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Fashioning FatInside Plus-Size Modeling$

Amanda M. Czerniawski

Print publication date: 2015

Print ISBN-13: 9780814770399

Published to NYU Press Scholarship Online: September 2016

DOI: 10.18574/nyu/9780814770399.001.0001

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(p.197) Index

(p.197) Index

Source:
Fashioning Fat
Publisher:
NYU Press
Abercrombie & Fitch, 44, 136, 143
acting:
author’s past as actor, 3, 23, 102, 104–105, 117;
models and, 40–41
Actors’ Equity, 125–126, 178n9, 179n16
advertising, 40, 44, 64–65, 70, 114, 118, 162;
for lingerie, 146, 149–157;
of model searches, 44
aesthetic economy, 177n3
aesthetic labor process, 22–23, 26, 32–33, 73–74, 93, 103, 124, 158, 163–165, 167, 169
aesthetic professionals, 71, 105, 111, 118, 167, 175n36
aesthetics, 1, 11–12, 14, 16–19, 21–23, 32–33, 67, 71, 74, 86, 90, 97, 119, 131, 142, 157, 162, 165–166, 169–172, 174n13, 175n24;
of brands, 146–147;
of fat, 20, 22
affective labor, 22, 74–78, 80–81, 101, 104, 107–108, 146. See also emotional labor
African Americans:
and body image, 17, 48;
as models, 28, 31;
representations of, 18. See also race
age and modeling, 28, 54, 118, 126, 168, 174n13
agencies,;
accounting practices, 120;
boutique type, 31, 111, 115, 123;
commissions and, 99, 111, 120–122;
contracts with, 4, 40, 84, 111, 120–123;
fees, 111, 121;
full-service, 110;
scheduling and, 27, 106, 117, 119–121. See also specific agencies
agents, 27, 30–32, 36, 46–47, 63, 65, 67, 69, 85–86, 90, 98–99, 111–113, 115, 120, 166, 169, 176n44;
as gatekeepers, 33, 107–108;
as mentors, 84, 103, 108, 117;
as middlemen, 121;
negotiations with clients, 114;
open calls and, 3;
as recruiters and scouts, 41, 67, 74, 80, 107;
relationships with, 103–106, 116–118, 122–123;
as tastemakers, 99, 162–163
Alley, Kirstie, 61
America’s Next Top Model, 55, 57–58, 77
Angellika, 83, 134–135
anorexia, 51
anti-fat bias, 11
appetites, 12, 62, 90
Aronson, Emme, 45
asexual, 11, 149
Ashley Stewart, 30, 134–135
Association of Model Agents, 125
auditions, 3, 35, 40, 62, 80, 82–83, 104, 114, 117. See castings
Avenue, 135, 145;
Avenue Body, 145, 150
backstage labor, 22, 33, 158. 164
Bakhtin, Mikhail, 162
Banks, Tyra, 56–57, 77
Banting, William, 5
Bartky, Sandra, 17
Baudrillard, Jean, 163
Beauty Myth, The (Wolf), 17
beauty, 2, 16–18, 20, 23–24, 32–33, 39, 44, 48–49, 52, 69, 73, 79, 102, 108, 110, 125–127, 129, 149–150, 155, 157, 163, 165, 171–172;
ideal, 67, 136, 143, 170, 174n10;
as social construction, 32, 34, 66, 70, 85, 90, 99, 103, 158, 162
Becker, Anne, 48
Becker, Howard, 177n1
(p.198) Bernstein, Beth, 60
Bertinelli, Valerie, 61
Big Sexy, 97, 129
binge eating, 91–92, 96, 99
blacks:
and body image, 17, 48;
as models, 28, 31;
representations of, 18. See also African Americans
Blum, Virginia, 20
bodies:
awareness of, 2, 52, 72–73, 77, 89;
cultural meaning of, 5–6, 10–12, 16–18, 20–21, 24, 26;
discipline of, 17, 23, 26, 37, 85, 87, 95, 105, 163–164, 173n3;
discontentment with, 18;
feelings of pride with, 14, 21, 162, 166;
feelings of shame with, 21, 25, 33, 37, 39, 47–49, 86, 96, 149, 155, 162;
management of, 12, 23, 87, 91–92, 162, 169;
productive, 85;
proportionality of, 66, 108;
subjected, 85;
utility of, 88, 163, 166
body ambassador, 83, 120
body capital, 23, 33, 41, 87–92, 103, 115, 162–164
body mass index (BMI), 6, 173n5
body projects, 16–17, 23, 33, 74, 98, 103, 118, 164;
failed, 11
book (portfolio), 2, 26–27, 37, 101, 106, 110, 112, 116
bookers, 27, 66, 84, 107, 120. See agents
booking board, 9, 103, 115–116
Bordo, Susan, 5, 86
Bourdieu, Pierre, 16, 88
brand ambassador, 146
brand spoilage, 132, 135–137
breasts, 18, 20–21, 88, 132, 149, 155, 165, 169
British Fashion Council, 125
Bryant, Lena, 133
Bush, George W., 10
Butler, Judith, 85
Cabiria Style, 46, 143
Cacique, 131–133, 150, 152, 157
Campaign for Real Beauty (Dove), 129–130
capital:
athletic physical, 88;
body, 23, 33, 41, 87–92, 103, 115, 162–164;
economic, 16, 88;
model physical, 23, 89,-91, 97, 99, 105,164;
physical, 88, 92, 105
carnal sociology, 25
castings (auditions), 3–4, 26–28, 42, 44–45, 51–52, 61–62, 66, 68, 79–80, 82–84, 90, 93–94, 98, 104, 106, 111–123, 127, 146, 171–172;
open calls, 2–4, 24, 27, 30–31, 37, 42, 44, 68, 73, 78, 80–81, 86, 104, 111
celebrity wasting syndrome, 60
Cello clothing line, 140
chance and modeling, 41, 43, 53, 67, 88, 108, 115, 120, 171;
rejection and, 26, 108, 115–116, 124, 168, 169, 172
Chanel, 58–59, 135
Cherished-Woman.com, 142
Chico’s, 135–136
clients, fashion:
as tastemakers, 32, 67, 99, 105, 107–108
Coco & Juan, 139
commercial persona, 163, 180n5
composite card, 27, 86, 101, 103, 106, 109–111, 115–116
compulsive exercising, 91–92
confidence, 24, 52, 62, 72, 83, 104, 124, 162, 170, 172
consumer object, 163
consumers, 33, 69, 99, 127, 133, 142, 146147, 149–150, 155, 158, 162
contractors, independent, 121, 125
controlling images, 10–12, 14, 76
corporal discipline, 26, 37, 87, 164
cosmetic panopticon, 18–19, 86
cosmetic surgery, 17–20, 123
Council of Fashion Designers of America, 168
couture, Parisian haute, 137
Cult of California, 137
cult of health, 17
cultural field, 165
(p.199) cultural goal of becoming photograph-able, 162
curves, 5, 21, 30, 37, 39, 48, 56, 62, 69–70, 90, 102, 127, 129, 131–132, 135, 142, 149155, 158, 162, 165, 166, 169
Curvy Couture, 153
Curvy Fashionist, 143
Curvy Girls, 129
D’Amour, Velvet, 32, 51–55, 62, 66, 108, 137, 167–168
Dahl, Sophie, 140
dancers:
burlesque, 20;
exotic, 88, 165
Davis, Kathy, 26
Dean, Deborah, 114
department stores, 28, 40, 43, 94, 112, 138, 140
designers, 3, 27, 33, 42, 46, 52–53, 63, 68, 94, 99, 112, 114, 127, 131–132, 134–140, 142–144, 149, 162, 168, 170. See also specific designers
Designs by Lanie Inc., 140
DeVoe, Gwendoyln, 68, 89
dieting, 48, 53, 91, 99, 164
Dillon, Kate, 14, 45, 140
Dillon, Liz, 138
disciplinary power, 86
discipline, bodily, 17, 23, 26, 37, 85, 87, 95, 105, 163–164, 173n3
disembodiment, 16, 19–20, 23, 77, 124, 164–165
diversity:
of bodies and looks, 49, 110, 166, 168;
of race, 18, 49
do looks, 85, 171
docile bodies, 86, 99, 164
Doneger Group, 135
eating disorders:
anorexia, 51;
binge eating, 91–92, 96, 99;
compulsive exercising, 91–92
Elle magazine, 58
embodiment, 6, 21, 22–23, 25, 33, 73, 77, 86, 164, 171;
illusion of, 163–165
emotional labor, 74, 76, 81, 83–84, 130
empowerment, 23, 33, 49, 99, 155, 162, 170
Entwistle, Joanne, 74
ethnic diversity, 18, 49
ethnography, 4, 25–26, 41, 88, 147,
exercise, 4, 17, 47, 59, 85, 87, 90–92, 96, 99, 105, 164–165
fantasy, 125, 127, 132, 136, 150, 153, 155, 165
Farrell, Amy Erdman, 5, 14
fashion:
as fantasy, 125, 127, 136, 163, 165;
as spectacle, 67, 161, 163
Fashion Institute of Technology, 139
Fashion Law Institute, 126
Fashion Week:
Full Figured, 68;
London, 126, 168;
Madrid, 168;
Milan, 44, 115;
New York, 46, 68, 115, 143–144;
Paris, 46;
Pulp, 46
fat:
acceptance of, 48, 120, 147, 157, 172;
commodification of, 106, 114, 120;
cultural discourse of, 14, 22, 49, 102, 149, 157, 162, 164, 171, 175n24;
discrimination of, 11–12, 60;
fear of, 61, 127, 132, 135;
fetishized, 12–14;
stereotypes of, 11, 49, 55;
stigma of, 5, 12, 20, 22, 26, 30, 37, 47, 61, 69, 78–79, 124, 131, 135, 149, 155, 162164, 166, 171–172, 177n1, 181n8;
studies of, 5, 11, 20, 25, 124, 164, 173n1, 173n5, 176n37;
theatricality of, 20–21, 23
fat activists, 14, 20–21, 64
Fat Shame, 5
Ford Models, 45, 69, 113, 138, 145
Foucault, Michel, 85–86
freelance work, 4, 37, 39, 41, 44, 86–87, 105, 111, 114, 122, 166
front stage behavior, 33
“girl,” colloquial use of, 14, 21, 36, 40, 46–47, 61, 65–70, 80, 83, 90, 96, 102, 106, 114, 116, 129, 147, 155, 166
(p.200) Galliano, John, 51
gatekeepers, 33, 107–108
Gaultier, Jean Paul, 51–52, 59, 137, 168
gaze, the, 16, 26, 85, 87, 98, 118;
internalized, 85–86, 173n3;
male, 157
Geertz, Clifford, 1
gender, 2, 20, 23, 86, 88, 162–164, 170;
doing, 85;
performativity, 85;
as social construction, 5, 16, 18
Giddens, Anthony, 21
Glamour magazine, 14–15, 58, 60
gluttony, 11–13, 173n2
go native, 1
go-sees, defined, 27
Goffman, Erving, 12, 37, 166, 174n20
Graham, Ashley, 14, 44, 129
Graham, Sylvester, 5, 173n2
grotesque body, 162
Gruys, Kjerstin, 147–148
Gun, Tim, 138
habitus, 88, 105, 178n2
Hamilton, Filippa, 7–8
Harper’s Bazaar, 58
hegemony, 18, 127, 143, 171
heteronormativity, 21, 157–158, 164
hips, 2, 18, 20, 38, 56, 65, 82, 89–90, 96, 149, 165, 169, 171, 174n10
Hips and Curves, 146, 150–151, 154
Hochschild, Arlie Russell, 74
Hudson, Jennifer, 59–61
Hungry (book), 58
identity, 20, 25–26, 131, 175n22, 175n36, 176n1;
class, 16;
gender, 16, 85–86;
social, 12, 37, 48, 62, 86, 165, 175n21
IGIGI, 143
IMG Models, 70
impersonality, 37, 73, 81–82
independent contractors, 121, 125
insecurity, 24, 26, 39, 47, 73, 78–80, 83, 86, 124–125, 171
insider, 24, 26, 30, 37, 38, 42, 48
intimate apparel, 113, 131–132, 145, 149, 157. See also lingerie
Intimates by Venezia, 131
Jablonski, Jaquelyn, 121–122
JAG Models, 69–70
Jeffries, Mike, 136
Jenny Craig, 61
Jones, Madeline, 59
Kim, Dual, 124
Klum, Heidi, 104
Korshunova, Ruslana, 124
labor:
affective, 32, 74–78, 80–81, 101, 104, 107–108, 146, 165;
backstage, 22, 33, 158, 164;
emotional, 74, 76, 81, 83–84, 130;
front stage, 33;
physical, 22, 33, 74, 84, 158, 165
labor unions, 123–126
Lacerda, Fluvia, 44
Lagerfeld, Karl, 135
Lane Bryant, 46, 58, 64, 113, 129, 131–135, 137, 139–141, 143, 145
Latina:
and body image, 48–49;
as models, 28, 31;
representations of, 18. See also race
Laurel, Larissa, 89
Lawley, Robyn, 44
LeBesco, Kathleen, 21, 175n36
Lemert, Edwin, 176n1
Limited, The, 134;
Eloquii, 142
lingerie, 21, 93, 117, 129, 131–134, 145–58, 166. See also intimate apparel
(p.201) Lord & Taylor, 138
losing weight, 39, 49, 53, 58–59, 63, 65, 91, 94–96, 108, 113
Luscious Plus Lingerie, 147–148, 153, 155
Lynn, Tara, 44, 58
magazines, 3, 7, 10, 12, 14, 18, 28, 36, 48, 58, 63–65, 69, 110, 115, 155, 168–169. See also specific titles
management:
of body, 12, 23, 87, 91–92, 162, 169;
of models, 103, 105–106, 120,
marginalization, 14, 162, 172
market segmentation,143
marketability, 66–67, 91, 96, 99, 105–106, 108, 110, 158, 162, 164, 167, 170, 175n24
masculine domination, 17, 175n36
Mears, Ashley, 107, 118, 175n31
measurements, body, 2, 5–6, 9, 27, 56, 63, 85–87, 89, 94, 97, 99, 118, 162, 164, 169, 173n4, 174n10, 174n13, 178n11
Miller, Eden, 46, 143–144
Miller, Lizzie, 14–15
Millman, Marcia, 19
Miro, Elena, 44, 58
Mode magazine, 65
Model Alliance, The, 126
model physical capital, 23, 89–91, 97, 99, 105, 164
models and modeling:
as aesthetic workers, 74, 88, 146;
age, 28, 174n13;
catalogue, 28;
of color (see ethnic diversity; race);
commercial, 28, 110;
editorial, 110, 115;
failed, 37, 39, 178n5;
fit, 28, 93–95;
freelance, 111;
as independent contractors, 121, 125;
as objects, 20, 26, 34, 37, 125;
plus-size, 7, 9;
rates, 94;
runway, 28;
showroom, 28;
signed, 115;
straight-size, 9, 24, 28, 37–39;
unsigned, 115. See also specific models
Monif C., 46
Munster, Tess, 125
Murphy, Alexandra G., 88
Murray, Samantha, 21, 157
National Association to Advance Fat Acceptance (NAAFA), 65
niches, 2, 12, 46, 49, 62, 83, 127, 149, 157
NPD Group, 134, 136
Obama, Michelle, 10
obesity:
crisis, 10;
definition, 6–7, 173n5
objectification, 20, 26, 34, 37, 125
observing participant, 24, 27, 30
open calls, 2,-4, 24, 27, 30–31, 37, 42, 44, 68, 73, 78, 80–81, 86, 104, 111
overweight, 5–7, 9, 136, 173n3
padding, 64–67, 89, 99, 164, 169
participant observation, 24, 27, 30
paternalism, 103, 106, 116
performance:
of fat, 20–21, 33, 155;
in modeling, 52, 72, 74, 76, 79, 85, 88
performers, 39–41, 45, 105, 165;
theatrical, 76–77
photo shoots, 2, 7, 26, 35, 37, 56, 65, 71, 73, 75–80, 89, 101–102, 106, 108–113, 116, 118, 126–127, 146
physical labor, 22, 33, 74, 84, 158, 165
physical strategies, 99, 164
pinup girls, 14, 155–156
Plus Academy, The, 89
PLUS Model Magazine, 14, 83, 89
plus size:
defined, 7, 9;
in fashion, 7, 9;
in retail, 9
Plus Size Designers Council, 138–139
Plus Size Plum Lingerie, 145, 147–148
Polaroid, 81
portfolio (book), 2, 26–27, 37, 101, 106, 110, 112, 116
(p.202) power:
aesthetics and, 21, 86;
consumers and, 127, 139;
cultural institution and, 24, 85–86, 103, 115, 162;
representation through the body, 6
prestige, 63
Pricing Beauty, 106
proofs, 80, 89, 101, 109
Queen Latifah, 61
Quinn, Sharon, 64, 67
race:
body ideals and, 6, 17–18, 48–49;
exoticism and, 18;
fashion industry and, 28, 31. See also ethnic diversity
Ralph Lauren, 7–8
Ramirez, Sara, 129
Ramos, Luisel, 51, 167, 177n1
ready-to-wear apparel, 132, 174n10, 178n11
recruitment:
former, 38–39;
outsider, 40–43;
performer, 39–40;
scouting, 41, 53, 106–107, 145–146;
self-promoter, 43–44;
typology of, 37–38
rejection:
of fat stigma, 18, 155;
in modeling, 26, 108, 115–116, 124, 169, 172
Renn, Crystal, 12–14, 21–22, 32, 38, 44, 58–60, 69
representation of bodies:
class and, 26–28;
fat and, 5–16;
gender and, 2, 5, 16, 18, 20, 23, 85–86, 88, 162–164, 170;
race and, 6, 17–18
Reston, Ana Carolina, 51, 167, 177n1
retailers, 9, 43–45, 63, 68–69, 132, 134–140, 143, 145–150, 153, 155, 157;
resistance by, 132–139. See also specific brands
Richardson, Terry, 12–13
Rocha, Coco, 7
Rocky Mountain Clothing Co., 142–143
Runk, Jennie, 14, 44
Sauers, Jenna, 124
Scafidi, Susan, 126
schedules, 27, 45, 62, 82, 109, 111, 117, 119–121
Schuller, Catherine, 143–144
scouts and scouting. See recruitment
Screen Actors Guild (SAG), 39, 178n9
scrutiny, 37, 58, 98, 118
Sculptresse by Panache, 155–157
Seventeen magazine, 56–57, 159
sex work, 88
sexual agency, 20
sexuality, 16, 18, 149–150, 163
shapewear, 47
sin by omission, 21
size acceptance, 48, 120, 157, 172
size:
of models, 9–10, 28;
in retail, 9–10, 143–144;
vanity, 9
size discrimination, 11–12, 60
skinny backlash, 67–68
skinny vision, 127, 135
slenderness as ideal, 2, 11, 14, 16, 18–19, 21, 23, 30, 33, 39, 49, 59–61, 66–67, 69, 79, 136, 149, 162, 174n10, 175n24, 181n8
smizing, 77
social identity, 12, 37, 48, 62, 86, 165, 175n21
social status, 5–6, 16, 62, 83, 163, 174n14
Solovay, Sondra, 60
Spanx, 47, 89, 93, 169. See also shapeware
spoiled identities, 166, 175n22
St. John, Matilda, 60
stigma, 5, 12, 20, 22, 26, 30, 37, 47, 61, 69, 78–79, 124, 131, 135, 149, 155, 162–164, 166, 171–172, 177n1, 181n8
Stinson, Kandi, 25
suicide, 124–125
surveillance, 25–26, 86–87, 99, 164
SVOBODA, 142
tape measure, 23, 85, 87, 99, 164–165, 171
Target, 46
taste, 16, 105, 107–108, 140
(p.203) tastemakers, 24, 34, 99, 102, 105, 127, 165, 176n44. See also agents: as tastemakers
technologies of control, 23, 99, 164
test shoots, 37, 71, 89, 101, 103, 106, 108–111, 116
thin privilege, 11, 14, 21, 30, 33, 59, 67, 97, 119, 131, 142
thinness, 2, 11, 14, 16, 18–19, 21, 23, 30, 33, 39, 49, 59–61, 66–67, 69, 79, 136, 149, 162, 174n10, 175n24, 181n8. See also slenderness as ideal
thinness, as master status, 175n24, 181n8
Thomas, Patti, 11, 14
Thompson, Whitney, 32, 55–58
thought collective, 162
tokenism, 30–31
Torrid, 44, 134
Turner, Bryan S., 88
Tyler, Mia, 140
Unbearable Weight, 5
uncertainty, of work, 42, 84, 107–108
underground modeling market, 112–113, 115
unions, 123–126. See also specific unions
unpredictability:
in scheduling, 27–28, 81, 171;
success and, 108, 171
V Magazine, 31–32
Venezia Jeans, 150–151
Victoria’s Secret, 131–133, 149, 157
Vogue magazine, 12–13, 45–46, 58, 124, 126
voiceless bodies, 16, 23, 34, 82, 169–170
Wacquant, Loic, 25, 87–88
wages, in fit modeling, 94
Wainwright, Steven P., 88
Wal-Mart, 46, 75, 134
Wall-E, 10–11
Wann, Marilyn, 60
Ward, Gemma, 7
Weiner’s department store, 140
weight:
over-, 5–7, 9, 136, 173n3;
under-, 5, 17, 136, 173n3. See also obesity
weight bias, 11, 49
Weight Watchers, 59
Wesely, Jennifer K., 88
Wilhelmina Models, 113, 145
Winfrey, Oprah, 58, 129
Wissinger, Elizabeth, 74, 81
Wolf, Naomi, 17
women:
of color (see race);
disembodiment of, 16, 19–20, 23, 77, 124, 164–165;
empowerment of, 23, 33, 49, 99, 155, 162, 170;
as models (see models and modeling);
objectification of, 20, 26, 34, 37, 125
Women’s Wear Daily magazine, 93
x factor, 74
youth:
and beauty, 48–49, 110;
market, 131, 134, 136, 139–140, 149
Zeltser, Yuliya, 143–144
zero, size, 7, 24, 67, 129, 142, 168, 174n13. See also slenderness as ideal
Ziff, Sara, 126–127 (p.204)