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Becoming RastaOrigins of Rastafari Identity in Jamaica$

Charles Price

Print publication date: 2009

Print ISBN-13: 9780814767467

Published to NYU Press Scholarship Online: March 2016

DOI: 10.18574/nyu/9780814767467.001.0001

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(p.259) Index

(p.259) Index

Source:
Becoming Rasta
Publisher:
NYU Press
Abyssinia. See Ethiopia
Africa, 70, 71;
learning about, 164, 169;
Mission to, 78–84. See also Repatriation
African Methodist Episcopal (AME) Church, 41
African Reform Church (ARC), 74. See also Henry, Claudius
Africans, race, xii. See also Jamaica
Afro-Athlyican Constructive Gaathlyans, 48–49. See also Holy Piby; Rogers, Robert
Alvaranga, Philmore, 79–80, 87
Amharic, 71, 91, 170–71, 214
Appeal to the Colored Citizens of the World, 40
Austin-Broos, D., 214
Babylon, 67, 139, 174, 231, 238n4
Back-O-Wall, 86–87, 220
Back-to-Africa movement, 73, 82. See also Repatriation
Baldheads, 192, 221
Baptist:
Ethiopian Baptist Church, 33;
Jamaica Native Baptist Free Church, 44;
Rowe, John, 34. See also Native Baptist
Bayen, Malaku, 63
Bedward, Alexander, 40, 43–46. See also Native Baptist; Racial rhetoric
Bedwardites, 43–44, 58
Bible, 49, 171–72;
Egypt in, 26;
Ethiopia in, 26, 38–39;
Hebrews in, 26;
King James version, 38, 49, 173;
New Testament, ix;
Old Testament, ix;
Revelations, ix, x
Black identity theory, 8, 9, 110–11, 99, 104;
contemporary studies, 113;
early studies, 111–12. See also Blackness;
Black Nationalism, 1, 47, 172
Blackness, 1, 8, 116, 117, 230, 231–32;
capitalization of, xv-xvi;
compared with Whiteness, 235n1;
content of, 110;
cultural dimensions of, 4;
ideas of proper, 139;
as identification, 4, 113, 225;
in Jamaica, 3, 21–22, 191, 205, 226;
moral economy of, 26–29;
morally configured, 3–4, 99, 230 (See Ethiopianism; Justice motifs);
as pathology, 110;
purposes of, 8, 105;
Rastafari view of, 137;
and religiosity, 4, 100 (See Ethiopianism; Justice motifs);
Black Power, 92–93;
Michael Manley on, 94–95
Black redemption, 194;
and Black king, 46–47;
and return of Messiah, 50–53
Black Skins, White Masks, 104. See also Fanon, Frantz
Bogle, Paul, (p.260) 22, 24, 26, 62. See also Gordon, George; Morant Bay; Native Baptist; Rebellion
Bones, Jah, 98
Bongo J, 24, 25, 118, 209, 212;
on education, 207;
on fear of Rastafari, 24;
identity transformation, 128–29;
photo, 25
Brother Alex, 89
Brother Bags, 177, 187
Brother Barody, 7, 187, 221;
on becoming Rastafari, 118, 159–60;
learning Amharic, 170–71
Brother Bongo, 129–30, 214–15, 220;
on Christianity, 174;
on his name, 100;
on imprisonment, 190;
on Jesus Christ, 158;
learning about Africa, 169–70;
on organizing Rastafari, 86–87;
on politics, 84;
on renouncing Jamaican nationality, 180–81;
on scorn of Rastafari, 189;
and relationship stress, 178–79, 184;
on Selassie I, 54, 89–91;
on women, 214–215;
visions, 147
Brother Dee, 55–56, 68, 72–73, 221;
on becoming Rastafari, 53, 106, 163;
photo, 69;
and Rasta Ivey, 55–56, 68, 72–73
Brothers Solidarity of United Ethiopia (BSUE), 70
Brother Woks, 13, 177, 188, 197, 226;
on the Bible, 51, 171–72;
on the Dreadlocks, 65;
on Garvey, Marcus, 47, 51, 172–73;
on growth of Rastafari, 206–7;
on markers of Rastafari, 135
Brother Yendis, 1, 65, 72, 98, 191;
on authenticity, 198–99, 212;
becoming Rastafari, 182–83;
and communion, 193;
experiential witnessing, 161–62, 224;
on inborn conception, 144;
on National Geographic, 50;
on race and governance, 140;
on Rastafari prophecy, 200;
on redemption, 38–39;
on relationship stress, 182;
on Selassie I, 92;
suppression of Rastafari, 65, 189;
on violence against Rastafari, 196–97;
on Walter Rodney, 93
Brown (racial identity), 25, 235n3
Brown, Bishop, 53–54
Bustamante, Alexander, 86
Campbell, Trevor, 91, 100
Cannabis. See Ganja
Caribbean, map of, 37
Carmichael, Stokely, 112, 123
Cashmore, E., 134
Césaire, Aimé, xii–xiii
Chalice, 193
Chants (Rastafari), xvii, 12, 88, 195
Chevannes, Barry, 14
Chosen people, 108, 168, 185, 188, 197;
and peculiar, 71, 107–8, 158
Christianity, 126, 230;
Christ, 136, 238n10, 239n10;
Christians, 95, 173–74;
Rastafari conversion to, 185;
and slaves, 31–32
Class (social), 217–219, 231
Clayton, Sam, 87
Combsomes, 65–66, 109, 168
Communion. See Identity
Complexity (theory), 5, 57–58;
disruption, 5, 57, 58, 228;
initial conditions, 58;
perturbation, 5, 92, 96;
self-organization, 5, 58, 77;
surprise, 57, 58. See also Ethnogenesis
Conquests (Rastafari):
of Kings House, 73;
of Victoria Square, 73
Conversion:
as identity transformation, 9, 124;
and potent ideas, 129;
religious and racial, 100, 124;
and seekership, 126–27;
and social networks, 129;
and sociocultural (p.261) context, 128–29;
theories of religious, 100, 123, 124–25, 226;
and turning points, 127. See also Identity transformation
Coral Gardens, 85–86
Cross Jr., William, 8, 114, 121, 124, 125;
on change in referents, 125;
on social movements, 112. See also Black identity theory; Nigrescence theory
Cultural:
dissonance, 133–34;
resources, 20–21;
work, 10, 134
Daily Gleaner (DG), 60;
announces death of Selassie, 203;
coronation of Ras Tafari, ix;
coverage of Pinnacle raid and trial, 64–65;
coverage of trial of Howell and Hinds, 60;
on deposing Selassie, 203
Dangerous Drugs Act, 64
Deracination, 21, 30, 117, 119
Douglas, M. B., 80–81
Dreadlocks, 168, 171;
faction of Rastafari, 65–67, 71, 108–9, 168, 177, 215, 236n5;
locks and, 65, 108, 171, 187;
popularity of, 188
Dreams, 146. See also Visions
Du Bois, W.E.B, 109, 114, 118, 122
Dunkley, Archibald, 53–54
Elders, definition of, 15
Elites, 56, 79, 90, 203, 228;
efforts to ruin Rastafari, 60, 65, 84, 88, 92
Empress Dinah, 19, 213, 217
Erlington, Paul, 63
Ethiopia, 39, 62, 70, 71, 172;
Mission to, 80–81;
Shashemene land grant, 71
Ethiopia Calls, 91
Ethiopian Baptist Church, 33
Ethiopianism, 38–42, 101, 230;
and Black God, 45;
and Black intellectuals, 40;
connection to Black people, 38;
and Haile Selassie I, 41;
language of, 45, 60;
messianic and millenarian, 38;
secular, 40;
spiritual, 40. See also Blackness; Justice motifs; Religion
Ethiopian Manifesto (Young), 40
Ethiopian Orthodox Church, 8–9, 202
Ethiopian Salvation Society (ESS), 63. See also Pinnacle
Ethiopian World Federation (EWF):
on Blackness, 63;
Local 17, 63, 236n3;
Local 37, 70–71, 78. See also Richardson, Mamie
Ethnogenesis, 6, 20, 57, 124, 202, 222;
evolution of new groups, 2, 20, 57, 227–29. See also Complexity (theory)
Existential questions, 9, 130, 124, 156
Experiential witnessing, 160–61, 163
Fanon, Franz, xiv;
Blackness, xi, xii, xiii;
internalization of oppression, 104–5
Fire, as symbol, 208
“Fire bu’n” (Fire burn), 72, 175, 177
Fisher, Edna, 74
Freedom:
emancipation, 35;
ideas about, 28
Freire, Paulo, 105
Gad, 73
Ganja, 64, 205, 211;
“licking” chalice, 193–94
Garvey, Marcus, 46–48, 63, 76, 194;
in Edelweiss Park, 163–64;
Ethiopianist, 47;
prophecy, 51, 172–73;
Garveyites, 128–29
(p.262) Generation, definition of, 239n1. See also Rastafari, generational issues
Ghana, 82
Glazier, Stephen, 128
Gleaner. See Daily Gleaner
God (Black), 47, 103, 158, 159, 172–74
Gordon, George, 24–25, Native Baptist, 25. See also Bogle, Paul
Hannah, Barbara, xiv
Heart, 11, 24, 142;
Blackheart, 24, 107
Henry, Claudius, 74–75, 78;
letter to Fidel Castro, 75;
and Michael Manley, 95. See also African Reform Church; Repatriation
Henry, Reynold, 75–76
Hibbert, Joseph, 53, 70
Hinds, Robert, 44, 54, 58–62, 71;
on being Ethiopian, 38;
trial, 59–60
Holy Piby, 48–49
Howell, Leonard, 5, 27, 58–64, 71, 163;
trial, 1934, 59–60. See also Pinnacle; Promise Key
Identity:
communion and, 192–94, 197–99;
investment in, 191;
mortification and, 179–80;
personal, ix, 101, 114;
petition for Ethiopian, 70, 87;
purposes of, 101–4, 105, 113;
Rastafari, 132, 143, 165;
renunciation and, 168, 180–81;
rewards of, 185, 191–93, 197–99;
sacrifice for, 190;
seeds, 134–35;
self-concept, 101, 103;
stigmatized, ix, 106–9;
western, 109;
Identity transformation, 6–7, 8, 10, 102–3, 104;
becoming Rastafari, 8, 10, 103;
and name change, 68, 100, 181;
and recycling, 122;
and relationship tension, 129, 131, 155, 178–80, 181–84, 226;
and re-socialization, 120;
Immigrants to Jamaica, 36
Inborn conception, 142–45, 163;
“anciency” and “latency,” 141
I n I, 71, 136, 238n2
Internalization. See Nigrescence theory
Internalized oppression, 137–40, 166;
transcending, 142
Investment. See Identity
Jackson III, Bailey, 112
Jackson, C. A., 68
Jah Bones, 98
Jamaica, 87, 191;
early Rastafari in Portland parish, 61;
early Rastafari in St. Thomas parish, 59, 61–62;
indentured Africans in, 70, 141, 159;
map of, 23;
settlement of, especially African, 29–30;
slave trade, 29–30. See also Africans, race; Kingston
Jamaica Native Baptist Free Church, 44
Jamaican Ethiopian Orthodox Church, 181
Jesus, 103;
and Prophetess, 152, 153, 154
Johnson, Millard, 84, 85
Jones, Delmos, 13
Joshua, 95. See also Manley, Michael
Justice motifs, 21, 45, 132, 153. See also Ethiopianism; Moral economy, of Blackness
Kenya, mission to, 87
Kenyatta, Jomo, 87
Kilbourne, B., and J. Richardson, 124
King David, 41
(p.263) King James Bible, 38, 173. See also Bible
King of Lagos, 81
King Ras Tafari. See Selasie I, Haile
Kingston, 61–63
Kumina, 33
Lake, O., 214
Language used by Rastafari, 7, 68, 71
Leslie, L. C., 79
Lewis, George, 33
Liberia, 82–83
Life stories, 10–11
Lisle, George, 33
Lyall, Sir Robert, 59–60
Mack, Douglas, 79–80, 91, 163
Majority Report, 80. See also Minority Report
Malcolm X, 114
Ma Lion, 51
Manley, Michael, 94–96, 203. See also Joshua
Manley, Norman, 76, 78–79;
Mission to Africa, 83;
on slavery, 81–82
Margai, Sir Milton, 83
Marley, Bob, 94, 96, 185, 191
Maroons, 26, 57, 83, 236n9;
and freedom, 31;
Peace Treaty, 31
Mau Mau movement, 67–68
McNeil, Roy, 87, 93
Men, and signs of Rastafari identity, 65
Menen, Empress, 198
Mental slavery, emancipation from, 174
Millenarian groups, 72, 144
Minority Report, 81. See also Majority Report
Miseducation, 21, 105, 117, 119, 168–69;
explanation of, 39–40. See also Nigrescence theory
Mission to Africa, 78–85
Monroe–Scarlett, Z., 80
Moral community, 192
Moral economy, 27–28;
and Bedwardites, 44–45;
of Blackness, 26–29;
racialized, 21;
Rastafari and, 54. See also Ethiopianism; Justice motifs
Morant Bay, 22, 26;
rebellion, 22–24, 59, 62. See also Bogle, Paul
Mortification. See Identity
Muhammed, Elijah, 112
Mussolini, Benito, 62
Mutabaruka, 1, 160
Myalism, 32–33;
Myalist War 34–35
Narayan, Kirin, 13
National Geographic, 49–50
Native Baptist, 24, 25;
Native researcher issue, 11, 13–14
Nettleford, Rex, 77, 85, 87
Nigeria, 81–82
Nigrescence theory, 7, 8, 9, 100, 226, 227, 237n5;
critique of, 123;
encounter, 104, 116, 118–19, 130, 146, 167, 223–24;
explanation of, 100, 113–16, 237n5;
extending 104, 119, 122–23, 146;
immersion–emersion, 116, 120–21, 170, 213;
internalization, 116, 121–22;
internalization–commitment, 116, 122, 184–92, 199, 220;
pre-encounter, 116–17;
reference group orientation, 114–15, 120;
Nkrumah, Kwame, 82
Nyabingi (African), 62;
vs. Nyabinghi, 62
Nyabinghi, 62, 140, 157, 195, 200;
“universal convention (Groundation),” 73
(p.264) Order of Melchisidec, 44, 154
Organic intellect, 163–65
Owens, J., 14
Parchment, Clinton, 75–76
Peculiar people. See Chosen people
People’s National Party (PNP), 7, 96
Pettersburgh, Reverend Fitz, 49
Phillippo, James, 26
Philos, Frederico, 62
Planner (also Planno), Mortimer, 50, 77, 80, 142, 166
Price, Charles (of Morant Bay), 23–24
Prince Emmanuel (Charles Edwards), 73
Prince Hall, 40
Promise Key, 49
Prophetess, 147–56, 224–26;
photo, 149, 150
Queen Victoria of England, 73
Race, 21, 25, 138;
construction of, ix, 8;
formation, 3
Racial rhetoric, 22, 24, 45, 61, 62, 138
Rambo, L., 9, 124, 125
Ras Brenton, 77, 100, 142, 179, 183;
on becoming Rastafari, 165, 167, 238n8;
on Christ, 197–98;
on class, 217–19;
on Ethiopia, 39;
fire bu’n, 176;
on inborn conception, 143;
on learning, 122, 171;
on the Messiah, 50;
on race and governance, 137–38;
on Rastafari youth, 206;
and relationship stress, 178, 183;
on repatriation, 195;
on technology, 208–9;
on time, 229
Ras Burrell, 120, 126–27;
on becoming Rastafari, 160
Ras Cee, 201–2
Ras Chronicle, 102, 122, 202, 209–10;
on education, 207;
on King David, 41;
on nations, 210–12;
on stigma, 107
Ras Desmond, 175–76, 231
Ras General, 223
Ras Grantly, 175, 185, 193, 203–4
Ras Jayze, 5, 67, 177
Ras Kirk, 229
Ras Sam Brown, 6, 55, 182, 199, 232;
on becoming Rastafari, 145, 163–65;
on church, 133–34;
on Dreadlocks, 65–66;
on meeting Marcus Garvey, 163–64;
photo, 66;
on politics, 84–85, 96;
about Rastafari, 19;
on repatriating, 194;
on reward, 199;
on White oppression, 110, 138
Rastafari, x, 1, 174;
authentic, 198;
becoming, 103, 130–31, 142;
and Black liberation, 20;
class tension, 217–18;
commitment, 184–89, 220;
and education, 207–8;
emerging, 132;
experimental, 212;
gender, 16–17, 213–17;
generational issues, 6, 175–76, 202;
ideal of “peace and love,” 72–73;
identification with past, xv, 3, 19, 35, 143, 144, 145;
international dimensions of, 203, 205, 210–12;
language, xvi, 7, 68, 71, 181;
people, x, 6;
popularity, 191–92;
reaction to Selassie’s “death,” 204;
seeing, 132, 136, 157, 228;
stigma, 106–07;
suppression of, 62, 188;
symbols of, 65;
use of Selassie’s speeches, 175;
and technology, 208–10;
titles of address, (p.265) xvi, 181;
violence, symbolic, 62, 72, 105, 131;
women, 54, 66–68, 203, 213–17;
Rastafari Federation (RF), 192, 202, 204, 210;
women and, 15, 147, 215
Rastafari International Theocratic Assembly (RITA), 196, 222
Rastafari Movement Association (RMA), 85, 196, 203
Rasta Ivey, 1, 12–13, 54, 163, 238n5;
on becoming Rastafari, 158–59, 224;
and Brother Dee, 55–56, 68, 72–73;
on harshness of Brown and Black authorities, 68–69, 138–39;
on persecution, 188;
photo, 43;
and Rastafari diversity, 210;
on righteousness, 18;
on Salvation Army, 52–53;
on Sam Sharpe rebellion, 35;
on time, 141, 144–45;
view of Haile Selassie I, 145, 154
Rasta J, 78–79
Rebellion:
and moral economy, 29;
Morant Bay, 22–24, 26–27,
and religion, 33;
Sam Sharpe (or Myalist), 34–35;
Tacky, 32
Redemption, 27
Reference group orientation, 114–15, 173–74, 180
Reggae, 205, 211
Reid, Altamont, 78
Relative deprivation, 133
Religion:
purposes, 124, 126;
and race, 2, 3, 8, 9, 100–101, 123–24. See also Conversion; Ethiopianism
Renunciation. See Identity
Repatriation, 61, 74, 194–95, 218;
Mission to Africa, 78–84;
Rastafari organizing for, 70–71, 86–87. See also Back-to-Africa movement
Report (Smith et al.), 14, 77–78
Reward. See Identity
Richardson, Mamie, 70–71, 73, 78. See also Ethiopian World Federation
Rodney Riot, 92–94
Rodney, Walter, 92–94
Royal Parchment Scroll of Black Supremacy, 48–49
Sacrifice. See Identity
Salvation Army, 51–52, 53
Sam Sharpe Rebellion, 34–35
Scott, James, 27
Seaga, Edward, 95, 203
Seekership, 126–27, 226. See also Conversion; Nigrescence theory
Selassie I, Haile, 1, 70–71, 145, 198;
celebrations of, 194;
coronation of, ix; “death” of, 96–97, 203;
the elect of, 107;
and Menelik, 39, 236n13;
Messiah, 59;
and Mission to Ethiopia, 80–81;
in National Geographic, 50;
the Redeemer, 59, 71, 154;
removed from power, 203;
visit to Jamaica, 88–92. See also Ethiopia; Rastafari; Mission to Africa
Self-elevation, 107–8, 136
Sellers, Robert, et al., 113
Sharpe, Sam, 34–35;
Rebellion, 34— 35
Shashemene, 71
Shearer, Hugh, 86, 112
Sierra Leone, 83
“Sight up,” 99, 136, 142. See also Identity transformation; Rastafari
Sister Amme, 111, 156–58
Sister Coromantee, 17
Sister Ecila, 8–9
Sister Mariam, 4, 47–48, 216
Sister Pear, 103, 130–31
(p.266) Slavery:
acts, 31–32;
slave ethnicity, 30;
trade and, 29–30
Smith, M. G., 77
Social movement, 5, 6, 92, 112, 237n8;
decentralization, 7;
grievances, 132;
prefigurative, 7
South Africa, 40–42, 200
Stigmatization, 106, 107;
of Blackness, 106, 112, 227;
of Rastafari, 106, 107, 182;
and self-elevation, 107, 108;
and voluntary disclosure, 109. See also Blackness; Identity
Sturtevant, William, 57
Subversion of identity, race, xi-xii, 102, 181
Tacky Rebellion, 32
Tainos, 29
Thomas, D., 205, 231
Thompson, E. P., 28, 34
Tubman, William, 82
Turner, Henry, 41–42
Turner, Nat, 114, 122
Turning point, 127–29. See also Conversion
United Negro Improvement Association (UNIA), 46–47, 130, 172;
Liberty Hall, 63. See also Garvey, Marcus
University College of the West Indies (UCWI), 77, 92, 94
Vestry, 22, 26
Visions, 146–47
Voices of Ethiopia, 130
Walker, David, 40
Wallace, Anthony, 124
Walters, Herben, 102
White (racial identity), 25, 235n1;
hegemony, x
Women, and Rastafari, 54, 66–68, 203, 213–17;
markers of, 65;
presence among Rastafari, 66–67. See also Gender; Rastafari
Woodson, Carter, 105
“Word, sound and power,” theory of, 71–72, 78–79
Yard, 195–96;
tenement, 220
Young, Robert, 40;
on Black Messiah, 51