This volume is the second in a series on U.S.-China relations in regions of the world where neither country is dominant. This book first looks into the economic and political conditions of Southeast Asian countries including Indonesia, Singapore, Vietnam, Malaysia, Thailand, and Myanmar, and then turns as well to their foreign policies toward outside powers like China, the United States, Japan, and India. The authors examine the diverse patterns of behavior of ASEAN members and the widening North-South split on their policy objectives. ASEAN has divided between links to China, a preferred avoidance of commitment by several states, and quiet, informal relations with the United States. In Southeast Asia there are very substantial differences in operating style among the outside powers as well. This split has limited ASEAN’s ability to form consensus on major policy topics. Besides the United States and China, Japan and India are significant players in the region and in affecting ASEAN’s political choices. The European Union is also a vital actor on economic issues but not a key participant in political or security matters. In sum, China’s rising profile in Southeast Asia provides a challenge to the U.S. role as the dominant outside power. Southeast Asia has become a venue where tensions and U.S.-Chinese competition are rising.