This book presents the fourth collection of the James Madison lectures delivered at the New York University School of Law, offering thoughtful examinations of an array of topics on civil liberties by a distinguished group of federal judges, including Justice Stephen Breyer of the Supreme Court. The result is a fascinating look into the minds of the judges who interpret, apply, and give meaning to the U.S. “embattled Constitution.” This book explores wide-ranging issues. Are today's public schools racially segregated? To what extent can the federal courts apply the Bill of Rights without legislative guidance? And what are the criteria for the highest standards of judging and constitutional interpretation? The book also discusses how and why the U.S. Constitution came to be embattled, shining a spotlight on the current polarization in both the Supreme Court and the American body politic and offering careful and informed analysis of how to bridge these divides.