initiation:
in Abakuá, 107–9;
in Palo Monte, 103, 105;
in Vodou, 110
Inman, Samuel Guy, 161, 163
Inquisition, 61
Irrigation, 19
Isabella (queen of Spain), 30–31, 33–35, 39, 53
Islam, 177–83, 201;
Columbus, C., and, 180–81;
in Jamaica, 182;
marriage in, 179;
Sunni v. Shi’ah, 182;
in Trinidad, 182–83;
Yoruba traditions and, 181
Jamaica, 2;
Afro-Jamaican culture, 131–38, 184–85;
Baptist Church in, 81–83, 86–88, 126–27, 131;
Church of England in, 83, 85;
Democratic Socialism in, 4;
England and, 67, 70;
Islam in, 182;
Jamaica Labor Party, 187;
Methodist Church in, 80;
Obeah in, 122–24;
Pentecostal churches in, 173–74. See also Rastafarianism
Jehovah’s Witnesses, 215–16
Jerry, Bongo, 189
Jerry, Jah, 196
Jesuit order, 63
Jesús Miranda, José Luis de, 171
Jews, European, 3, 67, 71, 77
Jorge, Silvestre, 170
Joseph, Paulceus, 172
Judaism, 140
Julius II (pope), 41
Kabbalah, 140, 142, 145, 150
Kebra Nagast (Ethiopian epic), 183
Kenney, Edward, 163–64
Kersuzan, François-Marie, 53, 64, 158
Kikongo traditions, 122
Kimbisa (religion), 103
Kirk, John, 57
Kirkland, Colonel, 81
Kluzit, John, 172
Kluzit, Stephanie, 172
Knibb, William, 81–82
Knight, Franklin W., 5
Kongo. See Congo
(p.263) Korom, Frank, 182
Kreyol language, 3
Kromanti play (possession rite), 129, 131
Kumina (religion), 122, 129–31, 208
Lady of Guadalupe, 48
Lam, Wilfredo, 214
Languages, 3, 7
Larrazabal Blanco, Carlos, 55
Leeward Islands, 75, 77, 85, 224n1
Legitimation, 203–6;
of Santería, 204–5;
of Vodou, 205–6
Lescot, Élie, 115
Lesser Antilles, 2, 17, 19, 224n1
Liberation theology, 207–8
Liele, George, 80–81, 126–27
Liminality, 12–13
Lindsay, Isaac “Sheppy,” 142
Lipscomb, Christopher, 86
Long, Edward, 74, 76
L’Ouverture, Toussaint, 114
Lovelace, Earl, The Wine of Astonishment, 148
Lucumi, 93, 99, 219
Lugo, Juan, 169–70
Lutheran Church, 69–70, 159–60, 209
Lwa (spirits), 109–11, 213, 221, 232n43
Mack, Douglas, 194
Mackandal, François, 59, 113
Magical healing rituals, 123, 125
Mahikari (religion), 215
Mandinka people, 182
Manifest Destiny, 163
Manifiesto del Clero Cubano Nativo, 54
Manley, Michael, 197–99
Manley, Norman, 194
Marchena, Antonio de, 31
Margarite, Pedro, 36
Marian devotions:
La Caridad del Cobre, 9, 49, 156–58, 204, 221;
Espiritismo and, 118;
feast days for, 57;
Lady of Guadalupe, 48;
Orisha tradition and, 140;
Oshun and, 157;
Roman Catholicism and, 46–48, 52–53, 175
Marijuana, 186, 188, 190, 193, 198–99
Marley, Bob, 196, 198–200, 211–12
Marriage(s):
Hindu, 179;
Islam and, 179;
legal status of, 85;
by Orisha priests, 140;
by Vodou priests, 116
Martinique, 67, 138, 224n1
Marxism, 9, 101, 166
Mary (queen of England), 72
Mason, Charles H., 137
Masonic ritual, 111–12
Matrilocality, 26
Mayombe (religion), 103
McGregor, Freddy, 198
McKay, Angus, 48
Meirer, Johannes, 56
Mendieta, Ana, 214
Mennonites, 166
Mestizos, 3, 41
Methodist Church:
African Methodist Episcopal Church, 133–34;
Afro-Christian forms of, 131, 133–34;
Christian Methodist Episcopal Church, 133–34;
in colonial era, 79–81, 84, 86, 90;
in Cuba, 164;
Free Methodist church, 161;
in Jamaica, 80;
in Puerto Rico, 160
Middle Passage, 8, 214
Miller, Ivan, 215
Miller, Jacob, 199
Mills, Samuel E., 161
Mintz, Sidney, Worker in the Cane, 168
Misir, Prem, 8, 11–12
Mita (religion), 169–70
Modernism, 100
Monroe Doctrine, 155, 163
Montesinos, Antonio de, 42
Montezuma (emperor of Aztec Kingdom), 66
Montserrat, 67, 70, 89
Moors, and Spanish Crown, 46, 48
Moravians (United Brethren), 78–79;
in Dominican Republic, 161;
governance of, 90–91;
Great Revival and, 131;
in Puerto Rico, 160;
slavery and, 70, 86
Moré, Beny, 215
More, Poncho, 101
Moreno, Juan, 156, 236–37n3
Mourning, 150–52
(p.264) Mowatt, Judy, 200
Murphy, Joseph, 94, 157
Music:
African culture and, 210–11;
gospelypso, 213;
hip-hop, 214;
in Pentecostal churches, 212–13;
ska, 196;
in Vodou, 213–14
Muslims. See Islam
Myal (religion), 122–28, 130–31
National Council of Orisha Elders, 143
Nation dance, 12
Native Baptists, 126–28, 131
Neble, Stirling Augustus, 164
Negro Education Grant, 86
Neoculturation, 103
Netherlands. See Dutch settlements
Nettleford, Rex, 7, 11, 193
Nevis, 67, 70, 80, 224n1
New Testament Church of God, 136–37
Nganga (priests), 61, 104–6
Nicholas V (pope), 182
Niewindt, Matinus J., 68–69
Nitchmann, David, 78
Nkisi (magical object), 104, 106, 130
Nkrumah, Kwame, 194
Nkuyu (ancestors), 130
Noirism (black consciousness), 115
Nonconformists, 71, 77–85, 87
Notre Dame du Perpétuel Secours, 157–58
Nutall, Enos, 90
Nyabinghi Issembly, 192–93, 196–99
Nzaambi Mpungu (God), 130
Nzinga (king of Congo), 59
Obeah (religion), 122–28, 140
Ocasio, Rafael, 51
Oever, Ten, 69
Offshore operations, 6
Ogun (spirit), 62, 94, 141, 144, 214
Ojeda, Alonso de, 67
Oliver, José R., 26–27
Olodumare (creator), 94, 141
Olson, George, 136
Olson, Nellie, 136
Orishas (deities), 51, 94–97, 106, 139–45, 214
Orisha tradition, 101, 139–45, 147, 150, 179
Ortíz, Fernando, 50
Oshun (orisha), 9, 94, 96, 141, 157
Ovando, Nicolas de, 21, 38–39, 42
Oyo Kingdom, 97
La Palma Sola (religion), 215–16
Palmer, Colin A., 5
Palo Monte:
baptism in, 103;
initiation in, 103, 105;
rituals of, 103, 105–6;
syncretism in, 102;
Yoruba traditions in, 102–4
Pané, Ramón, 18, 22–27, 41
Papiamento language, 3
Parham, Charles, 167
Parkinson, James M, 136
Patronal festivals, 49–50
Patterson, Orlando, 8, 122
Patwa. See English patois
Paul, Thomas, 162
Peninsulares, 10
Pentecostal churches, 166–69;
in Cuba, 171;
in Dominican Republic, 170–71;
Espiritismo and, 168;
gender issues in, 218;
in Haiti, 172;
in Jamaica, 173–74;
music in, 212–13;
in Puerto Rico, 158–59, 169–70;
revivalism and, 135–38, 200;
Revival Zion and, 122, 133;
United Pentecostal Church, 172
People’s Nation Party (Jamaica), 187, 198
Péralte, Charlemagne, 115
Pérez, Juan, 31
Perrault, Lawrence, 172
Pétion, Alexandre, 114
Petit, Andrés Facundo Cristos de los Dolores, 103, 107–8
Petroglyphs, 22, 28
Phillippo, James, 81, 123
Phillips, Raglan, 136
Pichardo, Ernesto, 219
Pietism, 78
Pigmentocracy, 58
Pilgrimages, 152, 204
Pinn, Anthony, 208
Piracy, 66, 70
Planno, Mortimo, 194–95, 199
Plantation societies, and slavery, 5, 8–9
Pluralism, social, 9–11
(p.265) Pollard, Velma, 188
Population estimates:
for Africans, 98, 112, 138;
for Amerindians, 37;
for Rastafarians, 201
Possession rituals, 129, 131, 134–35, 142, 144
Presbyterian Church, 77, 86–88, 131, 160, 209
Primitivism, 100
Privateers, 66
Protestantism:
in Barbados, 67, 70–71, 75, 77;
in colonial era, 65–92;
in Cuba, 163–66;
in Haiti, 64, 162;
after 1900, 155–75;
Roman Catholicism and, 158–66, 210;
slavery and, 75–77
Protestant Reformation, 49, 53
Puerto Rico, 2, 118–19, 158–61, 169–70, 210
Pukumina (religion), 132
Purchas, Samuel, 65
Purification spirit rituals, 152–53
Puritans, 71, 77
Quakers, 71, 77, 162, 166
Racial stratification:
in Cuba, 156, 214, 220;
in Haiti, 58
Ramirez, Miguel, 41
Ramsey, Kate, 64
Ras Tafari (king of Ethiopia), 183–84
Rastafarianism, 14, 177, 183–201;
cooptation of, 198–99;
diaspora of, 200–201;
drumming in, 192–93, 211;
gender issues and, 217–18;
history of, 184–86, 193–98;
influence of, 199–201, 206;
population estimates for, 201;
repatriation and, 191, 194–95;
social conventions of, 187–90, 217
Rasvelt, Wigbold, 69
Re-Africanization, 154
Reformation, Protestant, 49, 53
Reggae music, 196, 198–201, 211–12
Reggae Sunsplash (festival), 212
Regla Congo. See Palo Monte
La Regla de Palo Monte. See Palo Monte
Regla Lucumí, 93, 99
Reid, Victor, 194
Reid-Salmon, Delroy A., 208
Religion(s):
Afro-Christian, 121–54;
Afro-Trinidadian, 138–54;
folklorization of, 115;
government support for, 89–90;
legitimation of, 203–6;
religion cruzada, 102;
of Tainos, 22–30;
theoretical perspectives on, 8–14. See also specific religions
Remittances, 6
Renteria, Pedro de, 42
Repartimeintos (redistribution of land), 39
Repatriation, and Rastafarianism, 191, 194–95
Revivalism, 135–38, 168, 187, 200
Revival Zion, 121–22, 131–38, 147
Rey, Terry, 52–53, 62
Rivail, Hippolyte Léon, Denizard, 116–19;
Book of the Spirits, 117;
The Gospel According to Spiritism, 119
Rivera-Pagán, Luis, 209
Roatán Island, 2, 17
Roberts, James Deotis, 208
Rodney, Melvina, 142–43
Rodney, Walter, 197
Rodríguez, Miguel, 27
Rodríguez Rivera, Juan Francísco, 27
Rodríguez y Lorenzo, Isidoro, 56
Roget, Henry Petijean, 28
Rojas Torres, Bernardo, 100
Román, Reinaldo L., 117–18
Roman Catholicism:
Africans and, 43, 50–52, 59–64;
cabildos and, 50–51, 157;
in colonial era, 45–64;
Columbus, C., and, 40;
in Congo, 52, 58–62;
in Cuba, 54, 98–99, 103;
in Dominican Republic, 55–57, 162;
England and, 63;
Espiritismo and, 47;
in Haiti, 57–64;
institutional aspect of, 51–52;
Marian devotions in, 46–48, 52–53, 175;
medieval, 46–48;
after 1900, 155–58;
Orisha and, 139–40, 143;
Protestantism and, 158–66, 210;
Santería and, 204;
slavery and, 57, 68–69, 113;
Spanish Crown and, 45–46, 52;
syncretism and, 46, 61, 158, 203;
Tainos and, 22–23, 34–35, 39–40;
vernacular religious practices and, 45–46, 150;
Vodou and, 53, 61–64, 111–12;
Yoruba traditions and, 58, 219
(p.266) Rouse, Irving, 15–16, 19
Rowe, John, 81, 127
Ruddock, Ella, 136
Saba, 66, 224n1
Sacred Arts of Haitian Vodou (Cosentino), 11, 112–13
Saez, José Luis, 55
St. Croix, 78
St. Domingue, 57–58, 67, 98, 112
St. Eustatius, 66
St. Kitts, 66–67, 70–71, 80
St. Lucia, 3, 70, 88
St. Maarten, 66–67
St. Vincent, 2, 17, 145–46
Sam, Ras, 200
Samá, Lorenzo, 99
Samaroo, Brinsley, 178
Sambia (transcendent God), 104
Sanatan Dharma, 178, 180
Santa Maria (ship), 32
Santángel, Luis, 31–32
Santería, 9, 51, 93–102;
cosmology and ceremonies of, 94–97;
Espiritismo and, 118;
legitimation of, 204–5;
Roman Catholicism and, 204;
social history of, 97–102, 219–20;
Yoruba traditions in, 93–95, 97–99, 204–6, 219–20
Santiago Apóstel (Saint James), 49
Sarmento, Diego, 40
Schlatter, Susan, 136
Schuler, Monica, 125, 127–28
Schwengler, Armin, 104
Seaga, Edward, 199
Secularization, in Cuba, 54
Semaj, Leachim, 200
Seventh-Day Adventists, 215
Shakers, 146
Shamanism, 29
Shango (religion), 94, 139, 141, 179, 206
Sharpe, Sam, 81–82, 126–27
Shearer, Hugh, 193
Sheba, queen of, 183
Shouter Prohibition Ordinance, 140, 147–48
Shrewsbury, William, 83
Silk, Garnet, 200
Sisse, Muhammad, 183
Ska music, 196
Slavery: of Amerindians, 39;
Church of England and, 85–86;
in Curaçao, 67–68, 70;
emancipation and, 84–92, 99, 129, 177;
in Europe, 181;
Moravians and, 70, 86;
Nonconformists and, 83–84;
plantation societies and, 5, 8–9;
Protestantism and, 75–77;
Roman Catholicism and, 57, 68–69, 113;
slave trade, 54, 66, 76, 97–98, 181
Smith, M. G., 9–10, 193
Smith, Rudolph, 173
Social class, 7–8
Social conventions:
of Amerindians, 17–22;
of Rastafarianism, 187–90, 217;
of Tainos, 20–22
Social pluralism, 9–11
Sociedad Espiritista de Cuba, 117
Sociedad Secreta Abakuá, 107–9
Society for the Propagation of the Gospel (SPG), 75–77
Solomon (king of Israelites), 183
Soulouque, Faustin, 114
South Asians, 3, 7, 11–12;
deities of, 140;
diaspora of, 180;
indentureship of, 88, 129, 138, 177–78;
Indian Arrival Day and, 149
Spanish Catholics:
Amerindians and, 15–43;
in colonial era, 30–40
Spanish Crown:
Moors and, 46, 48;
Roman Catholicism and, 45–46, 52
Speaking in tongues, 166–67, 173
Spirit, Blood and Drums: The Orisha Religion in Trinidad (Houk), 145, 147, 150
Spiritism, 103. See also Espiritismo
Spirit rituals:
to facilitate possession, 129, 131, 134–35, 142, 144;
for healing, 144–45;
for purification, 152–53
Spiritual Baptists, 121, 139–40, 144–54, 206
Stapleton, Nina, 136
Stevens-Arroyo, Anthony, 46–47
Stewart, Dianne, 122–23, 208–9
(p.267) Sugar, 4, 6, 59, 98, 112
Surinam, 2, 69, 177, 180
Surrealism, 214
Syncretism:
Baptist Church and, 87;
creolization and, 10;
Palo Monte and, 102;
Roman Catholicism and, 46, 61, 158, 203
Tacky (slave leader), 125–26
Tacky Rebellion, 125
Taino people, 2–3;
ancestor worship and, 24–25;
burial rites of, 29–30;
Columbus, C., and, 15–19, 22, 32–39;
cosmology of, 22–24, 111;
religion of, 22–30;
Roman Catholicism and, 22–23, 34–35, 39–40;
social conventions of, 20–22
Taylor, Patrick D., 12
Tero, Obá, 99
Theology, Caribbean, 207–10, 221
Thomas, Eudora, 146, 150
Thornton, John, 60–61
Tobacco, 6, 18
Tobias, Jeremiah, 148
Tonton Macoutes, 115
Torreira Crespo, Ramón, 54
Tortuga, 67
Trading, illegal, 65–66, 182
Transcendental Meditation, 215
Treaty of Breda, 69
Treaty of Ryswick, 58, 67
Treaty of Tordesillas, 34
Trinidad, 2;
Afro-Trinidadian culture, 138–54;
Church of England in, 88–89;
Hinduism in, 177;
Islam in, 182–83
Trinidad and Tobago, 3, 138–39, 148, 153, 178
Trinitarian order, 63
Trujillo, Rafael, 162, 170
“Trumpet songs,” 135, 147
Turner, Victor, 13
Ubite, Juana de, 40
Ulrich, Anthony, 78
United Brethren. See Moravians
United Pentecostal Church, 172
Universal Negro Improvement Association (UNIA), 185
Urbanization, 168, 173–74
Urban VIII (pope), 63
Vanhee, Hein, 59, 62
Vargas Stein, Teofile, 170
Vedantic philosophy, 178
Velásquez, Diego, 42
Vernacular religious practices, Roman Catholicism and, 45–46, 150
Vespucci, Amerigo, 67
Virgen de la Caridad del Cobre, 9, 49, 156–58, 204, 221
Virgin Islands, 2, 78, 224n1
Vodou, 109–16;
cosmology of, 111;
initiation in, 110;
legitimation of, 205–6;
marriage in, 116;
music in, 213–14;
Roman Catholicism and, 53, 61–64, 111–12;
suppression of, 114, 158, 216;
Yoruba traditions in, 58, 102, 111
Voluntarism, 90
Wailer, Bunny, 212
War of 1812, 146
War of Independence, in Cuba, 156, 163–64
Wesley, Charles, 79
Wesley, John, 79–80
Wesleyan Church, 173
West Indian Evangelical Spiritual Baptist Faith, 148
Whipple, Henry B., 163
William (king of England), 72
Williams, Granville, 153
The Wine of Astonishment (Lovelace), 148
Witchcraft, 108, 123–24, 132
Witte, Juan de, 54
Womanist theology, 207–8
Worker in the Cane (Mintz), 168
World Council of Churches, 166, 207
Wright, Irene, 52
Xaragua, 21, 38
Yemanje (spirit), 141
Yoruba Cultural Association, 204
(p.268) Yoruba Temple, 101
Yoruba traditions:
art and, 214;
gender issues and, 218;
Hinduism and, 179;
Islam and, 181;
Orisha and, 139–41;
Palo Monte and, 102–4;
Roman Catholicism and, 58, 219;
Santería and, 93–95, 97–99, 204–6, 219–20;
Spiritual Baptists and, 146, 150;
Vodou and, 58, 102, 111
Young, Jason, 59–60
Young, John F., 164
Youth for Christ, 213
Zaambi, King (God), 130
Zemis (spirits), 25, 29–30, 225n42
Zinzendorf, Nicholaus Ludwig von, 78
Zombies, 111