Jump to ContentJump to Main Navigation
Why Girls FightFemale Youth Violence in the Inner City$

Cindy D. Ness

Print publication date: 2010

Print ISBN-13: 9780814758403

Published to NYU Press Scholarship Online: March 2016

DOI: 10.18574/nyu/9780814758403.001.0001

Show Summary Details

(p.167) References

(p.167) References

Source:
Why Girls Fight
Publisher:
NYU Press

Bibliography references:

Acland, Charles (1995) Youth, Murder and Spectacle: The Cultural Politics of “Youth in Crisis.” Boulder, CO: Westview.

Adams, Carolyn; Bartelt, David; Elesh, David; Goldstein, Ira; Kleniewski, Nancy; & Yancey, William (1991) Philadelphia: Neighborhoods, Division and Conflict in a Postindustrial City. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.

Adler, Freda, & Simon, Rita (1979) The Criminology of Deviant Women. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.

American Correctional Association (1990) The Female Offender: What Does the Future Hold? Washington, DC: St. Mary’s.

Anderson, Elijah (1990) Streetwise: Race, Class, and Change in an Urban Community. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

——— (1999) Code of the Street: Decency, Violence, and the Moral Life of the Inner City. New York: Norton.

Anyon, Jean (1997) Ghetto Schooling: A Political Economy of Urban Education Reform. New York: Teacher’s College.

Appleton, James; Christenson, Sandra; & Furlong, Michael (2008) Student engagement with school: Critical conceptual and methodological issues of the construct. Psychology in the Schools 45(5): 369–386.

Armistead, Lisa; Wierson, M.; & Frame, C. (1992) Psychopathology in incarcerated juvenile delinquents: Does it extend beyond externalizing problems? Adolescence 27(106): 309–314.

Artz, Sibylle (1998) Sex, Power, and the Violent School Girl. Toronto: Trifolium.

Ask MetaFilter (1999–2008) Resources on urban blight? At ask.metafilter.com.

Baldwin, J. M. (2001) Selected Works of James Mark Baldwin: Developmental Psychology and Evolutionary Epistemology. Ed. Robert H. Wozniak. Bristol, England: Thoemmes.

Baskin, Deborah R., & Sommers, Ira B. (1997) Casualties of Community Disorder: Women’s Careers in Violent Crime. Boulder, CO: Westview.

Beck, Allen, & Mumola, Christopher (1999) Prisoners in 1998. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice.

Belknap, Joanne (1996) The Invisible Woman: Gender, Crime, and Justice. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.

Bewley, Joel, & Hefler, Jan (2006) Four killings put 2006 total over ’05 top. Philadelphia Inquirer, December 11. At http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_kmtpi/is_200612/ai_n16975780 (accessed 8/29/07).

(p.168) Bleyer, Jennifer (2000) USA: Touring the real Philly. At http://corpwatch.org/article.php?id=703 (accessed 8/12/07).

Block, Jeanne (1984) Sex Role Identity and Ego Development. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Blos, Peter (1982) The Adolescent Passage: Developmental Issues. New York: International Universities Press.

Blumstein, Alfred, & Wallman, Joel, eds. (2000) The Crime Drop in America. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Bourdieu, Pierre (1977) Outline of a Theory of Practice. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Bourgois, Phillipe (1995) In Search of Respect: Selling Crack in El Barrio. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Brooks-Gunn, J.; Duncan, G.; & Aber, J. L., eds. (1997) Neighborhood Poverty I: Context and Consequences for Children. New York: Russell Sage.

Brotherton, David (1996) Smartness, toughness, and autonomy. Journal of Drug Issues 26: 261–277.

Brown, Lyn Mikel (2003) Girlfighting: Betrayal and Rejection among Girls. New York: New York University Press.

Brown, Lyn, & Gilligan, Carol (1992) Meeting at the Crossroads: Women’s Psychology and Girls’ Development. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Brown, W. K. (1977) Black female gangs in Philadelphia. International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology 21: 221–228.

Burman, Michelle (2004) Turbulent talk: Girls’ making sense of violence. In Girls’ Violence?, ed. C. Alder & A. Worral, pp. 81–104. Albany: SUNY Press.

Camic, Paul Marc; Rhodes, Jean; &Yardley, Lucy, eds. (2003) Qualitative Research in Psychology: Expanding Perspectives in Methodology and Design. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

Campbell, Anne (1984) The Girls in the Gang: A Report from New York City. Cambridge, UK: Blackwell.

——— (1987) Self-definition by rejection: The case of gang girls. Social Problems 34(5): 451–466.

——— (1993) Out of Control: Men, Women, and Aggression. London: Pandora.

Chesney-Lind, Meda (1989) Girls’ crime and woman’s place: Toward a feminist model of female delinquency. Crime and Delinquency 35(1): 5–29.

——— (1992) Girls, Delinquency, and Juvenile Justice. Pacific Grove, CA: Brooks.

——— (1997) The Female Offender: Girls, Women, and Crime. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Chesney-Lind, Meda; Arts, Sibylle; & Nicholson, Diana (2002) Girls’ delinquency and violence: Making the case for gender-responsive programming. In Handbook of Violence, ed. Lisa A. Rapp-Paglicci, Albert R. Roberts, & John S. Wodarski, pp. 190–214. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.

Chesney-Lind, Meda, & Hagedorn, John, eds. (1999) Female Gangs in America. Chicago: Lake View.

Chesney-Lind, Meda, & Irwin, Katherine (2007) Beyond Bad Girls: Gender, Violence, and Hype. New York: Routledge.

Chesney-Lind, Meda, & Pasko, Lisa, eds. (2003) Girls, Women, and Crime: Selected Readings. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

(p.169) Child Trends Data Bank (2005) Teen homicide, suicide, and firearm death. At http://www.childtrendsdatabank.org/indicators/70ViolentDeath.cfm (accessed 7/10/09).

Chilton, Ronald, & Datesman, Susan (1987) Gender, race and crime: An analysis of urban trends: 1960–1980. Gender and Society 1(2): 152–171.

ChrisV’s Variety Blog (2007). The bodies fell, and the numbers rose. January 16. At http://chrisv82.blogspot.com/2007/01/bodies-fell-and-numbers-rose.html (accessed 7/8/07).

Cloward, Richard, & Ohlin, Lloyd (1960) Delinquency and Opportunity: A Theory of Delinquent Gangs. New York: Free Press.

Cobbina, Jennifer; Miller, Jody; & Brunson, Rod K. (2008) Gender, neighborhood risk, and risk avoidance strategies among urban African American youth. Criminology 46: 501–537.

Commonwealth of Pennsylvania v. Miriam White, Ruling of Judge Legrome Davis, November 2, 2000. At http://courts.phila.gov/pdf/opinions/whiteruling.pdf (accessed 9/8/08).

Crawford, Colin (1997) Forbidden Femininity, Child Sexual Abuse, and Female Sexuality. Burlington, VT: Ashgate.

Crick, Nicki; Ostrov, Jamie; Appleyard, Karen; Jansen, Elizabeth; & Casas, Juan (2004) Relational aggression in early childhood: “You can’t come to my birthday party unless …” In Aggression, Antisocial Behavior and Violence among Girls: A Developmental Perspective, ed. Martha Putallaz & Karen L. Bierman, pp. 71–89. New York: Guilford.

Crick, Nicki; Werner, Nicole; Casas, Juan; Obrien, K.; Nelson, David; Grotpeter, Jennifer; & Marion, K. (1999) Childhood aggression and gender: A new look at an old problem. In Nebraska Symposium on Motivation, ed. D. Bernstein, pp. 75–141. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press.

Daly, Kathleen, & Maher, Lisa (1998) Criminology at the Crossroads: Feminist Readings in Crime and Justice. New York: Oxford University Press.

Darnell, Regna (1990) Edward Sapir: Linguist, Anthropologist, Humanist. Berkeley: University of California Press.

Darnell, Regna, & Irvine, Judith, eds. (1994) Collected Works of Edward Sapir. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.

Denov, Myriam S. (2004) Perspectives on Female Sex Offending: A Culture of Denial. Burlington, VT: Ashgate.

Devine, John (1996) Maximum Security: The Culture of Violence in Inner-City Schools. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

DiIulio, John (1995) The coming of the super-predators. Weekly Standard, November 27, 23–28.

——— (1996) Broken bottles: Alcohol, disorder, and crime. Brookings Review 14: 14–17.

Dollard, John (1939) Frustration and Aggression. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.

Dorfman, Lori, & Schiraldi, Vincent (2001) Off Balance: Youth, Race, and Crime in the News. Building Blocks for Youth. Available at www.buildingblocksforyouth.org/media/.

Downs, Anthony (1997) The challenge of our declining big cities. Housing Policy Debate 8(2): 359–408.

(p.170) Erickson, Patricia G.; Butters, Jennifer E.; Cousineau, Marie-Marthe; Harrison, Lana; and Korf, Dirk. (2006). Girls and weapons: An international study of the perpetration of violence. Journal of Urban Health 83(3): 788–801.

Erikson, Erik (1950) Childhood and Society. New York: Norton.

Feshbach, Norma (1969) Sex differences in children’s modes of aggressive responses towards outsiders. Merrill-Palmer Quarterly 15: 249–258.

Feshbach, N. D., & Feshbach, N. (1969) The relationship between empathy and aggression in two age groups. Developmental Psychology 1: 102–107.

Figueria-McDonough, Josephina (1992) Community structure and female delinquency rates. Youth and Society 24: 3–30.

Freud, Sigmund (1905) Three Essays on Sexuality. In The Standard Edition of the Complete Psychological Works of Sigmund Freud, vol. 7, ed. James Strachey, pp. 135–243. London: Hogarth.

——— (1925) Some Psychical Consequences of the Anatomical Distinctions between the Sexes. In The Standard Edition of the Complete Psychological Works of Sigmund Freud, vol. 19, ed. James Strachey, pp. 243–258. London: Hogarth.

——— (1931) Female Sexuality. In The Standard Edition of the Complete Psychological Works of Sigmund Freud, vol. 21, ed. James Strachey, pp. 225–243. London: Hogarth.

——— (1933) New Introductory Lectures on Psychoanalysis. In The Standard Edition of the Complete Psychological Works of Sigmund Freud, vol. 22, ed. James Strachey, pp. 1–182. London: Hogarth.

Gilfus, Mary (1992) From victims to survivors to offenders: Women’s routes of entry and immersion in street crime. Women and Criminal Justice 4: 63–89.

Gilligan, James (1996) Violence: Reflections on a National Epidemic. New York: Vintage.

Giordano, Peggy (2009) Peer influences on girls delinquency. In The Delinquent Girl, ed. Margaret A. Zahn, pp.127–138. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.

Greenberg, M. T.; Lengua, L. J.; Coie, J. D.; & Pinderhughes, E. E. (1999) Predicting developmental outcomes at school entry using a multiple risk model: Four American communities. Developmental Psychology 33: 403–417.

Hagedorn, John (1988) People and Folks: Gangs, Crime and the Underclass in a Rust-Belt City. Chicago: Lake View.

Hall, Judith (1978) Gender effects in decoding nonverbal cues. Psychological Bulletin 85: 845–857.

Hawkins, Darnell (1983). Black and white homicide differentials: Alternatives to an inadequate theory. Criminal Justice and Behavior 10: 407–440.

Heidensohn, Frances (1985) Women and Crime. New York: New York University Press.

Heilbron, Johan; Magnusson, Lars; & Wittrock, Bjorn, eds. (1998) Conceptual Change in Context, 1750–1850. New York: Kluwer Academic.

Henington, Carlen; Hughes, Jan; Cavell, Timothy; & Thompson, B. (1998) The role of relational aggression in identifying aggressive boys and girls. Journal of School Psychology 36: 457–477.

Hill, Lauryn (1998) The Miseducation of Lauryn Hill. Philadelphia: Ruffhouse Records.

(p.171) Hill, Shirley Ann (1999) African American Children: Socialization and Development in Families. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

hooks, bell (1996) Killing Rage: Ending Racism. New York: Holt.

Howell, J. C. (2003) Preventing and Reducing Juvenile Delinquency: A Comprehensive Framework. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Irwin, Katherine, & Chesney-Lind, Mesa (2008) Girls’ violence: Beyond dangerous masculinity. Sociology Compass 2(3): 837–835. At http://socialsciences.people.hawaii.edu/publications_lib/BeyondDangerousMasc.pdf.

Jack, Dana (1999) Behind the Mask: Destruction and Creativity in Women’s Aggression. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Jacob, Joanna (2006) Male and female youth crime in Canadian communities: Assessing the applicability of social disorganization theory. Canadian Journal of Criminology and Criminal Justice 48(1): 31–60.

Jones, Nikki (2004) It’s not where you live, it’s how you live: How young women negotiate conflict and violence in the inner city. In Being Here and Being There: Fieldwork Encounters and Ethnographic Discoveries, ed. Elijah Anderson, Scott Brooks, Raymond Gunn, and Nikki Jones, pp. 49–62. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

——— (2009) Between Good and Ghetto: African American Girls and Inner City Violence. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press.

Kelly, Dierdre (1993) Last Chance High: How Girls and Boys Drop In and Out of Alternative Schools. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.

Kling, Jeffrey; Ludwig, Jens; & Katz, Lawrence F. (2004) Neighborhood effects on crime for female and male youths: Evidence from a randomized housing voucher experiment. Quarterly Journal of Economics 1(January): 87–130.

Knesting, Kimberly, & Waldron, Nancy (2006) Willing to play the game: How at-risk students persist in school. Psychology in the Schools 43(5): 599–611.

Konopka, Gisela (1966) The Adolescent Girl in Conflict. Englewood, NJ: Prentice Hall.

——— (1976) Young Girls: A Portrait of Adolescence. Englewood, NJ: Prentice Hall.

Kroneman, L.; Loeber, R.; & Hipwell, A. E. (2004) Is neighborhood context differently related to externalizing problems and delinquency for girls compared with boys? Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review 7(2): 109–122.

Kruttschnitt, Candace, & Giordano, Peggy (2009) Family influences on girls’ delinquency. In The Delinquent Girl, ed. Margaret A. Zahn, pp. 107–126. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.

Laidler, Karen, & Hunt, Geoffrey (2001) Accomplishing femininity among the girls in the gang. British Journal of Criminology 41: 656–678.

Lamb, Sharon (2001) The Secret Lives of Girls: What Good Girls Really Do. New York: Simon and Schuster.

Leadbeater, Bonnie, & Way, Niobe, eds. 1996. Urban Girls: Resisting Stereotypes, Creating Identities. New York: New York University Press.

Lederman, C., & Brown, E. (2000) Entangled in the shadows: Girls in the juvenile justice system. Buffalo Law Review 48: 909–925.

Leschied, A. W., & Cummings, A. L. (2002) Youth violence: An overview of predictors, counselling interventions, and future directions. Canadian Journal of Counseling 36: 252–264.

(p.172) Leschied, A. W.; Cummings, A. L.; Van Brunschot, M.; Cunningham, A.; & Saunders, A. (2001) A review of the literature on aggression in adolescent girls: Implications for policy, prevention and treatment. Canadian Psychology 42: 200–215.

Levanthal, Tama, & Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne (2000) The neighborhoods they live in: The effects of neighborhood residence upon child and adolescent outcomes. Psychological Bulletin 126: 309–337.

Levins, Hoag (2002) Industrial history, sweet and sour. At http://historiccamden-county.com/ccnews37.shtml.

Loeber, R., & Stouthamer-Loeber, M. (1998) Juvenile aggression at home and at school. In Violence in American Schools, ed. D. S. Elliott, K. R. Williams, & B. Hamburg, pp. 94–126. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Lombroso, Cesare, & Ferraro, William (1895) The Female Offender. London: Fisher Unwin.

Maccoby, Eleanor, & Jacklin, Carol (1974) The Psychology of Sex Differences. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.

Maher, Lisa (1997) Sexed Work: Gender, Race and Resistance in a Brooklyn Drug Market. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

——— (2004) A reserve army: Women and the drug market. In The Criminal Justice System and Women: Offenders, Prisoners, Victims, and Workers, ed. Barbara Raffel Price & Natalie Sokoloff, 3rd ed., pp. 127–146. Boston: McGraw-Hill.

Maher, Lisa, & Daly, Kathleen (1996) Women in the street-level drug economy: Continuity or change. Criminology 34(4): 465–491.

Mandelbaum, David, ed. (1949) Selected Writings of Edward Sapir in Language, Culture, and Personality. Berkeley: University of California Press.

Manke, B.; McGuire, S.; Reiss, D.; Hetherington, E. M.; & Plomin, R. (1995) Genetic contributions to adolescents’ extrafamilial social interactions: Teachers, best friends, and peers. Social Development 4: 238–256.

McCord, Joan; Spatz Widom, Cathy; & Crowell, Nancy A. (2001) Juvenile Crime, Juvenile Justice. Panel on Juvenile Crime: Prevention, Treatment, and Control. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.

McKee, Guian (2004) Urban deindustrialization and local public policy: Industrial renewal in Philadelphia, 1953–1976. Journal of Policy History 16(1): 66–98.

Miller, Jody (1998) Gender and victimization risk among young women in gangs. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency 35(4): 429–453.

——— (2001) One of the Guys: Girls, Gangs, and Gender. New York: Oxford University Press.

——— (2008) Getting Played: African American Girls, Urban Inequality, and Gendered Violence. New York: New York University Press.

Miller, Jody, & Brunson, Rod K. (2000) Gender dynamics in youth gangs: A comparison of male and female accounts. Justice Quarterly 17(3): 801–830.

Miller, Jody, & Mullins, Christopher (2005) Stuck up, telling lies, and talking too much: The gendered context of young women’s violence. In Gender and Crime: Patterns in Victimization and Offending, ed. Karen Heimer & Candace Kruttschnitt, 41–66. New York: New York University Press.

(p.173) Molnar, B. E.; Browne, A.; Cerda, M.; & Buka, S. L. (2005) Violent behavior by girls reporting violent victimization. Archives of Pediatric and Adolescent Medicine 159: 731–739.

Morash, Merry, & Chesney-Lind, Meda (2009) The context of girls’ violence: Peer groups, families, schools, and communities. In The Delinquent Girl, ed. Margaret A. Zahn, pp. 182–206. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.

Moretti, Marlene Marie; Odgers, Candice L.; & Jackson, Margaret A. (2004) Girls and Aggression: Contributing Factors and Intervention Principles. New York: Kluwer Academic/Plenum.

Morrison, Toni (1970) The Bluest Eye. New York: Random House.

Morrissey, Belinda (2003) When Women Kill: Questions of Agency and Subjectivity. New York: Routledge.

Moyer, Imogene L. (1992) Changing Roles of Women in the Criminal Justice System: Offenders, Victims, and Professionals. Prospect Heights, IL: Waveland.

Muller, Chandra (2001) The role of caring in the teacher-student relationship for at-risk students. Sociological Inquiry 71(2): 241–255.

Murray, Charles (1984) Losing Ground: American Social Policy, 1950–1980. New York: Basic Books.

Myers, David (2003) Adult crime, adult time, Youth Violence and Juvenile Justice 1(2): 173–197.

Nation (1966) A report from occupied territory. July 11.

Neckerman, Kathryn (2007) Schools Betrayed: Roots of Failure in Inner-City Education. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Ness, Cindy (2004) Why girls fight: Female youth violence in the inner city. Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 595: 32–48.

Newman, Katherine (1999) Falling from Grace: Downward Mobility in the Age of Affluence. Berkeley: University of California Press.

——— (2006) Chutes and Ladders: Navigating the Low-Wage Labor Market. New York: Russell Sage.

——— (2007) The Missing Class: Portraits of the Near Poor in America. Boston: Beacon.

Notebook (2004) Alternative school enrollment grew by 1,000 in 15 months. February. At http://www.thenotebook.org/newsflash/2004/february/alternative.htm (accessed 9/10/08).

Obeidallah, Dawn; Brennan, Robert; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne; & Earls, Felton (2004) Links between pubertal timing and neighborhood contexts: Implications for girls’ violent behavior. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 43(12): 1460–1468.

Obsuth, Ingrid; Moretti, M.; & Odgers, Candace (2006) Disentangling the effects of physical abuse and exposure to inter-parental violence on adolescents’ aggression across context. At http://www.sfu.ca/adolescenthealth/posters/INGRID_SRA_IPV_vs_Phys_Abuse_2006.pdf (accessed 10/15/2008).

Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP) (1997) Juvenile Justice Reform Initiatives in the United States 1994–1996. U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs. At http://ojjdp.ncjrs.org/pubs/reform/contents.html (accessed 7/20/07).

(p.174) ——— (2000) Female Delinquency Cases, 1997. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice.

——— (2001) Female Gangs: A Focus on Research. U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs. At http://www.ncjrs.gov/html/ojjdp/jjbul2001_3_3/contents.html.

——— (2002) Trends in Juvenile Violent Offending: An Analysis of Victim Survey Data. U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs. At http://www.ncjrs.gov/html/ojjdp/jjbul2002_10_1/contents.html (accessed 9/9/07).

Oliver, William (1994) The Violent Social World of Black Men. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Payne, Allison Ann; Gottfredson, Denise C.; & Kruttschnitt, Candace (2009) Girls, schools, and delinquency. In The Delinquent Girl, ed. Margaret A. Zahn, pp. 146–163. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.

Pollak, Otto (1950) The Criminality of Women. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.

Putallaz, M., & Bierman, K. L. (2004) Aggression, Antisocial Behavior, and Violence among Girls. New York: Guilford.

Rajah, V. (2006) Respecting boundaries: The symbolic and material concerns of drug-involved women employing violence against violent male partners. British Journal of Criminology 46(5): 837–858.

Rhodes, Jean, & Fischer, Karla (1993) Spanning the gender gap: Gender differences in delinquency among inner-city adolescents. Adolescence 28: 879–889.

Rose, Harold, & McClain, Paula (1990) Race, Place and Risk: Black Homicide in Urban America. Albany: SUNY Press.

Sampson, Robert J. (2002) Assessing neighborhood effects: Social processes and new directions in research. Annual Review of Sociology 28: 443–478.

——— (2003) The neighborhood context of well-being. Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 46(3): S53–S64.

——— (2008) Moving to inequality: Neighborhood effects and experiments meet social structure. American Journal of Sociology 114(1): 189–231.

Sampson, Robert; Raudenbush, Stephen; & Earls, Felton (1997) Neighborhoods and violent crime: A multilevel study of collective efficacy. Science 277: 918–924.

Sapir, Edward (1930) The cultural approach to the study of personality. Paper presented at Hanover Conference of 1930.

——— (1932) Letter to Alfred L. Kroeber, May 24, 1932. Archives of the University of California, Berkeley.

Shaw, Clifford (1930) The Jack-Roller. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Simmons, Rachel (2002) Odd Girl Out: The Hidden Culture of Aggression in Girls. New York: Harcourt.

Simons, R. L.; Johnson, C.; Beaman, J.; Conger, R. D.; & Whitbeck, L. B. (1996) Parents and peer group as mediators of the effect of community structure on adolescent problem behavior. American Journal of Community Psychology 24: 145–172.

Spencer, M. B.; Cross, W. E.; Harpalani, V; & Goss, T. N. (2001) Historical and developmental perspectives on Black academic achievement: Debunking the “acting White” myth and posing new directions for research. In Surmounting All Odds: Education, Opportunity, and Society in the New Millennium, ed. C. C. Yeakey. Greenwich, CT: Information Age.

(p.175) Steffensmeier, Darrell, & Allan, Emilie (1996) Gender and crime: Toward a gendered theory of female offending. Annual Review of Sociology 22: 459–487.

Steffensmeier, Darrell, & Haynie, Dana (2000) The structural sources of urban female violence in the United States. Homicide Studies 4(2): 107–134.

Steffensmeier, Darrell, and Schwartz, Jennifer (2009) Trends in girls’ delinquency and the gender gap: Statistical assessment of diverse sources. In The Delinquent Girl, ed. Margaret Zahn, pp. 50–83. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.

Stevens, Joyce (2002) Smart and Sassy: The Strengths of Inner-City Black Girls. New York: Oxford University Press.

——— (2005) Lessons learned from poor African American youth: Resilient strengths in coping with adverse environments. In Handbook for Working with Children and Youth: Pathways to Resilience across Cultures and Contexts, ed. Michael Ungar, 45–56. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Sunday, Suzanne; Labruna, Victor; Kaplan, Sandra; Pelcovitz, David; Newman, Jennifer; & Salzinger, Suzanne (2007) Physical abuse during adolescence: Gender differences in the adolescents’ perceptions of family functioning and parenting. Child Abuse and Neglect 32(1): 5–18.

Talbot, Elizabeth (1997) Reflecting on antisocial girls and the study of their development: Researchers’ views. Exceptionality 7: 267–272.

Tapper, K., & Boulton, M. J. (2000) Social representations of physical, verbal and indirect aggression: Age and sex differences. Aggressive Behavior 26: 542–545.

Testa, M.; Aston, N. M.; Krogh, M.; & Neckerman, K. M. (1989) Employment and marriage among inner-city fathers. Annals of the American Academy of Social and Political Sciences 501: 79–91.

Texas Youth Commission (2007) Review of Agency Treatment Effectiveness. At http://www.tyc.state.tx.us/research/TxmtEffect/05_forward.html (accessed 8/14/08).

Thrasher, Frederic (1927) The Gang: A Study of 1,313 Gangs in Chicago. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Underwood, Marion (2003) Social Aggression among Girls. New York: Guilford.

U.S. Census Bureau (2000) Census of Housing and Population. At http://www.census.gov/prod/cen2000/index.html.

Valentine, Charles (1968) Culture and Poverty: Critique and Counter-Proposals. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Vedder, Clyde, & Somerville, Dora (1973) The Delinquent Girl. Springfield, IL: Charles Thomas.

Vico, Giambattista (1948 [1725]) The New Science: Principles of the New Science Concerning the Common Nature of Nations. Trans. T. G. Bergib & M. H. Fisch. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.

Vitiello, Dominic (2004) Urban America: What it was and what it is becoming. Working Paper #15. At http://www.sp2.upenn.edu/america2000/wp15all.pdf (accessed 6/14/07, 7/24/07, 7/29/07).

Vygotsky, L. S. (1978) Mind in Society: Development of Higher Psychological Processes. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Wallace, Don; Hirschinger-Blank, Nancy; & Grisso, Jeane A. (2008) Female-female non-partner assault: A political-economic theory of street codes and female-gendered culture in the contemporary African-American inner city. Critical Sociology 34(2): 271–290.

(p.176) West, Cornel (1993) Race Matters. Boston: Beacon.

Whiting, Beatrice B., & Edwards, Carolyn P. (1973) A cross-cultural analysis of sex differences in the behavior of children aged 3–11. Journal of Social Psychology 91: 171–188.

Whyte, William Foote (1943) Street Corner Society: The Social Structure of an Italian Slum. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Widom, Cathy (1989) Does violence beget violence? A critical examination of the literature. Psychological Bulletin 106(1): 3–28.

Wikipedia. History of Philadelphia. At http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_philadelphia (accessed 7/24/07).

——— Philadelphia. At http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Philadelphia%2C_Pennsylvania#_note-38 (accessed 8/19/07).

——— Philadelphia Naval Shipyard. At http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Philadelphia_Naval_Shipyard.

Wilson, James (1975) Thinking about Crime. New York: Basic Books.

Wilson, James, & Herrnstein, Richard (1985) Crime and Human Nature. New York: Simon and Schuster.

Wilson, William J. (1987) The Truly Disadvantaged: The Inner-City, the Underclass and Public Policy. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Wiseman, Rosalind (2002) Queen Bees and Wannabes: Helping Your Daughter Survive Cliques, Gossip, Boyfriends, and the Realities of Adolescence. New York: Crown.

Wolfgang, Marvin, & Ferracuti, Franco (1967) The Subculture of Violence: Towards an Integrated Theory in Criminology. London: Tavistock.

Yonas, M. A.; Ocampo, P.; Burke, J. G.; & Gielen, A. C. (2007) Neighborhood-level factors and youth violence: Giving voice to the perceptions of prominent neighborhood individuals. Health Education and Behavior 34(4): 669–685.

Zahn, Margaret, ed. (2009) The Delinquent Girl. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.

Zahn, Margaret A.; Brumbaugh, Susan; Steffensmeier, Darrell; Feld, Barry C.; Morash, Merry; Chesney-Lind, Meda; Miller, Jody; Payne, Allison Ann; Gottfredson, Denise C.; & Kruttschnitt, Candace S. (2008) Violence by teenage girls: Trends and contexts. Girls Study Group: Understanding and Responding to Girls’ Delinquency (Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, U.S. Department of Justice, Washington, DC). At http://girlsstudygroup.rti.org/docs/OJJDP_GSG_Violence_Bulletin.pdf.