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Idle ThreatsMen and the Limits of Productivity in Nineteenth Century America$

Andrew Lyndon Knighton

Print publication date: 2012

Print ISBN-13: 9780814748909

Published to NYU Press Scholarship Online: March 2016

DOI: 10.18574/nyu/9780814748909.001.0001

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(p.233) Index

(p.233) Index

Source:
Idle Threats
Publisher:
NYU Press
Abrams, Robert E., 160, 161
acedia, 15, 42, 184nn33–34
Adorno, Theodor W.:
Aesthetic Theory, 54, 84–85, 198n11;
critical theory, 152–57, 226n4–6;
on dissolution of work/play binary, 124, 170, 226–27n8;
“Free Time,” 152;
Minima Moralia, 154, 155, 156, 230n53;
on the “museal,” 134;
Negative Dialectics, 157, 177–78, 230n53
Agamben, Giorgio, 183n22
agency, 21, 32, 77, 92, 106, 119, 153, 186n45
A.K.H.B., “Concerning Hurry and Leisure,” 111–13
Allston, Washington, 57–65, 205n91;
Elijah in the Desert, 57–59, 58, 64–65, 199–200n25;
“The Hypochondriac,” 57, 60–61, 62, 66, 200n28;
Lectures on Art, 52, 53, 61–65, 200n36, 200–201n40;
Moonlit Landscape, 59, 73;
paintings, 77;
on procrastination, 200n27
Althusser, Louis, 48
Antelyes, Peter, 102
Aquinas, Thomas, 15, 17, 184n33
arbitrariness, 6, 7, 126, 182n13
architecture, 3, 38–41, 108–11, 197n4
Arsić, Branka, 168, 188n1, 189n3, 190n12, 227n26, 229n44
asceticism, 16–17
assemblage(s):
in “Bartleby, the Scrivener,” 44;
city as, 150–51;
of concepts, 174–75;
social body as, 143–44, 146–51;
theory, 9–10, 182n17
Astor, John Jacob, 189n6
Atlantic, 158
Augst, Thomas, 26, 189n5
bachelordom, 20–22, 98–99, 161, 227n25
Baily, Francis, 214n86
Bartleby Industry, 25–26, 229n35
“Bartleby, the Scrivener” (Melville), 3, 22, 25–50, 162;
B.’s alleged previous employment, 27;
B.’s effect on coworkers, 28–29, 31–33, 34, 41, 45–46, 49;
B.’s enigma, 26;
B.’s imprisonment, 31, 40–41, 42, 49;
B.’s initial productivity, 33–34, 45;
B.’s passivity, 28, 29, 31–33, 168;
B.’s perpetual presence, 13, 33–34, 44–45, 169;
consumption in, 45;
individualism in, 27–29, 32, 34, 35, 48–49;
method vs. prudence in, 26–27, 28–29;
narrator’s character, 26–28, 29, 49;
narrator’s offer to B., 49–50;
office’s “natural arrangement,” 43–45;
the “residual” in, 33–37;
source text, 26, 29–33, 191n19;
spatial unworking, 37–41;
temporal unworking, 42–50;
Wall Street setting, 38–40
Baur, John, 72, 203n72
Baxter, Richard, 16, 17
Becker, Gary, 35
Beecher, Catharine, 139
Bellers, John, 213n68
(p.234) Benjamin, Walter, 216n107
Berte, Leigh Ann Litwiller, 135–36
Bertolini, Vincent, 20, 161
Bhabha, Homi, 183n19
Bierstadt, Albert, 52, 204n78, 204n80
Billington, Ray Allen, 214n81
Bjelajac, David, 59, 199–200n25
Blaug, Mark, 192n29
body:
decline of, 145–51;
disciplinary coercion of, 38, 48, 123;
energy of, 22, 141–42;
exhaustion of, 125;
individual compared with social, 126–29, 130;
individual rights and, 93;
leisure’s benefit to, 113–14, 131–32;
as metaphor for nation, 130;
social attitudes toward, 125, 224–25n57;
women’s, 209–10n24
Boime, Albert, 74
Bologna, Sergio, 68
Boswell, James, 200n28
Braudel, Fernand, 185n35
Brown, Helen E., 93–94
Bryant, John, 197n3, 229nn41–42
Bryant, William Cullen, 78, 98, 100
Bulwer Lytton, Edgar, 29
Burke, Edmund, 55, 68
Burns, Sarah, 80
Caldwell, Charles, 199n19
Call, Annie Payson, 5
capitalism:
architecture of, 38–40;
circulation in, 67–71;
exploitation of labor, 104–5;
frontier lands and, 87–89, 93, 100–106, 115–20;
human capital theory, 35;
knowledge capital, 35–37;
leisure economy and, 34, 154;
social capital, 36;
women’s work and, 139–40;
work ethic and, 15–17, 34, 90–96
Casarino, Cesare, 13
Cassian, John, 15, 16, 184n33
Castiglia, Christopher, 187n50
Castronovo, Russ, 182n16
Centennial Exposition (Philadelphia), 135
Church, Frederic Edwin, 52
circulation theory, 22, 35–37, 41, 47, 67–71, 194n48
city:
architecture, 38–40;
expansion of services to suburbs, 110–11, 215n101;
freedom circumscribed by, 100, 107;
idlers in, 111–15;
as repository of social energies, 150–51;
retreat from, 40;
urban grid, 107–8
Clarke, James Freeman, 3–5, 6, 14, 131, 216n117
Claude, landscape paintings of, 64, 65, 75, 76
Clinton, Dewitt, 196–97n2
Cobbett, William, 117, 217n124
Cole, Thomas:
depiction in Durand painting, 78;
“Essay on American Scenery,” 51–57, 58–59, 85, 196n2;
paintings, 76, 77, 202–3n68, 205n91
Columbian Exposition (Chicago), 135, 222nn35–36
Conley, John, 186n46
Conness, John, 133
consumption:
of art, 84–85;
in “Bartleby, the Scrivener,” 45;
by freed slaves, 94–95;
human capital theory and, 35;
leisure economy and, 34, 124, 138, 155–57;
nineteenth-century growth, 66;
passive, 149;
unproductive, 20–21
contemplation:
contemplative sublime in art, 57–59, 63–65, 74–75, 77–78;
nature’s importance in, 53–54, 199n19;
perceived unproductivity of, 16
Cooper, James Fenimore, 207n11;
The Oak Openings, 100, 212n57
Cowan, Bainard, 164
credit, money and, 46–47
Crévecoeur, J. Hector St. John de, 90
Cronon, William, 91, 209n22
Cropsey, Jasper:
Dawn of Morning, Lake George, 78;
Starrucca Viaduct, Pennsylvania, 78–79, 79, 204n82
(p.235) culture industry, 124
Curtis, Edward S., 223n39
Custer, George Armstrong, 206n1
Dana, Richard Henry, Sr., 19, 22, 53–54, 57, 60, 81, 85–86, 203n68
Davis, Alexander Jackson, 108
Davis, James, 117
deep time, 173–74, 228n28, 230n49
Deleuze, Gilles, 183n22, 194n38, 207n9;
“Bartleby: or, The Formula,” 192n24;
A Thousand Plateaus, 8–9, 11, 118, 122, 217n127, 218n137, 224n52;
What Is Philosophy?, 174–75
Delphy, Christine, 140
Descartes, René, 26–27, 189n8, 191n17
dialectics:
of Adorno, 156–57, 177–78;
of Hegel, 157;
nature and civilization, 91, 107;
of repose and activity, 62–63, 65–76, 107–8, 111–15, 119;
of Thoreau, 158–59
Dickens, Charles, 108
Dimand, Mary Ann, 140–41
Dimock, Wai-Chee, 10, 12, 13, 161, 173–74, 184n26, 228n28, 230n49
discipline:
enclosure and, 38–41, 47–49, 122–23, 179, 194n42;
of freed slaves, 93–95, 209n23;
free time and, 37, 124–25;
money and, 194n38;
time and, 42–43
dreams, dreaming:
contemplative reverie, 23, 59;
daydreaming at work, 30, 39, 169–70;
Thoreau on, 157–62;
unproductive thinking as, 168–69
Dreiser, Theodore, 125;
Sister Carrie, 3, 18, 22, 145–51
Duffield, George, 105
Dunlap, William, 52, 205n90
Durand, Asher B., 78, 84, 202n63, 205n95
Durand, John, 82, 83
Dwight, Timothy, 90, 106, 208n14
Eden, Sir Frederick Morton, 103
Eggleston, Edward, 207n11
Emerson, Ralph Waldo:
landscape’s effect on, 75–76;
Manifest Destiny viewed by, 119–20, 121–22;
“Nature,” 72, 203n74;
railroad viewed by, 219n141;
“The Transcendentalist,” 190n12
energy:
of body, 22, 141–42;
busyness and, 60–61, 158–59, 170, 172;
city as repository of, 150–51;
earth’s, 130–31;
Gilman’s work on, 141–45;
mental, 127, 158–59;
money as, 146–51, 225n64;
nationalism and, 128;
national parks as reserves of, 130–34;
in nature, 55, 91;
repose as restoration of, 114, 153;
reserve, 125–29;
subterranean, 129–30;
temporal markers and, 43–45;
urban, 39–40;
work and, 121
England, vagrancy in, 103–4, 211n44
Enlightenment, 17, 26–28, 29, 37–38
Erie Canal, 52, 196n2
“escape valve” theory, 103–4, 213n67
Evans, Simon, 134
exchange theory of limits, 8–10, 14, 183n19
exhaustion, 6;
of bodies, 125;
of frontier, 125, 129–38;
Gilman’s work on, 141–45;
idleness and, 124–25;
James’s writings on, 126–29;
leisure and, 136–38
exodus, 105–6, 214n76
fatigue. See exhaustion
Fichtelberg, Joseph, 21–22
Fifer, J. Valerie, 136–38
Finerty, John F., 88
Fink, Eugen, 181n7
Fisher, Philip, 145
Fisk, Clinton Bowen, 94–95, 96, 97, 210n31
Foucault, Michel, 38, 41, 42–43, 48, 193n32, 194n38, 195n54, 195n56
Franklin, Benjamin, 46–47, 195n56
Fraser, Charles, 199n19
Freedman’s Bureau texts, 93–95, 210n31, 210n35
(p.236) “free time”:
Adorno on, 152, 154–57;
denigration of, 155–57;
dissolution of, 23, 45;
productivity of, 37, 173–74
Frémont, John, 100
Freud, Sigmund, 228n31
frontier lands:
bee dispersion into, 100–102, 121, 212n57;
cultivation of, 91–92, 98–102, 119–20;
exhaustion of, 125, 129–38;
“exodus” and, 105–6;
exploration of, 100–101;
individualism on, 117–19;
Irving’s travels through, 97–102, 115–16;
mobility through, 103–5, 121–23;
national parks and, 130–38;
Native American population, 90–92;
nostalgia and, 106;
settlement of, 87–89;
settlers viewed by Easterners, 90, 102–6, 116–17;
spatio-temporal aspects, 115–20;
vacancy in, 87, 99, 119, 207n7;
wild horses in, 99–100
Fuller, Margaret, 59
Garland, Hamlin, 90, 207n11
Garnett, William A.:
“Train Crossing the Desert, Kelso, California,” 122, 123
gender and unproductivity, 19–22, 139–41
Gibbons, J. S., 39–40
Gidley, Mick, 91
Gifford, Sanford Robinson, 72, 78, 203n73
Giles, Paul, 12, 207n9
Gilman, Charlotte Perkins:
Human Work, 141;
“Thoughts and Figgerings,” 124, 126, 145, 219n4;
Women and Economics, 141;
work calculations, 125, 126, 129, 138–45, 187n48, 224n51;
The Yellow Wallpaper, 141
Gilmore, Michael, 163, 228–29n35, 229n36
Gilmore, Robert, 77
Glacier National Park, 131, 132
Gleason, William, 219n3
Great Northern Recreational Map of Glacier National Park, 136, 137, 138
Greeley, Horace, 131;
Overland Journey, 208–9nn16–17;
suburban living promotion, 108–9;
westward expansion promotion, 88, 90, 105
Guattari, Félix:
A Thousand Plateaus, 8–9, 11, 118, 122, 207n9, 217n127, 218n137, 224n52;
What Is Philosophy?, 174–75
Guild, James, 82
Hardt, Michael, 49, 183n22, 190n14, 195n54
Hawthorne, Nathaniel, 152;
The Scarlet Letter, 169–77
Hazen, William B.:
Our Barren Lands, 87–89, 120, 206n1
Heade, Martin Johnson, 52, 72, 77–78, 204n78;
Lynn Meadows, 79–81, 80;
Thunderstorm on Narragansett Bay, 73, 74
Hegel, Georg W. F., 54, 177, 178, 179
Hegeman, Susan, 91, 209n20
Heidegger, Martin, 133, 138
Henry VIII, King of England, 103–4
history painting, 82, 83–84, 85, 205n90
Hoag, Ronald Wesley, 190–91n15
Hone, Philip, 207–8n12
Horkheimer, Max, 124
Howat, John K., 197n2
Hudson River school, 55, 72, 75, 76
Huhndorf, Shari, 135, 222nn35–36, 222–23n38
human capital, 35, 36, 192–94nn29–34
Hunt, Marvin, 27–28, 28
Idle Man (journal), 19, 22, 53–54, 57, 60, 81, 85–86
idleness. See unproductivity; specific topics
individualism:
Adorno on, 177;
in “Bartleby, the Scrivener,” 27–28, 32, 34, 35, 48–49, 168–69;
capitalism and, 68, 69;
contract labor and, 93–94, 117–19;
frontier and, 117–19;
repose and, 62
(p.237) industrialization:
interchangeable parts in, 77;
nature’s relationship to, 51–57;
productivity and, 18, 122–23
Inness, George, 78–79
Irving, Washington:
Astoria, 207n10, 216n106;
Bracebridge Hall, 99;
expatriate experience, 98;
productive leisure viewed by, 114–15, 211n45;
“Rip Van Winkle,” 3, 18, 98;
A Tour on the Prairies, 89, 97–102, 115–16, 120, 207n7
Jackson, Henry, 209n20
Jackson, Kenneth, 108–11, 214n84
James, William, 6, 125, 220n7;
“The Energies of Men,” 19, 124, 126–29, 145;
“The Gospel of Relaxation,” 1, 5, 14, 128–29
Jameson, Fredric, 229n38
Jarves, James Jackson, 76
Jeffersonian freehold philosophy, 91–92, 106, 118, 214n84
Jenemann, David, 226n4
Journal of Political Economy, 36
Kensett, John Frederick, 72;
Eaton’s Neck, Long Island, 75, 75;
Newport Coast, 203n73
King, Thomas Starr, 131
knowledge capital, 35–37, 163–65, 194n40
Kordela, Kiarina, 6–7
Kuebrich, David, 190n11
landscape:
leisure and, 40;
social utility of, 84–85, 121–23;
suburban reconfiguration of, 107–11;
vacancy in, 45, 87–89, 99
landscape painting. See also luminist painting:
as circulating commodity, 85;
magisterial gaze in, 74;
Native Americans depicted in, 91;
nineteenth-century, 52, 55, 72–86;
paradox of American, 81–86;
railroad depictions in, 78–81;
recombination of elements in, 77;
repose in, 57–65, 72;
social utility of, 85;
sublimity in, 55–65
Lane, Fitz Hugh, 72, 73
Langdon, Samuel, 105
leisure, 6, 111–15;
Adorno’s theories on, 154–57;
bourgeois concept of, 113–14;
economy, 18, 34, 36, 124–25, 134, 138;
landscape and, 40, 85;
productive use of, 113–14, 124–25, 134–35, 211n45;
as reward, 49–50, 155;
Thoreau’s views on, 157–62
Leontief, Wassily, 34
Levin, Lewis C., 120
Levinas, Emmanuel, 1
limits of productivity, 8–14
Locke, John, 141–42, 143, 146
London, Jack, 144
London Magazine, 200n28
Long, Stephen H., 88
Loria, Achille, 130
luminist painting, 72–81, 202nn65–66, 203n72;
horizontality, 73–74, 77, 204n78;
temporal stillness, 13, 52, 72–73, 76–77, 203–4n77
Lummis, Charles, 121, 218–19n140
Lutz, Tom, 219n3, 220n7
Machlup, Fritz, 35–36, 193n34, 193n36
Manifest Destiny ideal, 119–20
Martineau, Harriet, 105
Marx, Karl, and Marxism, 11;
circulation theory, 22, 67–71;
critique of servitude, 210n24;
Grundrisse, 36–37, 68–71, 201n54, 202n57;
on mobility of labor, 102–3, 104–5;
on value as differential, 6–7, 149;
women’s work viewed by, 140
Marx, Leo, 38, 40, 56, 192n25
Maupassant, Guy de, 156
Mayhew, Henry, 216–17n122
(p.238) McCall, Dan, 25, 189–90nn8–9, 190n11
McClure, Phillips and Co., 142
Melville, Herman, 13, 152, 183n22. See also “Bartleby, the Scrivener” individual entry;
“Bartleby, the Scrivener,” 3, 13, 22, 25–50, 162, 168;
Moby-Dick, 162–69, 190n12;
Pierre: or, The Ambiguities, 197n4;
Redburn, 169
Merish, Lori, 21
Meyers, Kenneth John, 84, 85
Michaels, Walter Benn, 210n24
Mills, Hubert V., 185n42
Mitchell, W. J. T., 85
modernity:
city and, 150–51;
freedom curbed by, 100, 152, 154–57;
productive order and, 133, 179–80;
railroad and, 121–23;
secular, 6–7;
spatio-temporal delineation, 48;
studies of, 11, 23, 184n26, 195n56;
vital reserve theory and, 125;
work ethic and, 2, 16–17
money:
discipline and, 194n38;
landscape painting’s analogy with, 85;
Marx’s circulation theory, 67–71;
as motive, 53;
productive vs. unproductive means of acquiring, 4–5;
semiotic value, 149;
Simmel’s philosophy, 22;
as stored energy, 146–51, 225n64;
Thoreau’s views on, 159–60;
time linkage, 46–47, 195n56;
unproductive consumption and, 20–21
Muir, John, 130
Mumford, Lewis, 109, 215n101
Muybridge, Eadweard, 91
Nancy, Jean-Luc, 196n67, 198n14
National Advocate, 83–84
national consensus, fiction of, 10, 11–12
nationalism, 11–12
national manhood, 19–20
national park system, 130–38, 143–44, 221n27, 223n39
Native Americans, 98–101;
contested territories, 98;
Irving’s views on, 212n49;
nomadism of, 92, 115–16, 209n22;
purported passivity, 90, 101, 208–9nn16–17;
“taming” of, 135;
viewed as unproductive by white settlers, 89, 90–92, 119
naturalism:
in artwork, 54–55;
literary, 144–45;
in Marx’s Grundrisse, 68
nature:
aesthetic experience of, 198n11;
energy of, 130–31;
frontier and, 88–89, 91–92, 119–23;
landscape painting, 57–65;
money and, 201n54;
nineteenth-century “progress” and, 51–57, 72–81;
religion and, 54;
self-consciousness of, 197n4;
social utility of, 84–85;
spiritual truth and, 197–98n8
Nelson, Dana, 19–20, 21, 187n48
Nerdrum, Lars, 192n30
Newton, Sir Isaac, 63
New York Journal, 82
Ngai, Sianne, 186n45, 188n1
Nietzsche, Friedrich Wilhelm, 13
nomadism and vagrancy:
in England, 217n122;
mobility of reluctant workers, 102–6;
of Native Americans, 92, 115–16;
saloon keeper as, 208n15;
tourist as alternative to, 135–36;
of wild horses, 99–100
noonday demon, 42, 43–44, 154, 168, 169, 170
Norris, Frank, 131–32, 134, 145, 225n59
Norton, Charles Eliot, 119
Novak, Barbara, 55, 72, 73–74, 76, 202n65, 203–4n77, 205n91
Olmsted, Frederick Law, 108
O’Sullivan, John, 218n138
Paris, idlers in, 112, 216n107
Parkman, Francis, 215n101
(p.239) passivity, 21–22, 188n59;
Adorno’s theories accused of, 152;
in “Bartleby, the Scrivener,” 28, 29, 31–33, 41, 49, 191n16;
erroneous opposition with activity, 149;
intellectual, 164–65;
knowledge and, 178–79;
purported of emancipated slaves, 93;
purported of Native Americans, 90, 101, 208–9nn16–17;
of women, 139
Peck, Jedediah, 117
Pepper, Thomas, 230n53
Pike, Zebulon, 206n5
plane of immanence, 141–42, 143, 174–76
Plato, 177
play:
intellectual work as, 177;
productivity of, 181n7;
social attitudes toward, 125
play/work binary, 3–5, 6, 7, 185n45;
dissolution of, 23, 45, 124, 152, 154–57, 167, 170, 226–27n8;
leisure economy and, 36–37
plot of decline, 145–51
Poe, Edgar Allan:
“The Domain of Arnheim,” 57
Ponticus, Evagrius, 169
Poore, Henry Rankin, 201n48
Posnock, Ross, 153
Postone, Moishe, 183n25, 186n47, 195n56
Powell, Earl A., 74, 198n14, 204n79
procrastination, 1–2, 49, 200n27
progress, idea of, 51, 53, 56–57, 99–102, 134–35
prostitution, 140
Protestantism, work ethic and, 15–16, 15–17, 185n40, 185n43
Puritanism, 4, 16, 17, 18, 46, 82, 105, 170, 176, 185n37
Putnam’s Monthly Magazine, 111–12
Rabinbach, Anson, 124, 141, 219n2
railroads:
landscape depictions of, 78–79;
national parks and, 132, 136–38, 223n40;
westward expansion of, 53, 87, 119–23, 196–97n2, 199n19, 206n1, 219n141
Randolph, John, 217n133
Reconstruction, 93
recreation, 4, 125, 131, 135–36. See also play
relaxation. See repose
religion, nature and, 54
repose, 6, 51–86;
as achievement of inner work, 127, 128–29, 158–59;
capitalism and, 71;
in equilibrium with activity, 60–62, 111–15, 198n13;
higher education and, 113–14;
James on, 5;
nature and, 51–57, 72–81;
in nineteenth-century landscape painting, 57–65;
of whales, 163–64
residual, concept of, 22, 33–37
reverse causality, 23–24
Rigal, Laura, 188–89n2, 226n5
Rinehart, Mary Roberts, 131, 133–34
Rogers, Robert, 60
Rogin, Michael, 164, 166
Roosevelt, Theodore, 132
Rowe, John Carlos, 10–11
Ruskin, John, 130
Salvator Rosa, 56, 59
Saussure, Ferdinand de, 6, 7, 149, 182n13
Schultz, Theodore, 35, 193n32
Sears, John F., 133, 221n27, 221n29
“second wind” phenomenon, 126–29, 150
Seed, Patricia, 8
sentimentalism, 21–22
Simeon Stylites, Saint, 166, 176
Simmel, George, 22, 148–49, 150
Sjaastad, Larry S., 36
slave labor, 18, 93–94, 119, 209n23
Sleeper, Joseph, 117
Sloth and Thrift, 95–96
Smalley, E. V., 208n15
Smith, Adam, 214n83
(p.240) Smith, Henry Nash, 206n5, 207n11
Smock, Ann, 31, 41, 191n18
Snyder, Katherine V., 20
social capital, 36, 193n36
Southern Literary Messenger, 112
spatiality:
circulation and, 68;
Columbian Exposition’s plan, 135;
configuration of for freedmen, 95–96;
destination geography, 135–36;
exodus concept and, 105–6;
of frontier lands, 89, 115–20, 132;
home’s importance, 95–96;
industrialization’s annihilation of, 56–57, 67, 78–81;
Manifest Destiny and, 119–20;
mobility of consciousness, 178–79;
mobility of work force, 102–6;
of plane of immanence, 143–44;
rethinking, 10, 12, 22;
Thoreau on, 161–62, 228n28;
unproductivity’s unworking of, 26, 37–41, 48, 176;
urban and suburban planning and, 107–11;
workplace productivity and, 38
Spaul, Martin, 134
Spivak, Gayatri Chakravorty, 184n26
Stanley, John Mix:
Oregon City on the Willamette River, 91, 92
Stebbins, Theodore, 80, 81, 204n81
Stephanson, Anders, 209n21
Street, Nicholas, 105
sublimity, 199n19, 200n36, 203n74;
in art theory, 55–57, 61–65;
capitalist, 69;
of frontier, 90;
in luminist painting, 72–81, 198n14;
in meditation, 165, 166–67;
spatio-temporal awareness and, 65;
of whales, 163–64
suburbia, 40, 107–11, 197n4
surplus value, concept of, 6–7, 11, 103, 129, 131, 140, 182n10, 193n36, 196n65
Tanner, Tony, 229n35
temporality:
awareness of, 65;
circulation and, 68;
“deep time,” 173–74,
“free time” and, 154, 155;
of frontier lands, 115–20;
industrialization’s annihilation, 56–57, 67, 78–81;
luminist painting’s stoppage, 13, 52, 72–73, 76–77, 203–4n77;
money/time linkage, 46–47, 94–96, 117–18, 195n56;
perpetual presence of Bartleby, 44–45, 47, 169;
of plane of immanence, 143–44;
“purposive time,” 42;
rethinking, 10, 12–13, 22;
unproductivity’s unworking, 26, 42–50, 48, 176, 195n54;
“vital reserves” and, 145–51;
workplace productivity and, 38
Theresa, Saint, 16
Thompson, E. P., 42, 46
Thoreau, Henry David, 152, 228n28;
“Life Without Principle,” 158, 162, 182n14;
thought-experiments, 175;
“Walking,” 102, 105, 157–62, 227n26;
on work/play binary, 7
Tilgher, Adriano, 2, 185n40
Tocqueville, Alexis de, 56
Traister, Bryce, 98, 99
travel and tourism:
in frontier lands, 89, 97–102, 115–16, 121–23;
national parks and, 130–38, 221n27;
nomadism and, 135–36;
rationalization of, 52;
spatiotemporality and, 67;
by train, 196n2
Trumbull, John, 83
Turner, Frederick Jackson, 106, 118, 129
Twain, Mark, 116–17, 119
unproductivity:
Adorno’s theories on, 154–57;
Bartleby Industry and, 25–26;
of California gold rush, 116–17;
concept of, 2, 3, 17, 18–19, 179–81;
at Custom House, 169–70;
drunkenness and, 208n15;
economic class and, 6;
as economic problem, 22–23, 124–25;
of frontier lands, 87–89, 115–20, 207n7;
horizontal power and, 119;
idleness as form of activity, 61–62, 152;
importance of, 2–3;
in law offices, 29–30, 32–33, (p.241) 188–89n2;
modernity’s anxiety toward, 179–80;
morality and, 3;
Native Americans’ alleged, 89, 90–92;
nomadism and, 92, 96;
of painting, 81–86;
prehistory of, 14–17;
“real profit” in, 7;
seductions of idleness, 97, 172–73;
shades of meaning, 6;
taxonomy of, 4–5;
women’s work and, 139–45
untimeliness, 13
vacancy, 6;
of Bartleby, 33–34, 39, 45;
of desert, 45, 122–23, 206nn4–5;
idleness and, 111–15, 177, 207n7;
in landscape, 45, 87–89, 99, 119, 212n62;
in Moby-Dick, 167–68
value systems:
aesthetic, 83–84;
economic, 5, 6–7, 11, 34–35;
limits in, 8–14;
moral, 5
Vanderlyn, John, 83, 84, 205n91
Vattel, Emerich de, 209n21
Veblen, Thorstein, 192n29
Veronese, Paolo:
Marriage at Cana, 66–67
Virno, Paolo, 37, 106, 194n40, 214n82
“vital reserves,” 124–51, 219n3;
decline of over time, 145–51;
frontier lands and national parks as, 129–38;
Gilman’s work on, 138–45;
James’s writings on, 126–29;
money as, 148–51;
naturalism and, 144–45;
progress and, 135;
theory of, 125–29
Wakefield, E. G., 102–3, 106, 119, 120, 207n7, 214n83
Wald, Priscilla, 14
Walker, Francis Amasa, 93
Walzer, Michael, 105, 214n76
Ware, William, 58–59, 199n21
Wattles, Sluman, 117
Weber, Max, 15–17, 46, 47, 184–85n35
Wenzel, Siegfried, 15, 184n34
West, Benjamin, 82
Western Monthly Magazine, 211n44
White, Robert Grant:
Law and Laziness, 26, 29–33, 42, 50, 188n2, 194n48, 195n51
Whitman, Walt, 120, 175–76
Whitney, Eli, 204n80
Willis, Nathaniel Parker, 55–56, 215nn93–94;
American Scenery, 197n4;
country cottages, 109–10;
Health Trip to the Tropics, 109
Wilmerding, John, 202n65
Wilson, James C., 28, 191n16
Wilson, James Grant, 215n94
Wilson, Rob, 198–99n17
work:
contract labor, 93–94;
as energy, 143–45;
European attitudes toward, 5;
Gilman’s calculations about, 126, 128–45;
inner vs. outer, 127;
intellectual, 158–59, 171–75;
late nineteenth-century notions of, 124–25;
at law offices, 29–30, 32–33;
meaning and normative value of, 2;
in Moby-Dick, 162–69;
passivity in, 165–67;
piecework calibration, 47;
slave labor, 93–94;
writing as, 171
work ethic:
Bartleby character and, 26;
in “Bartleby, the Scrivener,” 26–28, 29;
in contract labor, 90–95;
emergence of, 15–17;
fundamental value of, 2;
industrialization and, 18;
money/time linkage, 46–47;
nineteenth-century ambivalence toward, 1–2, 14, 18;
Puritans and, 4;
resistance to, 170–71
work/play binary, 3–5, 6, 7, 185n45;
dissolution of, 23, 45, 124, 152, 154–57, 167, 170, 226–27n8;
intellectual work as play, 177;
leisure economy and, 36–37 (p.242)