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Sounds of BelongingU.S. Spanish-language Radio and Public Advocacy$

Dolores Ines Casillas

Print publication date: 2014

Print ISBN-13: 9780814770658

Published to NYU Press Scholarship Online: March 2016

DOI: 10.18574/nyu/9780814770658.001.0001

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(p.207) Index

(p.207) Index

Source:
Sounds of Belonging
Publisher:
NYU Press
1950s, 8, 13, 23, 132
1960s, 15, 55, 105
1976 Démocratie Convention, 170n93
1980s, 15, 17, 20, 53, 60–61, 64, 66, 80, 87–88, 93, 106, 150
1984 Democratie Convention, 80–81
1990s, 7, 17, 64, 88, 93, 102, 106, 131, 172n30
5:00 PM Bulletin Board, 77
“500,000 and No One Called Me?,” 3
accent, 6, 31–32, 50, 89–90, 108, 110
AC Nielsen, 137
Acosta, Dioniso, 35
acoustic:
ally, 6, 24, 50, 150;
appeal, 31;
eues, 108;
effect, 33;
moment, 125;
profiles, 50;
prompt, 111;
representations, 44;
space, 19;
stand–in, 112;
voyage, 33
advertisers, 37, 43, 46–48, 61, 118, 128–31, 135–36, 145–46
advertising, 19, 47–49, 52, 54, 124, 128–30, 132–34, 144–45;
Latinos and, 19, 49;
Spanish–language, 9, 47–49, 110, 131, 137;
spot, 36, 47
Advisory Panel on Essentials for Minority Programming, 63
advocacy, 6–7, 39, 52, 100, 149;
on–air, 24, 39–44, 52, 73, 124;
organizations for, 3, 53, 124
African Americans, 55, 61, 63, 132–35, 138–39, 158n45, 164n89, 177n4
African Ancestral Lesbians United for Societal Change, 173n2
Agencia Radio–difusora Hispanamericana (Spanish American Broadcasting Agency), 35
agricultural fields, 2, 87, 122
agriculture, 9, 42, 151
airwaves, 14–15, 17, 19, 21, 26–27, 35–37, 40–41, 44, 46–47, 52, 55, 59, 63, 69, 71, 92, 99, 110, 112, 125, 151, 173n1;
bicultural, 15;
Mexican–led, 24, 35–37, 44, 151;
morning, 124;
Spanish–language, 1, 3–4, 7, 17, 29, 37, 40–41, 47, 89, 137, 151–52
airways, the, 13, 34–35, 60, 102, 120;
classical music as civilizing force on, 160n21;
lack of inclusiveness on, 62;
male voice over, 19;
Mexican and Mexican Americans and, 50, 53;
public, 40, 50, 53, 62;
right to broadcast on, 40;
wartime, 42
Alarcón, Raúl, Jr., 134–35, 145
Albuquerque, 141
“Alien Process,” 85
Allport, Gordon, 39
Almendárez Coello, Renán, 101–2. See also Cucuy, El
Amaya, Hector, 6
America in the Air, 42
American Border Patrol, 94
American G.I. Forum, 57
Americans, 15, 21, 25, 27–28, 35, 37, 42, 48, 109, 147, 164n89;
normalized as, 89;
Spanish–speaking, 24
Americans All, Immigrants All, 42
Anderson, Benedict, 105
Anderson, Gloria, 63
Ang, Ien, 146
ankle bracelets, GPS, 87, 171n14
anonymity, 5–6, 114;
sound and, 13, 84, 86
(p.208) anxieties, 23, 86, 106, 134;
cultural, 44, 49;
gender, 19, 105–7;
national, 35, 44, 48–49;
political, 40, 147;
racial, 40, 106
Apache, 60
Appeals Court, 55–56
applause tracks, 104, 110–11
Arbitrends, 130
archival:
absence, 13;
data, 165n2;
tapes, 12;
work, 12
Arias, José, 30–31
Arizona, 38, 47, 90, 94, 172n30
Arnheim, Rudolph, 47–49
Asian, 42, 177n44
Asian Americans, 177n4
AT&T, 18, 136
attorneys, guest, 4–5, 17–18, 65, 77, 83–85, 94–96, 99–100, 121–22, 150
audience, 4, 22, 26, 31, 37, 43, 54, 63, 67–68, 75, 77–78, 80, 93, 99, 102, 106–7, 110–11, 122, 128–29, 131–32, 134–35, 138, 144–46, 151–52, 154n8, 167n34;
campesino, 77;
Central American, 105;
data on, 128;
English–language, 13, 21, 26, 127, 142;
evaluation of, 129, 140;
firms of, 74, 129;
industries of, 20, 130, 139–40;
Latino, 43, 142;
measurements of, 19, 64, 128–30, 134, 136, 139–40, 144, 146;
Mexican, 44–46, 50, 105, 163n81;
profiles of, 130, 134;
Spanish–language, 28, 33, 36, 44, 137;
study of, 43, 61;
target, 48;
techniques and, 20, 128–29, 132, 137. See also surveillance
Audience Ratings, 139
audio archives, 12, 14, 160n12
Austin, 86
autobiography, 45, 174n11
Azcârraga, Emilio, 45
Bakersfield, 75
banda, 153–54n6;
border crossing narratives and, 4, 170n1
Bank of America, 75
Bay Area, 127–28, 147
Bayne, Martha Collins, 47–49
belonging, 8, 50;
feelings of, 3;
sites of, 156n30;
sounds of, 150;
Spanish–language and, 6, 16, 46
Belville, Hugh Malcolm, 139
Benamou, Catherine, 14
Berkeley, 65
Bilingual Bicultural Coalition on the Mass Media, 57
Bilingual Broadcasting Inc. (KBBF–FM), 54, 62, 65–72, 74–78, 81, 168n53
bilingual radio, 10, 14–16, 20, 33, 47, 49, 51–55, 64–82, 95, 129, 131, 138–44, 149
Billboard, 128
black radio, 154n8, 157n32, 162n62
Blaya, Joaquin, 131
border agents, 4, 93–94
Border Protection, Antiterrorism, and Illegal Immigration Control Act (HR 4437), 2
Bracero Program, 85, 170n50
brown–collar occupations, 9, 106–7, 151
budgets, 74–75, 94;
cuts to, 86;
low–budget warnings, 92;
shoestring, 16, 53
Buenas Amigas, Las, 173n2
Burbank, 37, 40–41
Burger, Warren, 56
bus, 9–10, 134, 148;
stops for, 9, 113;
tour via, 124
Bush, George W., 80, 109
Caldera, Josefina “La Prieta,” 24
Calderón, Carlos Spector, 95–96, 99
Calderón, Mauricio, 34–35
Calexico, 75
California, 15–16, 19, 22, 35, 39–40, 52, 58, 89, 94, 113, 120, 123–24, 147;
Mexican in, 22, 35, 38, 49, 78–79, 89, 173n1;
primary season of, 1–2;
radio and, 11, 16, 27, 36–37, 40, 45, 47, 51, 53–56, 59, 73–74, 76, 78, 96, 102, 165n2
California Arts Council, 75
California Rural Legal Assistance program, 65
California Senate, 120–22
California State University Fresno, 74
Cambodia, 169–70n89
(p.209) campaigns, 2, 20;
anti–immigrant, 39, 92–93, 151;
immigrant–based, 7, 91;
minority media, 128–29, 173n2;
on–air, 104;
public relations and, 112
Cantril, Hadley, 39
capitalism, U.S., 150;
racism and, 131
Catanzarite, Liza, 9
Catholic Campaign for Human Development (CCHD), 68
Cedillo, Gil, 120–21
Census Bureau, U.S., 15, 177n2;
data from, 36, 137, 142–43, 165n114;
linguistic criterion of, 165n114
Central America, 2, 6, 120, 124–25
Central American:
communities, 175n26;
immigrant women, 19;
listenership, 11, 108;
men, 107, 112;
population, 102, 105
Cepeda, Maria Elena, 154n14, 156n30
charities, 41, 119, 123, 125
Charlotte, 173–74n3
Châvez, César, 2, 59, 72–73, 88
Chicana as a Single Parent, The, 76–77
Chicano media:
activism, 82;
activity, 16;
movement, 16, 54;
projects, 68
Chicano studies, 53
Chicano Youth and the Law, 76–77
Chicanos, 4–5, 15–16, 42, 51–53, 56–59, 63, 79, 169n62;
activism of, 15–16, 20, 52–53;
community organizations for, 53–54, 56–59, 69;
media and, 16, 52–54, 58, 63, 67–68, 82;
Mexican American population as, 53;
movements of, 16, 53–54;
radio and, 42–43, 53–54, 74, 169n65;
sound and, 20
Chihuahua, 34
children, 37, 77–78, 90, 92, 95, 99, 120, 134;
immigrant households with, 36–37, 77–78, 90, 92, 95, 99;
background sounds of, 99;
radio programming focused on, 77–78, 95, 99, 134
Chile, 22
Chinese, 42
chisme (gossip), 4, 154n7
Chocolate, El (“The Chocolate”), 102
Christian Science Monitor, 14, 24, 32
Chualar, 75
citizenry, U.S., 23, 160n11
citizenship, 3–6, 9, 13, 19, 84, 139, 150;
birth–right, 7;
consumer, 50;
cultural, 4, 36, 50, 84;
debates on, 3;
dominant hierarchies of, 20;
dual, 17;
illicit feelings of, 8;
politics of, 3, 40;
struggles over, 99;
U.S. legal, 4, 36, 48, 50, 84
civil rights, 2, 49, 53, 55, 77;
Chicano groups for, 57, 77
Civil Rights Act of 1964, 57
Clean Law Enforcement for Alien Removal Act of 2003, 93
Clinton, Bill, 2, 89, 91
Clinton, Hillary, 2
coalition, 3, 14, 65, 80, 173n2;
broad–based, 166n10;
broadcasters of color, 79–80;
lesbian, 173n2;
Mexican and Mexican Americans, 50;
national, 3;
U.S. and Latin American, 27
Coca–Cola, 45
Cohen, Ed, 140
College Park, 158n51
Collins, Le Roy, 55
Colorado, 56
Columbia University, 25
Comité de México y Aztlán (COMEXAZ) News Monitoring Service, 16, 58, 166n15
commercial radio, 17, 61, 66, 68, 72;
community stations and, 17, 165n2;
economy of, 128;
immigration politics and, 17, 82;
Spanish language and, 81, 88;
urban centers and, 79
commercial–free radio, 15
communities of color, 3, 5, 8–9, 49, 55, 63, 139, 157n32
community:
leaders, 39, 102, 169–70n89;
members, 3, 58
Community Relations Service (CRS), 57–59
Community Services Grant, 67
competitors, 102, 104, 125, 174n5
Congress, 38, 55, 62, 93
conquest, 11, 22, 104
(p.210) constituents, Spanish–speaking, 6, 37, 124, 149, 172n32
construction, 2, 9, 107, 151, 174n11
consuls, Mexican, 23, 35;
vice, 34
consumerism, 39
consumers, 37, 46–47, 47, 75;
citizens as, 3, 50;
exhaustion of, 136;
Hispanic, 49;
Latinos as, 128–29, 135–36;
Mexican population as, 47, 49;
people of color as, 129, 136, 145;
products and services for, 47;
profiling of, 135;
Spanish–dominant, 10;
youth as, 136
consumption, media, 24, 133–34
Corporation for Public Broadcasting (CPB), 16, 62, 95
corporations, 17, 28, 49, 113, 129
Corpus Christi, 86
corridos, 4, 41, 164n85, 170n1
Cortez, Raúl, 42–43
counterpublics, 8, 19, 152
courtship, 156;
American men and, 156n30;
American military and, 156n30;
Mexican women and, 156n30;
Latino vote and, 1–2;
young Latinos and, 156n30
criminal:
charges, 85;
felonies, 148;
record, 87
Cuba, 156n30
Cubans, 11–12, 175n26
Cucuy, El, 1–2, 101–2, 104–25, 147–49, 173n1, 174n5, 174n11;
gender dynamics and, 18–19, 105, 107, 109–25. See also El Cucuy Foundation
cultural capital, 25, 32, 74, 76
Dallas, 120, 127, 148, 173–74n3
Dâvila, Arlene, 19, 177n3
“Decade of the Hispanic,” 17, 137. See also 1980s
dedication, 41, 63, 73, 79, 169n78
Dees, Rick, 104
del Prado, Guido, 51
democracy, 42, 63
Democracy Now, 10
demographics, 12, 54, 79, 91, 128, 136, 144
Denning, Michael, 42
Denver, 54, 57, 133
Department of Homeland Security, 5, 18, 84, 94
Department of Justice, 57
Department of Labor, 38
Department of Migrant Education, 72
Departments of Education and Health, 37
deportation, 38–39, 84,
process of, 88;
voluntary order of, 94
desires, 9, 50, 100
Detroit, 11
dialogue, on–air, 3, 5, 111
diary, 20, 128, 132–39, 143, 177n4;
Hispanic, 144, 177n4
diaspora, 23, 44
Differential Surveys, 137–39
Differential Survey Treatment (DST), 138
disenfranchisement, 4, 11, 139
diversity, 61, 63–64;
celebratory tones of, 42;
monitoring of, 63;
public radio and, 65, 76;
reports on, 76;
state of, 63
doble sentido (double meaning), 110
doctors, on–air, 4–5, 83, 116, 150
Don Cheto, 94
Douglas, Susan J., 18, 106, 111
Douglass, Truman B., 166n7
Down Mexico Way, 27
DVR, 9
East Coast, 11
Educational Television Facilities Act of 1962, 167n37
Edward Murrow Award, 169n78
elections:
board, 70–71;
Latin American, 120, 124;
on–air, 2;
U.S. presidential, 81, 120, 124
electoral politics, 2, 148
El Centro, 75, 172n30
El Cucuy Foundation, 120, 124
El Paso, 46, 86, 96, 99, 172n30, 172n32
El Salvador, 120
employers, 86, 90, 123
English–only:
advocates, 10;
American patriotism, 42;
endeavors, 151;
environment, 9;
policies, 108;
state mandates, 6
Enriquez, Ignacio C., 34
entertainment, 11, 18, 45, 47, 133
Eraña, María, 80
(p.211) Escobar, Wilson Valentín, 153n3
Eskimo, 60
ESL (English as a Second Language), 77, 113
ethnic enclaves, 35, 39, 50
ethnicity, 42, 129, 141, 145;
language and, 129, 141;
Latinos and, 129, 141;
Mexican Americans and, 39
exchanges, 19, 84, 89, 113, 129–30;
business, 34;
cultural, 27, 33–34;
goodwill, 21;
on–air, 5, 14, 113;
Q&A, 84, 91, 95, 98–99;
sexual, 104;
uneven, 32, 50
Fairness Doctrine, 55, 166n6
family, undocumented, 17, 78, 84;
reunification and, 93, 98;
roles and, 107
farmworkers, 2, 53, 73, 88, 122;
Chicano, 53, 169n62;
democracy, 42, 63;
movements of, 16;
radio for, 16, 53, 59–60, 64, 67, 72, 74, 78–79, 82, 88
Fawcett, Keith, 104
Federal Communications Commission (FCC), 7, 10, 16–17, 40, 43, 49, 55–59, 65–66, 158n51; 165n2, 166n10; 172n32
Federal Radio Commission, U.S., 27
Feem koom Xov Tooj Cua, 169–70n89
feminists, 12, 105, 176n36;
anti–, 106;
Chicana, 176n36
feminized:
caste, 107;
labor roles, 19, 122;
perceptions of immigrant men, 112
festivals, 70, 89, 123;
mariachi, 16, 165n2;
Mexican, 120
Fiesta Mexican Music, 24
film, 8, 10, 22, 53–54;
bilingual, 52;
Latin America–centered, 22, 35;
Mexican, 31–32;
silent, 111
folkloric tradition, the, 4, 14;
Mexican, 23;
songs of, 31
Fong–Torres, Ben, 174n5
For America We Sing, 42
Ford Foundation, 66
“Formula for Change, A,” 63–64
Fort Worth, 86
foundations, 67, 75–76;
Chicano–friendly, 67;
decreased support from, 77;
funding from, 16, 62, 65–67
Fox, Vicente, 109
Fraser, Nancy, 8, 19, 157n32
Freedom’s People, 42
Fregoso, Francisco, 170n93
French, 25, 31, 60
frequency, 69, 71;
subsidiary form of, 72
Fresno, 16, 52, 54, 57–58, 60, 74–76, 78–79, 96, 165n2
From Mexico: Festival of Music, 27
Gallegos, Jackie, 91–92
Gannett Foundation, 75
Garcia, Ricardo, 59–60, 71–73, 88
Garza, Eva, 156n30
GED (General Education Development), 113
gender studies, 107
General Motors, 45
geography, 142;
Latin American, 14
global economy, 8, 105, 112
globalization, 8–9, 104–6
“Golden Age of Radio,” 13
Gonzalez, Oscar Reginaldo, 119
Gonzalez, Pedro J., 11, 40–42, 164n85
Good Neighbor Policy, 21–22, 159n2
government, 28–29, 40, 42–43, 48, 62–64, 93, 109, 139, 151, 154n14, 171n15;
account–ability of, 139;
Californian, 40;
commercial interests and, 150;
cuts by, 17;
funding by, 24, 66;
grassroots groups and, 57;
Latin American, 27–28;
male–led, 107;
Mexican, 23, 28–29, 44;
power of, 4;
services of, 147;
U.S., 21, 23, 27–29, 37, 42, 44, 86
governor, 1, 34, 80, 123
Grand Island, 7
Granger, 16
grant writing, 57, 75, 80
grassroots:
actions, 3;
efforts, 52–53, 57;
groups, 16, 57, 65;
organizations, 57, 59, 61;
precursor, 166n15
Guerrero, Julio Caesar, 59, 65, 73–74
Guizar, Tito, 31–32, 162n42
Guthrie, Mary, 127
Gutiérrez, Elena, 166n15
Gutiérrez, Félix, 11–12, 36
(p.212) Hayes, Joy Elizabeth, 23
health care, 78–79, 89, 114;
access to, 7;
clinics for, 90, 124;
culturally specific guidance about, 5;
fairs for, 114;
information on, 71, 79;
officials of, 90;
practitioners of, 76;
radio shows on, 81
Hello South America, 14, 24, 34
hemispheric:
approach, 22;
security, 14;
tensions, 27;
unity, 23, 42, 63
Hendricks, Tyche, 180n1
Hernandez, David Manuel, 171n15
Herrera–Sobek, Maria, 4
Hilmes, Michele, 42
Hispanic Broadcasting Corporation, 173n1
“Hispanic Heritage” episodes, 42
Hispanics, 12, 15, 42, 49, 70, 104, 128, 132–45, 177n4;
households of, 135, 137–38, 142
historians, 41, 158n45;
cultural, 13;
media, 12, 22;
of foreign policy, 22;
home, 44, 50, 68, 99, 102, 107, 109, 113, 125, 132;
shifting notions of, 50;
sounds of, 44
home countries, 31, 47, 50, 104, 107
Home Depot, 7, 108
homeland, 5, 44, 46, 79, 150
homophobia, 103;
innuendos and, 102;
satires and, 173n2
Hoover, Herbert, 38–39
Hora Médica (Health Hour), 76
Hora Mixteca, La, 79
Horowitz, Robert, 55
Horten, Gerd, 163n82
households of color, 20, 132
Houston Chronicle, 172n32
humor, 18, 100, 102;
gender roles and, 109–10;
Latin American mode of, 110;
lowbrow sense of, 110, 120
Husband, Walter W., 38
“Ice Ice Baby,” 94
identities, 8–9, 13, 29, 84–86
Illegal Immigration Reform and Immigrant Responsibility Act (IIRIRA), 91
imaginary, U.S., 23, 154n14;
Spanish–dominant listeners and, 46, 154n14
immigrants, 2–3, 5–9, 18, 23, 38–39, 42, 44, 47, 49, 85–109, 112, 119–25, 148, 171n15
Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE), 87–88, 92–94, 99–100, 171n15
Immigration and Naturalization Services (INS), 42, 86–87
immigration reform, 2–3, 149;
proposals for, 80;
public discourse on, 105
Immigration Reform and Control Act (IRCA), 17, 85
Imus, Don, 106
inclusion, 3, 35, 42, 55, 57, 135
indigenous, 79, 108, 112, 176n36
Inner–City Broadcasting, 133
institutions, 105–6, 154n14;
bureaucratic, 66;
educational, 154n14;
federal, 66;
funding, 82;
government, 154n14;
national, 105;
political, 3,18, 106;
public, 17, 39;
social, 39
International Broadcasting Company, 46
Internet, the, 7, 9–11, 60, 80–81, 95, 156n30, 165n2
interviews, 2, 16, 18–19. 54, 71, 76, 138, 165n2, 176n38;
news, 55, 108–09;
radio, 2, 39, 165n1
intimacy, radio listening and, 13, 84, 111
iPods, 10
Iranians, 8
Italian, 31, 47, 49, 60
Jackson, 55
Jalisco, 80
Japanese, 42
Johnson, Lyndon B., 62
jokes, off–color, 19, 110, 116, 119. See also Cucuy, El
Josephsen, David Lane, 65
Katz Hispanic Media, 144
Katz Radio Group, 129
KBBF–FM, 51, 165n2, 168n53
KCOR, 43
KDNA–FM, 59, 88, 165n2
Kelman, Ari Y., 160n15
(p.213) KELW, 37, 40–41
Kennedy, Edward (Ted), 2, 51–52
KFWB, 28, 36
KHDC–FM, 75
Kheshti, Roshanak, 30
KHJ, 30, 34
King, Martin Luther, Jr., 166n7
KLAX–FM, 101, 143, 146
KMPC, 41
KMPO–FM, 75
KONO, 36
KROM–FM, 93
KSCA–FM, 144–45
KTQX–FM, 75
KUBO–FM, 75, 80
Kun, Josh, 15
Kundandi, Arun, 49
labor market, U.S., 18, 104, 109
labor unions, 3, 40, 46;
officials of, 38
Lancaster, 96
language preference, 140–42;
audience evaluations and, 140;
media choice and, 129;
survey of, 142. See also Arbitron
Laredo, 172n30
Latin America, 6, 14–15, 21–29, 35, 50, 63, 102, 160n12;
aural imaginings of, 22–24, 30, 35, 50;
cinematic production and, 22, 35;
radio signals in, 27–28;
sounds of, 24, 29;
U.S. military interventions in, 22;
U.S. relations with, 32–33, 42, 50, 63, 160n11
Latinas, 11, 19, 24, 40, 103, 109, 113, 117–19, 128, 150, 156n30
Latino men, working class, 18–19, 104–5, 110, 115, 119, 125, 150;
Central American, 107, 112;
immigrant, 106–7, 112;
Mexican, 107, 112;
symbolic penetration and, 119
Latino population, 7, 11–12, 68, 102, 134, 142, 177n3
Latino South, 12
Latinos Inc.: The Making and Marketing of a People (Davila), 19
laugh tracks, 100, 102, 110–11
legal status, 7, 9, 13, 84, 88–91, 121
legislation, 91, 93, 120;
airwaves and, 40;
anti–immigrant, 6–7, 91, 93;
broadcasting, 62;
civil rights, 55;
immigrant, 3, 91, 93, 104, 120
Lesbian Avengers, 173n2
Lewels, Francisco, 53, 57, 59
Limbaugh, Rush, 104, 106
limones verdes (green lime report), 93–94
Línea Abierta (Open Line), 10, 78, 80, 94–96
linguistic profiling, 7, 89–90
listener letters, 16, 24–25, 32, 67, 165n2, 168n53
listenership, 1, 3, 9–11, 20, 26, 37, 44, 60, 82, 90, 104–05, 108, 124, 130, 144, 146, 152;
Central American, 11, 108;
English–language, 32;
Latino, 102, 127;
male, 105;
Mexican–dominant, 5, 11, 36, 40, 44, 79, 108;
multilingual, 13;
working–class, 9, 24
listings, 14, 24, 26–28, 33, 160n12
livelihoods, 3, 6, 87, 120
Longhorn Radio Network, 169n65
Lopez, Alma, 78–79
Lopez, Ana M., 159n2
Lopez, Filemon, 79
Lopez, Jennifer, 156n30
Los Angeles, 1, 7–8, 11, 28, 34–36, 40–41, 45, 54, 80, 89, 91, 94–95, 102, 104, 107, 123, 127, 143–46, 148, 173n1;
as Latino–dominant, 89, 140, 144, 173–74n3;
Central American population of, 102;
Mexicans of, 28, 34, 40, 120;
raids in, 94;
shifting demographics of, 144. See also radio markets
Los Angeles County Commission on Human Relations, 89
Los Angeles Times, 3, 14, 24, 26, 30, 34, 38, 45, 112
Los Angeles Unified School District, 180n3
Lykes, David, 139
(p.214) Madison Square Garden, 22
Madrugadores, Las (Early Risers), 15, 41
magazines, 25–26, 56;
trade, 7, 19, 128
Malcriado, El, 167n21
male rhetoric, 18, 103, 119
malinche, the, 176n36
Mananitas, Las (Mornings), 15
Manzanârez, Magdaleno, 70
Marez, Curtis, 155n25
Mariachi:
festivals, 16, 165n2;
music, 78, 155n16
marianismo, 112, 176n36
Marin, 69
Martin, Maria, 63
Maryland, 158n51
masculine authority, 107, 110–11
Massey, Douglas S., 91
McAllen, 172n30
McChesney, Robert, 166n3
media, English–language, 2, 6, 8, 10, 58, 117, 124, 142, 149
media activists, 40, 53
media habits, 8, 129–30
media industries, 19, 129, 146, 177n3;
African American, 128–29;
mainstream, 53;
Mexican, 44;
Spanish–language, 137, 146
media studies, 13;
Latino, 156n30
medical:
prescriptions, 5;
profession, 25;
rights, 76;
training, 116
Mega Marches, 2
“Memo from South of the Border,” 28
Mendocino, 69
Merrill Lynch, 104
methodologies, 12, 20, 128;
queer, 154n7
metropolises, 173–74n3;
Latino, 80, 173–43n3;
urban, 107
Mexican American Legal Defense and Education Fund (MALDEF), 57
Mexican American Legal Defense and Educations Fund Archives, 16
Mexican American Political Association, 57
Mexican Americans, 8, 35, 37, 50, 53, 58–59;
ethnicity and, 39
Mexican Consulate Offices, 45
Mexican nationalist:
appeals, 47;
codes, 48;
culture, 23;
males, 46;
sentiments, 46;
sustenance, 5
Mexican nationals, 34–35, 85, 92
Mexican Night, 14
Mexican Revolution (1910–1920), 15, 23, 28, 38;
post–, 23
radio–listening and, 14, 23, 31–34, 44–45, 80, 92, 85, 159n1, 160–61n24;
patriarchal nationalism and, 46;
U.S. attitudes towards, 15, 22–23, 29–30, 32–34, 44
Mexico City, 28, 45, 80, 92
Mexico On Air, 14, 34
Miami, 7, 12, 95, 102, 104, 143, 173–74n3
Midwest, 11, 65
Midwest Chicano Media Association, 58
migra, la, 84, 92, 100;
alerts of, 84, 87–88, 91, 93–94
migrana, la (migraine), 94
migration, 8, 44, 91–93, 98, 120, 125;
icons and symbols and, 120, 125;
Mexicans and, 36, 38, 49;
rates of, 105;
Texas to California, 78
Milwaukee, 173–74n3
Minority Producers’ Conference, 64
Minority Tax Break, 64
Minority Training Grant, 67
Miranda, Carmen, 21
Mireles, José, 77
misogyny, 103, 120;
on–air remarks as, 102
Mississippi, 55–56
Mixtecs, 79
mobility, 7, 9, 38, 44, 112, 125
Mocarsky, Thom, 133
Modesto, 75, 80
Molina–Guzmân, Isabel, 156n30
money, 8, 67–68, 72, 75, 102–4, 107, 109, 125;
lack of, 66;
on–air fundraising of, 67, 124–25;
sexist degradation and, 118
Morales, Hugo, 74, 76, 79–81, 169n78
Moreno, Alberto, 65
Morley, David, 5, 44
(p.215) morning show, 4, 102–8, 112–13, 118–19, 123–25, 147–48, 174n11
Mount Saint Helena, 51
Mujeres, 77–78
musician, 14, 31, 41
MySpace.com, 180n3
Napa County, 52, 69
Napoli, Philip, 133, 145
narcocorridos, 78
Nashville, 173–74n3
nationality, 48, 84, 95
National Association of Broadcasters (NAB), 55
National Association of Hispanic Journalists (NAHJ), 166n15
National Council of La Raza, 57
National Federation of Community Broadcasters (NFCB), 61–62, 64–65, 81
National Hispanic Media Coalition, 155n16
National Public Radio (NPR), 10, 62, 158n52, 167n34
National Spanish Speaking Radio Seminar, 58
Native Americans, 80
Nebraska, 7
New Mexico, 1, 141, 173n1
New York, 47
New York City, 7, 11–12, 22, 25, 43, 57, 80, 93, 102, 104, 107, 127–28, 133, 135, 141, 148, 143, 160n15, 173n2
New York Times, 14, 24–25, 27–28, 112
New Yorker, 108–9, 112
newspapers, 14, 18, 25, 27, 36, 38, 58, 85, 87, 128, 159n3, 167n21, 171n11, 172n25;
classified sections of, 25;
English–language, 24–25, 77, 149;
Spanish–language, 36, 40–41, 157n33, 160n12
newsprint, 22, 31
Newsweek, 112
niche, 137, 143, 145;
lucrative male–led programming as, 18;
Mexican–led programming as, 43. See also Spanish–Language Radio in the Southwestern United States
Nielsen Hispanic Ratings System, 137
Nielsen Media Research, 133
Nixon administration, 58
nonprofit organizations, 3, 19, 65, 67–68, 71, 77. 82, 113, 148, 158n51;
adult education center as, 19, 113;
private, 62
“No Más Cruces en la Frontera” (No More Crosses on the Border), 92
Noriega, Chon, 54–56
North Carolina, 7, 173–74n3
Northwest Communities Education Center, 71
Northwest Rural Opportunities (NRO) program, 65, 71
nostalgia, 6, 8, 40, 44–46, 150, 155n25
Noticiero Latino, 80
Oaxaca, 79
Obama, Barack, 2
Office of Communication of the United Church of Christ v. Federal Communications Commission, 55–56
Office of Radio Research (ORR), 46–47
Office of the Coordinator of Inter–American Affairs (OCIAA), 22, 62
Ohio, 59
oral:
histories, 176n38;
tradition, 4–5
organizers, 73;
community, 79, 150;
conference, 58;
on–air, 102
Orozco, Samuel, 80, 90, 95, 98–99]
Other Americas, The, 27
Pan American Nights, 24
Pan–American Radio Station, A, 27
Pan–American Union, 14, 27–28, 160–61n24
Paredes, Américo, 4
Paris By Night, 8
Parker, Everett C., 166n7
Parlee, Lorena, 41
participation, 132–34, 139, 148, 176n38;
African American, 134–35, 177n4;
caller, 83–84;
Hispanic, 134–35, 139, 177n4;
listeners of color and, 133, 177n4;
maleidentified politics of, 125;
women and, 113
Patriot Act of 2001, 93
patriotism, 7, 42, 151
(p.216) peers, 135, 140, 150;
English–language, 20, 145, 150;
Spanish–language, 136;
training programs for, 70
Pegler–Gordon, Anna, 89
pelados, 110–11
Peña, Manuel, 119
Pennsylvania, 27, 38, 96
Pérez, Gina M., 12, 156n30
performance, musical, 31, 37, 44
petitions, community, 55–57;
filed by women and minorities, 56, 166n10. See Federal Communications Commission
Pew Hispanic Center, 107
Pew Research Center, 10, 129
Piolín, El (“Tweety Bird”), 2, 102, 148
Pistolero, El (“The Shooter”), 102, 148
pledges, 17, 60, 67, 75, 77
Polish, 47, 49, 60
politicians, 2–3, 80, 83, 123, 125, 149–50;
Central American, 2;
male, 109;
Mexican, 2, 14, 23;
South American, 14, 33–34;
U.S., 2
pop psychology, 4–5, 18, 102
popular culture, 3;
Mexican, 45–46
Portable People Meter (PPM), 20, 128, 133–36;
African American samples and, 134–35;
development of, 133–34;
Hispanic samples and, 134–35, 137
post–9/11 moment, the, 7, 17, 85, 93
poverty, 78;
increase of, 78;
self–sufficiency and, 68
power, 4, 7, 18, 34, 90–91, 94, 156n30, 157n33;
decision–making and, 58, 111;
discourses of, 117;
enhancement of, 107;
gendered differential of, 111;
hierarchy of, 118;
maintenance of, 107,
purchasing and, 49;
struggles over, 110–11
presidency, 1, 87
pre–television era, 8
prime–time:
shows, 24;
slots, 21, 24
professionals, 63, 150;
male, 99;
media, 129;
third–party, 19;
women, 121
programming, 4,12–14, 25, 27, 36–37, 43, 51–52, 60–62, 64, 66, 70–71, 74–78, 80, 86–87, 107, 119, 150, 165n2, 167n37;
American–sponsored, 23, 50, 161n26;
bilingual, 15, 70, 74–77, 79;
black, 61;
community–driven, 53;
daily, 3;
diversity, 76;
English–language, 13;
foreign–language, 26, 36, 40, 43, 47, 49;
immigration–themed, 17;
Latina/o, 24;
male–led, 107, 112, 119, 125;
Mexican, 23–24, 28, 37, 40, 43–44, 160n11;
morning, 104, 112;
musical, 78, 150;
public affairs, 75;
Spanish–language, 3, 12, 17, 26, 35–37, 39, 45–46, 48–49, 61, 119, 151;
talk–centered, 5 150;
transnational, 24
Proposition 187, 89, 90–91, 171n18
Puebla, 79
pueblo, el (the people), 16
Public Broadcasting Act of 1967, 62
Public Policy Institute of California, 91
public sphere, 5, 8, 35–36, 106, 117
publicity, 86;
), 7;
photos for, 125
Puerto Ricans, 11–12, 42, 154n12
Puerto Rico, 80–81, 95
Q&A shows, 84, 87, 90–91, 94–95, 98–100
Que Buena, 94
Quiñones, Ben, 108, 175n26
race, 13, 19–20, 35, 42, 61, 63, 108–09, 119, 129, 142;
dialogue about, 128;
differences in, 150;
dynamics of, 146;
factors of, 132, 135–36;
fixed pereceptions of, 145;
hierarchies of, 128;
invocation of, 56–57;
markers for, 6, 25;
monitoring of, 57;
role of, 128
racial profiling, 7, 89–91, 93, 112, 135
racism, 128, 131;
anti–immigrant, 13–14, 85;
institutional, 10
radio ads, 14, 48, 92
Radio Advertising Bureau, 142
Radio Bilingüe, 52, 54, 62, 64, 68, 74–76, 78–81, 95, 169–70n89
Radio Cadena (KDNA–FM), 54, 59, 88
Radio Campesina, 59–60
radio executives, Spanish–language, 118, 131, 142–43, 145
radio genres, 12;
male–centered, 116
radio industries, 7, 49, 128, 140
radio listener, U.S., 7, 21, 33, 145–46
(p.217) radio markets, 7, 11, 54, 76, 102, 104, 127, 130–31, 133–34, 143, 145;
Latino–populated, 7, 11, 76, 104, 127, 131, 140, 143, 145. See also Los Angeles
Radio Nueva Vida (101.9 FM), 2, 5
radio personnel, 16, 63–64
radio review, 26, 30–31
radio sets, 4, 25, 28–29, 41, 132, 160n15;
accessibility to, 36
radio shows, U.S., 7, 23–24
radio station, Spanish–language, 3, 7, 9, 85–91, 94, 101, 127, 137, 140–41, 143, 145;
Chicano–owned, 42–43;
Englishversus, 131;
FCC–licensed, 17;
Los Angeles–based, 1, 91, 94, 127;
Mexican regional music and, 107–8;
public, 59
radio studies, 8, 13, 81
radio survey, 39, 49, 177n4
Raleigh, North Carolina, 7
Ramírez, Felipe, 71, 77
Raza, La (97.9 FM), 1, 101
Reagan, Ronald, 87–88
recruitment, 20, 67, 135, 138
refugees, 8, 169–70n89
regional music, Mexican, 107–8, 175n26
regulations, 36, 40, 45, 66
remittances, 5, 107, 109, 124
representations, 16, 19. 59, 63–64;
acoustic, 44;
Chicanos and, 52, 59;
cinematic, 22;
diversified, 8;
employees and, 56, 63;
minorities and, 63–64;
monitoring of, 16, 63–64;
negative, 113;
women and, 19, 63, 113, 118
research, 43, 66, 136, 140, 151;
audience, 61, 129, 132, 139;
dearth of, 46;
ethnographic, 165n2;
population–sensitive methods of, 151;
radio, 46–47, 67, 130, 133;
requirements of, 66;
techniques of, 132
researchers, 16, 136, 138–39;
radio, 39
residency, 17;
permanent, 36, 87, 122;
temporary, 36
respondents, 132, 136, 142
restaurants, 9, 72, 112, 134, 151;
fast–food, 2
Richardson, Bill, 1
Rio Grande Valley, 143
Robles, Daniel, 65
Robles, Sonia, 23
Rodriguez, América, 36, 43–46, 48, 139
Rodriguez, Clara, 165n114
Roosevelt, Franklin, 21, 159n2
Rosaldo, Renato, 4
Rosetti’s Typical Mexican Band, 26
rural:
areas, 16, 52–54, 59, 68, 79, 92, 95, 120;
communities, 52, 54, 65, 82, 88;
counties, 69;
locales, 16, 54, 82;
radio, 16, 27, 52, 65, 74, 76, 80–81;
roads, 52;
society, 46
Sacramento, 68, 123, 147
Salinas, 75
Salt Lake City, 7
Salvadorans, 12
San Antonio, 36, 43, 57, 86, 143
Sánchez, George, 39, 43–44
San Diego, 89, 107, 172n30, 173–74n3
San Francisco, 19, 51, 57, 68–69, 75, 96, 99, 104, 113, 120, 123, 147, 173–74n3
San Juan, 80
Santa Rosa, 16, 51–52, 54, 60, 65–66, 69–70, 79, 165n2
Sassen, Saskia, 18, 91, 104
satellite, 11, 81, 95–96;
radios and, 10;
technology of, 18, 80
Satélite Radio Bilingüe, 80
Savage, Barbara, 42
“Save Our State” (SOS) Initiative, 89
SB 1070, 90
Schaeffer, Felicity A., 156n30
Schmidt Camacho, Alicia, 4
scholars, 2, 8, 91;
Chicano, 16;
communication, 9, 65, 155n16, 157n32;
ethnic media, 8, 12, 155n16;
feminist, 12;
gender; 124;
(im)migration, 106, 124;
Latino media studies, 156n30;
media, 105
schools, 25, 37, 42, 48, 90–91, 108
Schwarzenegger, Arnold, 123
Schwoch, James, 160–61n24
Seacrest, Ryan, 104
Secretary of State, U.S., 25
(p.218) security, 122;
hemispheric, 14;
legal, 100;
national, 7, 93, 105
Selena, 156n30;
drag shows and, 156n30;
queers of color and, 156n30
service sector, 18, 104, 151
sexuality, 19, 100, 104;
masculine, 104, 107, 111;
women’s agency and, 19, 111, 116
Shot in America: Television, the State and the Rise of Chicano Cinema (Noriega), 54
Sierra Club, 51
Silicon Valley, 113
“Singer an American to Own Detriment,” 31
skits, 25, 100, 104
smartphones, 8–9
solidarity, 6, 36, 51;
ethnic, 47–48;
linguistic, 47–48
Sommers, Bill, 143–44
songs, 29–32, 34, 78, 83, 104;
folkloric, 31–32;
Mexican, 31–32, 44–45;
native Oaxacan, 79;
requests for, 5, 41
Sonoma County, 69, 74
Sonoma State University, 51, 69, 77
sound effects, canned, 104, 110–11;
zippers as, 111
sound studies, 13
South Florida, 141
southern:
border, 93;
congregations, 55;
immigrants, 42;
neighbor, 28, 32–33, 50
Southern Pacific Railroad, 45
Southwest, 25, 38, 57, 60, 169n65
Spanglish, 15, 52, 82
Spanish Broadcasting Systems (SBS), 134, 173n1, 173n2
Spanish–Language Radio in the Southwestern United States (Gutíerrez and Schement), 11–12
Speaking of Liberty, 42
speech, 14, 85;
English–language, 1;
sexist forms of, 103
Spencer, Glenn, 94
sponsorships, 36, 41;
business, 35;
commercial, 14
Squires, Catherine, 157n32
Star–Spangled Banner, 31
start–up:
capital, 36;
fund, 62, 65, 72;
grants, 68
state, the, 57, 84, 88, 92, 100;
entities of, 8, 151;
mandates of, 6;
power of, 4, 7, 156n30
station managers, 40, 53, 59, 71–72, 77–78, 88, 94, 127, 165n2, 168n53
statistics, 19, 143, 177n2
Stern, Howard, 104, 106, 146
storytelling, 4;
male, 110
strikes, 40–41
subaltern, 8, 19
Super Martes (Super Tuesday), 2
surveillance, 84, 88–89, 170;
aerial forms of, 93;
audience and, 19–20, 129, 134, 152;
blacks and, 157n32;
border and, 93;
citizens and, 7;
data forms of, 91;
dominant society and, 9;
inverse forms of, 88, 94;
visual–based strategies of, 91, 100
tabloids, 26, 156n30
talk–based formats, 17, 106, 150
teachers, 46, 90, 180n3
technologies, 8, 12, 44, 60
Telecommunications Act of 1934, 62
Telemundo, 137
telephone, the, 18, 85, 94, 109, 114, 132, 135–36;
Hispanic households and, 135;
identity and, 13;
surveys via, 132, 135–36, 144;
taps on, 91;
unlisted number and, 136
television, 8, 10, 13, 53–55, 57, 60, 62–63, 84, 133, 137, 139;
African Americans and, 55;
bilingual, 52;
English–language, 149, 166n15;
Spanish–language, 11, 86, 110, 129, 137, 157n33
Tellez, Manuel C., 34
Tennessee, 173–74n3
tenor, 27, 30–32
Tichenor Media, 139
Tijuana, 42
tone, 94, 99, 108
trade relations, 28, 39
translation, 29, 32, 43
translators, 2, 68;
English–to–Spanish, 3
(p.219) transnational:
activity, 125;
actors, 105;
discourse, 109;
image, 125;
matters, 5;
network, 14, 24;
moment, 19, 102, 125;
movement, 102–03;
order, 125;
perspective, 104;
plane, 107;
platforms, 149;
public, 99;
relationship, 28;
scale, 124;
scope, 152;
studies, 107;
themes, 106
Travel Talk, 162n47
Travelogue: A Trip Through South America, 33
Troyano, Sonya, 31
twentieth century, the, 3, 111, 150, 152, 158n53;
underwriting, 17, 60, 75
undocumented, the, 2, 6, 8, 19, 85, 87, 89, 93, 105, 109, 120, 123, 148;
amnesty for, 87;
driver’s licenses and, 120, 123, 148;
labor demand for, 92;
legal vulnerability of, 105
United Farm Workers (UFW), 59, 72–74, 167n21
United States, the, 1–2, 4–6, 8–9, 11, 14–15, 18, 22–24, 28–29, 32, 34, 46, 50, 81, 85, 93, 95, 102, 125, 130, 150, 152, 160n11, 175n26;
immigrant communities in, 8–9, 11, 44, 85–87, 90, 93, 98–99, 102, 104, 107, 150;
Latino presence in, 2, 4, 5, 6, 11, 23, 36, 74, 108, 146, 148, 152, 175n26;
Mexicans in 4, 15, 22–24, 34–35, 37–38, 41, 44–46, 50, 109, 175n26;
Spanish language use in, 4, 6, 9, 15, 18, 25, 28–29, 32, 43–46, 50, 53–54, 127, 148, 150, 152, 157n33
Univisión, 137, 157n33, 173n1
urban centers, 16, 53–54, 68, 79
U.S. Council of National Defense, 22
U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare (HEW), 69
U.S.–Mexico border, 23, 45, 91, 93, 152
Utah, 7
Vacilón, El (“The Jokester”), 102, 148
Vacilón de la Mañana, El, 173n2
Vaillant, Derek, 166n3
Vanilla Ice, 94
Villa, Pancho, 41
Villa, Rafael, 30
Virgin Mary, 112
Visalia, 73, 76, 165n2
vocal body, 111–12, 156n30
voice, 13, 84, 86, 95, 102, 108, 111;
body and, 18–19;
men and, 3, 19, 30, 92, 150, 82;
women and, 19, 92, 98, 115–16, 125, 151
volunteers, radio, 16, 52, 66, 69–70, 74;
training for, 75
vote, the, 2, 132;
Latino, 2, 124;
Latin American, 124;
on–air, 2;
registration for, 124;
turnout and, 120
Voz del Campesino, La (The Farmworker’s Voice), 52
WABC, 32
Wall Street Journal, 14, 24, 85
war, 42–43, 62
Washington (state), 11, 16, 52–54, 56, 59, 71, 88, 94, 165n2
Washington, D.C., 27, 58, 80, 149
Washington Post, 14, 24, 27, 31, 34
WBLS–FM, 133
West Coast, 5, 11–12, 53
Western Community Bilingual Broadcasting Inc., 80
Western Union, 18
Williams, Raymond, 33
WLBT, 55–56, 166n7
Women’s Training Grant, 67, 75
World War II, 42–43
WRC, 27
XEW, 45
Yakima Valley, 52, 54, 59–60, 65, 71–73, 77, 79, 88, 165n2
Yiddish radio listeners, 160n15
youth, 67, 79;
English–dominant Hispanic, 142
Zavella, Pat, 12, 157n41, 167n2, 176n36 (p.220)