Jump to ContentJump to Main Navigation
Embodiment and the New Shape of Black Theological Thought$

Anthony B. Pinn

Print publication date: 2010

Print ISBN-13: 9780814767740

Published to NYU Press Scholarship Online: March 2016

DOI: 10.18574/nyu/9780814767740.001.0001

Show Summary Details

(p.185) Selected Bibliography

(p.185) Selected Bibliography

Embodiment and the New Shape of Black Theological Thought
NYU Press

Bibliography references:

Althaus-Reid, Marcella. Indecent Theology: Theological Perversions in Sex, Gender and Politics. New York: Routledge, 2000.

Ambler, Charles H. Kenyan Communities in the Age of Imperialism: The Central Region in the Late Nineteenth Century. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1988.

Anderson, Victor. Beyond Ontological Blackness: An Essay on African American Religious and Cultural Criticism. New York: Continuum, 1995.

——— Creative Exchange: A Constructive Theology of African American Religious Experience. Minneapolis: Fortress Press, 2008.

Arthur, Linda B., ed. Religion, Dress and the Body. New York: Berg, 1999.

Baker, Houston A., Jr. Afro-American Poetics: Revisions of Harlem and the Black Aesthetic, Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin Press, 1988.

Baker-Fletcher, Garth. Somebodyness: Martin Luther King, Jr., and the Theory of Dignity. Minneapolis: Fortress Press, 1993.

———, ed. Voices on the Future: Black Religion After the Million Man March. Maryknoll, NY: Orbis Books, 1998.

Baker-Fletcher, Karen. Sisters of Dust, Sisters of Spirit: Womanist Wordings on God and Creation. Minneapolis: Fortress Press, 1998.

Baldwin, James. Go Tell It on the Mountain. New York: Grosset and Dunlap, 1953.

Black, Paula. The Beauty Industry: Gender, Culture, Pleasure. New York: Routledge, 2004.

Blassingame, John D., ed. Slave Testimony: Two Centuries of Letters, Speeches, Interviews, and Autobiographies. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1977.

Bearden, Romare, and Harry Henderson. A History of African-American Artists From 1792 to the Present. New York: Pantheon Books, 1993.

Bernauer, James, and Jeremy Carrette, eds. Michel Foucault and Theology: The Politics of Religious Experience. Burlington, VT: Ashgate Publishing Company, 2004.

Bohm, David. On Dialogue. New York: Routledge, 1996.

Bordo, Susan. The Male Body: A New Look at Men in Public and Private. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 1999.

———. Twilight Zones: The Hidden Life of Cultural Images from Plato to O. J. Berkeley. University of California Press, 1999.

———. Unbearable Weight: Feminism, Western Culture, and the Body. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1993.

Brent, Linda. Incidents in the Life of a Slave Girl: An Authentic Historical Narrative Describing the Horrors of Slavery as Experienced by Black Women. New York: Harvest/Harcourt Brace Jovanovich Publishers, 1973 [1861].

Butler, Judith. Bodies That Matter: On the Discursive Limits of “Sex.” New York: Routledge, 1993.

(p.186) Camus, Albert. The Myth of Sisyphus and Other Essays. Translated by Justin O’Brien. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1969.

Caplan, Pat, ed. The Cultural Construction of Sexuality. New York: Tavistock Publications, 1987.

Carby, Hazel V. Race Men. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1999.

Carr, David M. The Erotic Word: Sexuality, Spirituality, and the Bible. New York: Oxford University Press, 2003.

Carrette, Jeremy R. Foucault and Religion: Spiritual Corporeality and Political Spirituality. New York: Routledge, 2000.

———, ed. Religion and Culture: Michel Foucault. New York: Routledge, 1999.

Carter, J. Cameron. Race: A Theological Introduction. New York: Oxford University Press, 2008.

Castronovo, Russ. Beautiful Democracy: Aesthetics and Anarchy in a Global Era. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2007.

Chireau, Yvonne, and Nathaniel Deutsch, eds. Black Zion: African American Religious Encounters with Judaism. New York: Oxford University Press, 2000.

Clarke, Graham. The Photograph. New York: Oxford University Press, 1997.

Coleman, Monica. Making a Way Out of No Way: A Womanist Theology. Minneapolis: Fortress Press, 2008.

Cone, James. A Black Theology of Liberation, 2nd ed. Maryknoll, NY: Orbis Books, 1986.

———. God of the Oppressed. New York: Seabury, 1975.

———. The Spirituals and the Blues. Maryknoll, NY: Orbis Books, 1972.

Cone, James, and Gayraud Wilmore, eds. Black Theology: A Documentary History. 2 vols. Maryknoll, NY: Orbis Books, 1993.

Cooey, Paula M. Religious Imagination and the Body: A Feminist Analysis. New York: Oxford University Press, 1994.

Craig, Maxine Leeds. Ain’t I a Beauty Queen? Black Women, Beauty, and the Politics of Race. New York: Oxford University Press, 2002.

Cronon, William, ed. Uncommon Ground: Toward Reinventing Nature. New York: W. W. Norton, 1995.

Damasio, Antonio. The Feeling of What Happens: Body and Emotion in the Making of Consciousness. New York: Harvest Books, 1999.

Danto, Arthur C. The Abuse of Beauty: Aesthetics and the Concept of Art. Chicago: Open Court, 2003.

———. After the End of Art: Contemporary Art and the Pale of History. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1997.

———. The Body/Body Problem: Selected Essays. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1999.

———. The Philosophical Disenfranchisement of Art. New York: Columbia University Press, 1986.

———. Philosophizing Art: Selected Essays. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1999.

D’Emilio, John, and Estelle B. Freedman. Intimate Matters: A History of Sexuality in America. New York: Harper and Row, 1988.

Desai, Ram. Christianity in Africa as Seen by the Africans. Denver: Alan Swallow, 1962.

Dixon, Thomas. The Clansman: An Historical Romance of the Ku Klux Klan. Ridgewood, NJ: The Gregg Press, 1967[1905].

(p.187) Douglas, Kelly Brown. Sexuality and the Black Church: A Womanist Perspective. Maryknoll, NY: Orbis Books, 1999.

———. What’s Faith Got to Do With It? Black Bodies/Christian Souls. Maryknoll, NY: Orbis Books, 2005.

Douglas, Mary. Natural Symbols: Explorations in Cosmology. New York: Routledge, 1996.

———. Purity and Danger: An Analysis of the Concepts of Pollution and Taboo. New York: Ark, 1966.

Douglas, Tom. Scapegoats: Transferring Blame. New York: Routledge, 1995.

Douglass, Frederick. Frederick Douglass: The Narrative and Selected Writings. Edited by Michael Meyer. Modern Library College Edition. New York: Random House, 1984.

Dyson, Michael Eric. Between God and Gangsta Rap: Bearing Witness to Black Culture. New York: Oxford University Press, 1996.

———. Holler If You Hear Me: Searching for Tupac Shakur. New York: Basic Civitas Books, 2001.

———. Open Mike: Reflections on Philosophy, Race, Sex, Culture and Religion. New York: Basic Civitas Books, 2003.

Ellison, Ralph. The Invisible Man. New York: Random House, 1952.

Ellwood, Robert S. The Sixties Spiritual Awakening: American Religion Moving from Modern to Postmodern. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 1994.

Evans, James H. We Have Been Believers: An African-American Systematic Theology. Minneapolis: Fortress Press, 1992.

Fanon, Frantz. Black Skin, White Masks. New York: Grove Press, 1967.

Fauset, Arthur Huff et al. Black Gods of the Metropolis: Negro Religious Cults of the Urban North. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2001.

Ferguson, Harvie. Modernity and Subjectivity: Body, Soul, Spirit. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 2000.

Fontaine, Pierre-Michel, ed. Race, Class, and Power in Brazil. Los Angeles: Center for Afro-American Studies, University of California, 1985.

Foucault, Michel. The Archeology of Knowledge. 1969. Reprint, New York: Routledge, 1972.

Foucault, Michel. Discipline and Punish: The Birth of the Prison. New York: Vintage Books, 1979.

———. Ethics: Subjectivity and Truth. Edited by Paul Rabinow. New York: The New Press, 1997.

———. The History of Sexuality. Vol. 1, An Introduction. New York: Vintage Books, 1978.

———. The History of Sexuality. Vol. 2, The Use of Pleasure. New York: Vintage Books, 1990.

———. The History of Sexuality. Vol. 3, The Care of the Self. New York: Vintage Books, 1988.

Fraser, Mariam, and Monica Greco, eds. The Body: A Reader. New York: Routledge, 2005.

Gaehtgens, Thomas W., and Heinz Ickstadt, eds. American Icons: Transatlantic Perspectives on Eighteenth- and Nineteenth Century American Art. Santa Barbara, CA: Getty Center for the History of Art and the Humanities, 1992.

Gardella, Peter. Innocent Ecstasy: How Christianity Gave America an Ethic of Sexual Pleasure. New York: Oxford University Press, 1985.

Gardiner, James J., and J. Deotis Roberts Sr., eds. Quest for a Black Theology. Philadelphia: Pilgrim Press, 1971.

Gayle, Addison. The Black Aesthetic. Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1971.

(p.188) Geurts, Kathryn Linn. Culture and the Senses: Bodily Ways of Knowing in an African Community. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2002.

Giddings, Paula. When and Where I Enter: The Impact of Black Women on Race and Sex in America. New York: Bantam Books, 1984.

Gilkes, Cheryl Townsend. If It Wasn’t for the Women: Black Women’s Experience and Womanist Culture in Church and Community. Maryknoll, NY: Orbis Books, 2000.

Girard, Rene. Violence and the Sacred. Translated by Patrick Gregory. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1997.

Glaude, Eddie. Exodus!: Religion, Race, and Nation in Early Nineteenth-century Black America. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2000.

Goffman, Erving. Stigma: Notes on the Management of Spoiled Identity. New York: Touchstone, 1986.

Gomez, Michael A., ed. Diasporic Africa: A Reader. New York: New York University Press, 2006.

Gordon, Lewis R., ed. Existence in Black: An Anthology of Black Existential Philosophy. New York: Routledge, 1997.

Goss, Linda, and Marian E. Barnes, eds. Talk That Talk: An Anthology of African-American Storytelling. New York: Touchstone Book, 1989.

Grant, Jacquelyn. White Women’s Christ, Black Women’s Jesus. Atlanta: Scholars Press, 1989.

Griffin, Horace. Their Own Received Them Not: African American Lesbians and Gays in the Black Church. Cleveland, OH: Pilgrim Press, 2006.

Gudorf, Christine E. Body, Sex, and Pleasure: Reconstructing Christian Sexual Ethics. Cleveland, OH: The Pilgrim Press, 1994.

Guimond, James. American Photography and the American Dream. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1991.

Gutman, Amy, and Anthony Appiah, Color Consciousness: The Political Morality of Race. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1998.

Hackett, David G., ed. Religion and American Culture: A Reader. New York: Routledge, 1995.

Hansen, Holger Bernt, and Michael Twaddle. Religion and Politics in East Africa. Athens: Ohio University Press, 1995.

Harris, Frederick C. Something Within: Religion in African-American Political Activism. New York: Oxford University Press, 1999.

Harris, Trudier, ed. New Essays on Go Tell It On the Mountain. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1996.

Haynes, Stephen R. Noah’s Curse: The Biblical Justification of American Slavery. New York: Oxford University Press, 2002.

Heyes, Cresddia J. Self-Transformations: Foucault, Ethics, and Normalized Bodies. New York: Oxford University Press, 2007.

Heywood, Ian, and Barry Sandywell, eds. Interpreting Visual Culture: Explorations in the Hermeneutics of the Visual. New York: Routledge, 1999.

Holloway, Joseph E., ed. Africanisms in American Culture. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1990.

Hopkins, Dwight. Being Human: Race, Culture, and Religion. Minneapolis: Fortress Press, 2005.

———. Shoes That Fit Our Feet: Sources for a Constructive Black Theology. Maryknoll, NY: Orbis Books, 1993.

(p.189) Hopkins, Dwight, and Sheila Greeve Davaney, eds. Changing Conversations: Cultural Analysis and Religious Reflection. New York: Routledge, 1996.

Howard-Pitney, David. The Afro-American Jeremiad: Appeals for Justice in America. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1990.

Hughes, Langston, and Arna Bontemps. The Book of Negro Folklore. New York: Dodd, Mead, 1959.

Irwin, Alexander C. E.R.O.S Toward the World: Paul Tillich and the Theology of the Erotic. Minneapolis: Fortress Press, 1991.

Isherwood, Lisa, and Elizabeth Stuart. Introducing Body Theology. Sheffield, England: Sheffield Academic Press, 1998.

Jacobson, David. Place and Belonging in America. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2002.

Jalloh, Alusine, and Stephen E. Maizlish, ed. The African Diaspora. College Station, TX: Texas A&M University Press, 1996.

Jones, Amelia, and Andrew Stephenson, eds. Performing the Body, Performing the Text. New York: Routledge, 1999.

Jones, Colin, and Ray Porter. Reassessing Foucault: Power, Medicine and the Body. New York: Routledge, 1994.

Jones, William. Is God a White Racist?: A Prolegomenon to Black Theology. 1973. Reprint, Boston: Beacon Press, 1998.

Karp, Ivan, and Steven D. Lavine, eds. Exhibiting Cultures: The Poetics and Politics of Museum Display. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1991.

Kaufman, Gordon. An Essay on Theological Method. Missoula, MT: Scholars Press, 1979.

Kayle, Keith. The Politics of the Independence of Kenya. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1999.

Kennedy, Dane. Islands of White: Settler Society and Culture in Kenya and Southern Rhodesia, 1890-1939. Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 1987.

Klein, Herbert S., and Ben Vinson III. African Slavery in Latin America and the Caribbean. 2nd ed. New York: Oxford University Press, 2007.

Koser, Khalid, ed. New African Diasporas. New York: Routledge, 2003.

Landes, Ruth. The City of Women. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 1994 [1947].

Larsen, Nella. Passing. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 1986.

———. Quicksand. New York: Penguin Books, 2002.

Lawrence, Beverly Hall. Reviving the Spirit: A Generation of African Americans Goes Home to Church. New York: Grove Press, 1996.

Lemert, Charles, and Ann Branaman, eds. The Goffman Reader. Malden, MA: Blackwell, 1997.

Levine, Lawrence. Black Culture and Black Consciousness: Afro-American Folk Thought From Slavery to Freedom. New York: Oxford University Press, 1983.

Lock, Margaret, and Judith Farquhar. Beyond the Body Proper: Reading the Anthropology of Material Life. Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 2007.

Locke, Alain, ed. The New Negro. New York: Atheneum, 1986.

Long, Charles H. Significations: Signs, Symbols, and Images in the Interpretation of Religion. Philadelphia: Fortress Press, 1986.

Lovell, John. Black Song: The Forge and the Flame; The Story of How the Afro-American Spiritual Was Hammered Out. 1972. Reprint, New York: Paragon House, 1986.

(p.190) Lugalla, Joe L. P., and Colleta G. Kibassa, eds. Poverty, AIDS, and Street Children in East Africa. Lewiston, PA: Edwin Mellen Press, 2002.

Maaga, Mary McCormick. Hearing the Voices of Jonestown. Syracuse, NY: Syracuse University Press, 1998.

Majors, Richard, and Janet Mancini Billson. Cool Pose: The Dilemmas of Black Manhood in America. New York: Touchstone Books, 1992.

Mann, Kristin, and Edna G. Bay, eds. Rethinking the African Diaspora: The Making of a Black Atlantic World in the Bight of Benin and Brazil. Portland, OR: Frank Cass, 2001.

Martin, James Alfred. Beauty and Holiness: The Dialogue Between Aesthetics and Religion. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1990.

Martin, Luther H., Huck Gutman, and Patrick H. Hutton, eds. Technologies of the Self: A Seminar with Michel Foucault. Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 1988.

McElroy, Guy C. Facing History: The Black Image in American Art, 1710–1940. San Francisco, CA: Bedford Arts and Corcoran Gallery of Art, 1990.

McHoul, Alec, and Wendy Grace. A Foucault Primer: Discourse, Power and the Subject. New York: New York University Press, 1993.

McKittrick, Katherine, and Clyde Woods, eds. Black Geographies and the Politics of Place. Cambridge, MA: South End Press, 2007.

Mellor, Philip A., and Chris Shilling, Re-forming the Body: Religion, Community and Modernity. London: Sage Publications, 1997.

Merchant, Carolyn. American Environmental History: An Introduction. New York: Columbia University Press, 2007.

———, ed. Major Problems in American Environmental History. Lexington, MA: D. C. Heath, 1993.

———. Reinventing Eden: The Fate of Nature in Western Culture. New York: Routledge, 2003.

Miller, Norman, and Rodger Yeager. Kenya: The Quest for Prosperity. 2nd ed. Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1994.

Miller, Timothy, ed. America’s Alternative Religions. Albany: State University of New York Press, 1995.

Mohanram, Radhika. Black Body: Women, Colonialism, and Space. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1999.

Morey, Ann-Janine. Religion and Sexuality in American Literature. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1992.

Morgan, David. The Sacred Gaze: Religious Visual Culture in Theory and Practice. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2005.

———. Visual Piety: A History and Theory of Popular Religious Images. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1998.

Morris, Calvin S. Reverdy C. Ransom: Black Advocate of the Social Gospel. Lanham, MD: University Press of America, 1990.

Morton, Fred. Children of Ham: Freed Slaves and Fugitive Slaves on the Kenya Coast, 1873 to 1907. Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1990.

Moses, Wilson Jeremiah. Afrotopia: The Roots of African American Popular History. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1998.

Mugambi, J. N. K. African Christian Theology: An Introduction. Nairobi, Kenya: Heinemann Kenya, Ltd., 1989.

(p.191) ———, ed. Democracy and Development in Africa: The Role of Churches. Nairobi, Kenya: All Africa Conference of Churches, 1997.

———. From Liberation to Reconstruction: African Christian Theology After the Cold War. Nairobi, Kenya: East African Educational Publishers, Ltd., 1995.

Muhammad, Elijah. Message to the Blackman in America. Chicago: Muhammad’s Temple No. 2, 1965.

———. The True History of Master Fard Muhammad, Allah (God) In Person. Atlanta: MEMPS Publications, 1996.

Murray, Albert. From the Briarpatch File: On Context, Procedure, and American Identity. New York: Pantheon Books, 2001.

Naipaul, Shiva. Love and Death in a Hot Country. New York: Penguin Books, 1985.

Nascimento, Abdias Do, and Elisa Larkin Nascimento. Africans in Brazil: A Pan-African Perspective. Trenton, NJ: Africa World Press, 1992.

Needleman, Jacob, and George Baker, eds. Understanding the New Religions. New York: Seabury Press, 1978.

Nelson, James B. Body Theology. Louisville, KY: Westminster/John Knox Press, 1992.

Nettleton, Sarah, and Jonathan Watson, eds. The Body in Everyday Life. New York: Routledge, 1998.

Nuttall, Sarah, ed. Beautiful Ugly: African and Diaspora Aesthetics. Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 2006.

O’Connor, Francis V. Jackson Pollock. New York: Museum of Modern Art, 1967.

Okullu, Henry. Church and Politics in East Africa. Nairobi, Kenya: Uzima Press Limited, 1974.

Orvell, Miles. American Photography. New York: Oxford University Press, 2003.

Palmer, Robert. Deep Blues: A Musical and Cultural History, from the Mississippi Delta to Chicago’s South Side to the World. New York: Penguin Books, 1982.

Payne, Daniel A. Sermons and Addresses, 1853–1891. New York: Arno Press, 1972.

Patterson, Orlando. Rituals of Blood: Consequences of Slavery in Two American Centuries. New York: Basic Books, 1998.

Peiss, Kathy, and Christian Simmons, eds. Passion and Power: Sexuality in History. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1989.

Perkins, William Eric. Droppin’ Science: Critical Essays on Rap Music and Hip Hop Culture. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1996.

Petersen, Alan, and Robin Bunton, eds. Foucault: Health and Medicine. New York: Routledge, 1997.

Pinn, Anthony B. African American Humanist Principles: Living and Thinking Like the Children of Nimrod. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2004.

———. The Black Church in the Post–Civil Rights Era. Maryknoll, NY: Orbis Books, 2002.

———, ed. By These Hands: A Documentary History of African American Humanism. New York: New York University Press, 2001.

———, ed. Making the Gospel Plain: The Writings of Bishop Reverdy C. Ransom. Harrisburg, PA: Trinity Press International, 1999.

———, ed. Noise and Spirit: The Religious and Spiritual Sensibilities of Rap Music. New York: New York University Press, 2003.

———. Terror and Triumph: The Nature of Black Religion. Minneapolis: Fortress Press, 2003.

(p.192) ———, ed. Varieties of African American Religious Experience. Minneapolis: Fortress Press, 1998.

———. Why, Lord?: Suffering and Evil in Black Theology. New York: Continuum, 1995.

Pinn, Anthony B., and Benjamin Valentin, eds. The Ties that Bind: African American and Hispanic/Latino/a Theologies in Dialogue. New York: Continuum, 2001.

Putzi, Jennifer. Identifying Marks: Race, Gender, and the Marked Body in Nineteenth-Century America. Athens: University of Georgia Press, 2006.

Rabinow, Paul, ed. The Foucault Reader. New York: Pantheon Books, 1984.

Raboteau, Albert. Slave Religion: The “Invisible Institution” in the Antebellum South. New York: Oxford University Press, 1978.

Rahier, Jean Muteba, ed. Representations of Blackness and the Performance of Identities. Westport, CT: Bergin and Garvey, 1999.

Ransom, John S. Foucault’s Discipline: The Politics of Subjectivity. Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 1997.

Reeves, Marcus. Somebody Scream! Rap Music’s Rise to Prominence in the Aftershock of Black Power. New York: Faber and Faber, 2008.

Reid-Pharr, Robert F. Conjugal Union: The Body, the House, and the Black American. New York: Oxford University Press, 1999.

Roberts, J. Deotis. Liberation and Reconciliation: A Black Theology. Maryknoll, NY: Orbis Books, 1994.

Rose, Tricia. Black Noise: Black Music and Black Culture in Contemporary America. Middletown, CT: Wesleyan University Press, 1994.

———. The Hip Hop Wars: What We Talk about When We Talk about Hip Hop—and Why It Matters. New York: Basic Civitas Books, 2008.

Sadler, Kim Martin, ed. Atonement: The Million Man March. Cleveland, OH: Pilgrim Press, 1996.

Sakolsky, Ron, and Fred Wei-Han Ho, eds. Sounding Off: Music as Subversion/Resistance/Revolution. Brooklyn, NY: Autonomedia, 1995.

Sansome, Livio, Elisée Soumonni, and Boubacar Barry, eds. Africa, Brazil, and the Construction of the Trans Atlantic Black Identities. Trenton, NJ: Africa World Press, 2008.

Sawicki, Jana. Disciplining Foucault: Feminism, Power, and the Body. New York: Routledge, 1991.

Segal, Ronald. Islam’s Black Slaves: The Other Black Diaspora. New York: Hill and Wang, 2002.

Sernett, Milton. Bound for the Promised Land: African American Religion and the Great Migration. Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 1997.

Shilling, Chris. The Body and Social Theory. 2nd ed. London: Sage Publications, 2003.

Simpson, George Eaton. Black Religions in the New World. New York: Columbia University Press, 1978.

Smith, Shawn Michelle. American Archives: Gender, Race, and Class in Visual Culture. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1999.

———. Photography on the Color Line: W. E. B. Du Bois, Race, and Visual Culture. Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 2004.

Smith, Jonathan Z. Map Is Not Territory. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1993.

Smith, Theophus. Conjuring Culture: Biblical Formations of Black America. New York: Oxford University Press, 1994.

(p.193) Singleton, Theresa A., ed. “I, Too, Am America:” Archeological Studies of African-American Life. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1999.

Snoop Dogg. The Dogg Father: The Times, Trials, and Hardcore Truths of Snoop Dogg. With Davin Seay. New York: William Morrow, 1999.

Sontag, Susan. On Photography. New York: Picador, 1977.

Spear, Thomas, and Isaria N. Kimambo, eds. East African Expressions of Christianity. Athens: Ohio University Press, 1999.

Spencer, Michael J. Blues and Evil. Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press, 1993.

Stephens, Mitchell. The Rise of the Image, the Fall of the Word. New York: Oxford University Press, 1998.

Stoler, Ann Laura. Race and the Education of Desire: Foucault’s History of Sexuality and the Colonial Order of Things. Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 1995.

Studio Museum in Harlem. Memory and Metaphor: The Art of Romare Bearden, 1940–1987. New York: Oxford University Press, 1991.

Sukla, Ananta Ch., ed. Art and Experience. Westport, CT: Praeger, 2003.

Sullivan, Nikki. Tattooed Bodies: Subjectivity, Textuality, Ethics, and Pleasure. Westport, CT: Praeger, 2001.

Thompson, Robert Farris. Flash of the Spirit: African and Afro-American Art and Philosophy. New York: Vintage Books, 1983.

Tignor, Robert L. The Colonial Transformation of Kenya: The Kamba, Kikuyu, and Maasi from 1900 to 1939. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1976.

Tillich, Paul. Love, Power, and Justice: Ontological Analyses and Ethical Applications. New York: Oxford University Press, 1954.

Tobin, Jacqueline L., and Raymond G. Dobard. Hidden in Plain View: A Secret Story of Quilts and the Underground Railroad. New York: Anchor Books, 2000.

Townes, Emilie M. Breaking the Fine Rain of Death: African American Health Issues and a Womanist Ethic of Care. New York: Continuum, 1998.

Trachetenberg, Alan. Reading American Photographs: Images as History, Mathew Brady to Walker Evans. New York: Hill and Wang, 1989.

Turner, Bryan S. The Body and Society: Explorations in Social Theory. New York: Basil Blackwell, 1984.

Turner, Victor. The Ritual Process: Structure and Anti-Structure. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1969.

Van Deburg, William. Hoodlums: Black Villains and Social Bandits in American Life. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2004.

Walker, Alice. The Color Purple: A Novel. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1982.

———. In Search of Our Mothers’ Gardens: Womanist Prose. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1983.

Wallace, Michelle. Black Macho and the Myth of the Superwoman. New York: Verso, 1990 [1978].

———. Invisibility Blues: From Pop to Theory. New York: Verso, 1990.

Wallace, Michelle, and Gina Dent, eds. Black Popular Culture. Seattle: Bay Press, 1992.

Washington, James, ed. A Testament of Hope: The Essential Writings of Martin Luther King Jr. New York: Harper and Row, 1986.

Waston, Nick, and Sarah Cunningham-Berrley, eds. Reframing the Body. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2001.

(p.194) Welch, Sharon. A Feminist Ethic of Risk. Minneapolis: Fortress Press, 1990.

———. Sweet Dreams in America. New York: Routledge, 1999.

Welton, Donn, ed. Body and Flesh: A Philosophical Reader. Malden, MA: Blackwell, 1998.

Weightman, Judith Mary. Making Sense of the Jonestown Suicides: A Sociological History of Peoples Temple. New York: Edwin Mellen Press, 1983.

Weinberg, Jonathan. Ambition and Love in Modern American Art. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2001.

Weiss, Gail. Body Images: Embodiment as Intercorporeality. New York: Routledge, 1999.

Weiss, Gail, and Honi Fern Haber, eds. Perspectives on Embodiment: The Intersections of Nature and Culture. New York: Routledge, 1999.

Wessinger, Catherine. How the Millennium Comes Violently: From Jonestown to Heaven’s Gate. New York: Seven Bridges Press, 2000.

West, Cornel. The American Evasion of Philosophy: A Genealogy of Pragmatism. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1989.

———. The Cornel West Reader. New York: Basic Civitas Books, 1999.

———. Prophesy Deliverance: An Afro-American Revolutionary Christianity. Philadelphia: Westminster Press, 1982.

Wexler, Laura. Tender Violence: Domestic Visions in an Age of U.S. Imperialism. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2000.

White, Shane, and Graham White. Stylin’: African American Expressive Culture from Its Beginnings to the Zoot Suit. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1998.

Wiesner-Hauls, Merry E. Christianity and Sexuality in the Early Modern World: Regulating Desire, Reforming Practice. New York: Routledge, 2000.

Williams, Carol J. Framing the West: Race, Gender, and the Photographic Frontier in the Pacific Northwest. New York: Oxford University Press, 2003.

Williams, Delores. Sisters in the Wilderness. Maryknoll, NY: Orbis Books, 1993.

Williams, Simon J., and Gillian Bendelow. The Lived Body: Sociological Themes, Embodied Issues. New York: Routledge, 1998.

Willis, Deborah, ed. Picturing Us: African American Identity in Photography. New York: The New Press, 1994.

Wilmore, Gayraud. Black Religion and Black Radicalism. Maryknoll, NY: Orbis Books, 1983.

Wilson, Scott. Great Satan’s Rage: American Negativity and Rap/Metal in the Age of Super-capitalism. Manchester, England: Manchester University Press, 2008.

Wright, Richard. Black Boy: A Record of Childhood and Youth. New York: Harper and Brothers, 1945.

———. Native Son. New York: Harper and Row/Perennial Library, 1966.

———. The Outsider. 1953. Reprint, New York: Harper Perennial, 2003.

Zepp, Ira G., The New Religious Image of Urban America: The Shopping Mall As Ceremonial Center. Niwot, CO: University Press of Colorado, 1997.

Partial Discography

Arrested Development (1994). Zingalamaduni. Chrysalis Records.

Arrested Development (1992). Three Years, 5 Months, and 2 Days in the Life of … New York: Chrysalis Records.

(p.195) Boogie Down Productions (1989). Ghetto Music: The Blueprint of Hip Hop. Zomba Recording Corporation.

Da Lench Mob (1992). Guerilla’s In Tha Mist. EastWest/Atlantic Records.

Dr. Dre (1992). The Chronic. Interscope Records.

Geto Boys (1989). Grip It! On That Other Level. Priority Records.

Geto Boys (1992). Geto Boys Best: Uncut Dope. Rap-A-Lot Records, Inc.

Public Enemy (1988). It Takes a Nation of Millions to Hold Us Back. CBS Records.

Public Enemy (1991). Apocalypse 91 … The Enemy Strikes Black. Sony Music Entertainment.

Scarface (2004). “I Seen a Man Die.” The Diary. Scarface, Mike Dean, N.O. Joe.

Scarface (2003). “Make Your Peace.” Balls and My Word. Mike Dean and Tone Capone.

Scarface (2002). “Heaven.” The Fix. Scarface, B. Jordan, K. West, T. Jones, K. Price, R. Moore Jr.

Scarface (2000). “Last of a Dying Breed.” Last of a Dying Breed. Mr. Lee, N.O. Joe, Scarface.

Scarface (1997). Untouchable. Noo Trybe Records.

Scarface (1994). The Diary. Noo Trybe Records.

Scarface (1991). Mr. Scarface is Back. Rap-A-Lot Records, Inc.

Sister Souljah (1992). 360 Degrees of Power. Sony Music Entertainment.

Snoop Doggy Dogg (1993). Doggy Style. Interscope Records.

Tupac Shakur (1999). Still I Rise, Interscope Records.

Tupac Shakur (1998). 2Pacalypse Now. Jive Records.

Tupac Shakur, (1997). R U Still Down? Jive Records.

Tupac Shakur (1996). The Don Killuminati, The 7 Day Theory. Interscope Records.

Tupac Shakur (1995). Me Against the World. Jive Records. (p.196)