Jump to ContentJump to Main Navigation
Black Television TravelsAfrican American Media around the Globe$

Timothy Havens

Print publication date: 2013

Print ISBN-13: 9780814737200

Published to NYU Press Scholarship Online: March 2016

DOI: 10.18574/nyu/9780814737200.001.0001

Show Summary Details

(p.195) References

(p.195) References

Black Television Travels
NYU Press

Bibliography references:

Acham, Christine (2004) Revolution Televised: Prime Time and the Struggle for Black Power. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.

——— (2007) “’I’m Rich, Bitch!!!’ The Comedy of Chappelle’s Show.” In Cable Visions: Television beyond Broadcasting, ed. Sarah Banet-Weiser, Cynthia Chris, and Anthony Freitas, 319–37. New York: New York University Press.

Adejunmobi, Moradewun A. (2007) “Nigerian Video Film as Minor Transnational Practice.” Postcolonial Text 3 (2): 1–16.

Alemoru, Olu (2010) “Showcasing Talent on a Smaller Screen.” Los Angeles Wave, 24 February. Accessed 1 July 2011. http://www.wavenewspapers.com/entertainment/85296392.html.

Al-Mugaiseeb, Khalid (1998) Interview by the author with CEO, Kuwait TV 2.

Alvarado, Manuel, and Edward Buscombe (1978) Hazell: The Making of a TV Series. London: British Film Institute.

Alvey, Mark (2004) “’Too Many Kids and Old Ladies’: Quality Demographics and 1960s U.S. Television.” Screen 45: 40–62.

Anderson, Christopher (2000) “The Weeping Detective.” Paper presented at the Telecommunications Colloquium, University of Wisconsin–Madison.

Anderson, Christopher, and Michael Curtin (1997) “Mapping the Ethereal City: Chicago Television, the FCC, and the Politics of Place.” Quarterly Review of Film and Video 16: 289–305.

Ang, Ien (1991) Desperately Seeking the Audience. London: Routledge.

Appadurai, Arjun (1996) Modernity at Large: Cultural Dimensions of Globalization. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.

Bagdikian, Ben (2000) The Media Monopoly. Boston: Beacon.

Baldick, Chris (2009) The Oxford Dictionary of Literary Terms. 3rd ed. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Barnett, Clive (1995) “The Limits of Media Democratization in South Africa: Politics, Privatization and Regulation.” Media, Culture and Society 21: 649–71.

Barns, Lawrence (1981) “TV’s Drive on Spiraling Costs.” Business Week, 26 October, 199.

Barthes, Roland (1972) “The Great Family of Man.” In Mythologies, trans. Annette Lavers, 100–116. New York: Hill and Wang.

Becker, Ron (2006) Gay TV and Straight America. Piscataway: Rutgers University Press.

“Belgian Parliament Adopts TV Law as Flanders Socialists Withdraw Ban” (1986) New Media Markets, 26 November. Accessed 4 January 2007. http://web.lexis-nexis.com.

Berry, S. Torriano (2009) Interview by the author with director, Noh Matta Wat.

Bhabha, Homi (1994) The Location of Culture. London: Routledge.

Bielby, Denise, and C. Lee Harrington (2008) Global TV: Exporting Television and Culture in the World Market. New York: New York University Press.

“Big Brother Not Watching Bop-TV” (1984) Rand Daily Mail, 23 August, 10.

Birchall, Clare (2007) “How Gay Sex Changed the World.” Guardian, 21 July, 75.

(p.196) Bleicher, Joan (2004) “Germany.” In Encyclopedia of Television, 2d ed., ed. Horace Newcomb, 588–91. New York: Fitzroy Dearborn.

Bodroghkozy, Aniko (1992) “’Is This What You Mean by Color TV?’: Race, Gender and Conflicted Meanings in NBC’s Julia.” In Private Screenings: Television and the Female Consumer, ed. Lynn Spigel and Denise Mann, 143–67. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.

“Bop-TV Blackout Angers Viewers” (1984) Rand Daily Mail, 16 July, 1.

“Bop-TV Issue: You Don’t Kid Us, Pik Is Told” (1984) Rand Daily Mail, 16 August, 4.

“Bop-TV Petition Fails” (1984) TV World, December, 8.

“Bop-TV’s Fare Just Excellent” (1984) Rand Daily Mail, 10 August, 8.

Boskin, Joseph (1986) Sambo: The Rise and Demise of an American Jester. New York: Oxford University Press.

Botha, Martin (2006) Personal communication with the author, 14 January.

Boyd, Todd (2001) The New H.N.I.C.: The Death of Civil Rights and the Reign of Hip Hop. New York: New York University Press.

Boyer, Peter J. (1986) “Production Cost Dispute Perils Hour TV Dramas.” New York Times, 6 March, C26.

Brennan, Steve (2005) “International Markets Like Chris at TV’s MIPCOM.” Accessed 2 July. http://www.backstage.com/bso/esearch/article_display.jsp?vnu_content_id=1001308155.

Brunsdon, Charlotte (1990) “Problems with Quality.” Screen 31: 67–90.

Buell, Frederick (1994) National Culture and the New Global System. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.

“But ‘Closed Skies’ over South Africa?” (1984) Rand Daily Mail, 18 August, 8.

Buxton, James (1985) “Italy’s Private Television Networks Become Legal.” Television Business International, 6 February, I2.

Caldwell, John Thornton (1995) Televisuality: Style, Crisis, and Authority in American Television. New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press.

——— (2008) Production Culture: Industrial Reflexivity and Critical Practice in Film and Television. Durham: Duke University Press.

Cartell, Philip (2007) “Nollywood Comes to the Caribbean.” Film International 5 (4): 112–14.

Cassidy, Marsha, and Mimi White (2002) “Innovating Women’s Television in Local and National Networks: Ruth Lyons and Arlene Francis.” Camera Obscura 17: 31–69.

Caughie, John (1990) “Playing at Being American: Games and Tactics.” In Logics of Television: Essays in Cultural Criticism, ed. Patricia Mellencamp, 44–58. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.

Chapman, William (1977) “Roots Becomes Japan’s Latest Fad.” Washington Post, 23 October, A1+.

Christian, Aymar Jean (2009) “Orlando’s Joint: Urban, Stoned and Running a Business.” Televisual Blog. Accessed 1 July 2011. http://blog.ajchristian.org/2009/12/11/orlandos-joint-urban-stoned-and-running-a-business/.

Clark, Bob (1999) Interview by the author with president, Story First Communications (Russia).

Clarke, Kamari Maxine, and Deborah A. Thomas (2008) Globalization and Race: Transformations in the Cultural Production of Blackness. Durham: Duke University Press.

Cloud, Dana (1996) “Hegemony or Concordance? The Rhetoric of Tokenism in ‘Oprah’ Winfrey’s Rags-to-Riches Biography.” Critical Studies in Mass Communication 13: 115–38.

Cohen, Bert (1999) Interview by the author with CEO, Worldvision.

(p.197) Coleman, Robin R. Means (1998) African American Viewers and the Black Situation Comedy: Situating Racial Humor. New York: Garland.

comScore (2007) “’Primetime’ U.S. Video Streaming Activity Occurs on Weekdays between 5–8 p.m.” Accessed 20 September 2009. http://www.comscore.com/Press_Events/Press_Releases/2007/03/Primetime_US_Online_Video.

Correia, J. Manuel (1984a) “Jam as They Like, Bop-TV Wins.” Rand Daily Mail, 25 August, 3.

——— (1984b) “TV1 Gain Leaves Its Black Rivals Behind.” Rand Daily Mail, 31 August, 5.

——— (1984c) “TV4 Will Be Launched in March.” Rand Daily Mail, 6 December, 1.

Correia, J. Manuel, and Sue Faulkner (1984) “Fight’s On to Watch Bop-TV.” Rand Daily Mail, 2 August, 1.

Cowell, Alan (1984) “South Africa Whites See Black TV.” New York Times, 1 August, C22.

Cunningham, Stuart, and Elizabeth Jacka (1996) Australian Television and International Mediascapes. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Curtin, Michael (1996) “On Edge: Culture Industries in the Neo-Network Era.” In Making and Selling Culture, ed. Richard Ohmann, 181–202. Hanover, NH: Wesleyan University Press.

——— (1999) ”Feminine Desire in the Age of Satellite Television.” Journal of Communication 44 (2): 55–70.

——— (2008) Playing to the World’s Biggest Audience: The Globalization of Chinese Film and TV. Berkeley: University of California Press.

Curtin, Michael, and Jane Shattuc (2009) The American Television Industry. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.

Curtis, Hillary (1997) “Have Comedy, Will Travel?” TV World, August–September, 31–36.

De Bens, Els, and Hedwig de Smaele (2001) “The Inflow of American Television Fictions on European Broadcasting Channels Revisited.” European Journal of Communication 16: 51–76.

Deeb, Gary (1977) “Black Presence of TV Limited to Comedy.” News and Courier Charleston Evening Post, 17 June, 15C.

Deeken, Aimee (2006) “Second Lap for Adult Swim’s Boondocks.” Mediaweek, 20 January, 5. Accessed June 10, 2009. ABI/INFORMGlobal.

Dewi, Torsten (1999) Interview by the author with commissioning producer of international coproductions, Prosieben (Germany).

Diamond, Malcolm (1977) “Roots.” RAIN 21: 6–7.

Dinerman, Ann S., and Dom Serafini (1997) “The World’s 95 Power TV Buyers.” Video Age International, 16 June, 1.

Dixon, Kathleen (2001) “The Dialogic Genres of Oprah Winfrey’s ‘Crying Shame.’ ” Journal of Popular Culture 35: 171–91.

Dixon, Travis (2000) “A Social Cognitive Approach to Studying Racial Stereotyping in the Mass Media.” African American Research Perspectives 6 (1). Accessed 15 July 2009. http://www.rcgd.isr.umich.edu/prba/perspectives/winter2000/tdixon1.pdf.

Downing, John (1988) “The Cosby Show and American Racial Discourse.” In Discourse and Discrimination, ed. G. Smitherman-Donaldson and T. A. Van Dijk. Detroit: Wayne State University Press.

Dudziak, Mary (2000) Cold War Civil Rights: Race and the Image of American Democracy. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

Durán, Ignacio (1999) Interview by the author with vice president of international affairs, TV Azteca.

(p.198) Eastman, Susan Tyler, and Douglas A. Ferguson (2006) Media Programming: Strategies and Practices. 7th ed. Belmont, CA: Thomson/Wadsworth.

Elam, Harry J., Jr., and Kennell Jackson (2005) Black Cultural Traffic: Crossroads in Global Performance and Popular Culture. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.

Ellis, John (2000) “Scheduling: The Last Creative Act in Television?” Media, Culture and Society 22: 25–38.

Ely, Melvin Patrick (1991) The Adventures of Amos ’n’ Andy: A Social History of an American Phenomenon. New York and Toronto: Maxwell Macmillan.

Entman, Robert M., and Andrew Rojecki (2000) The Black Image in the White Mind: Media and Race in America. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

“Europe’s ‘Other’ Channels: Numbers Double Every Three Years” (1997) Screen Digest, 1 March, 57–64.

Fabre, Michel (1979) “The Reception of Roots in France.” American Studies International 17 (3): 36–39.

Falaiye, Muyiwa (1999) “Africa versus the West in the Court of Reparations.” African Studies Quarterly 3: 23–28.

Feuer, Jane, Paul Kerr, and Tise Vahimagi (1983) MTM: Quality Television. London: British Film Institute Publishing.

Firehorse Films (2003) “Go Home, Stay Home.” Television script.

Fiske, John (1987) Television Culture. New York: Routledge.

——— (1996) Media Matters: Race and Gender in U.S. Politics. Rev. ed. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Flanigan, James (1987) “The American Dream Is Best Export U.S. Has.” Los Angeles Times, 9 September, sec. 4, p. 1.

Flint, Joe (2005) “As Critics Carp, HBO Confronts Ratings Decline.” Wall Street Journal, 8 June, B1.

Ford, Jeff (1999) Interview by the author with controller of acquisitions, Channel 5 Broadcasting (United Kingdom).

Foucault, Michel (1979) Discipline and Punish: The Birth of the Prison. Trans. Alan Sheridan. New York: Random House.

——— (1980) The History of Sexuality. Vol. 1, An Introduction. Trans. Robert Hurley. New York: Vintage.

“Freedom of the Air” (1984) Rand Daily Mail, 23 August, 10.

Fuller, Linda (1992) The Cosby Show: Audiences, Impact, and Implications. Westport, CT: Greenwood.

Funt, Peter (1979) “Where Did All the Miniseries Go?” New York Times, 18 November, D43, 46.

Games, Dianna (1984) “SABC’s Bottom Line Is Respectability.” Rand Daily Mail, 17 July, 1.

Gandy, Oscar (1998) Communication and Race. London: Arnold Press.

Garcia-Cuesta, Paloma (1999) Interview by the author with acquisitions director, Antena 3 (Spain).

Gates, Henry Louis, Jr. (1989) The Signifying Monkey: A Theory of African-American Literary Criticism. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Geissler, Michael (1992) “The Disposal of Memory: Fascism and Holocaust on West German Television.” In Framing the Past: The Historiography of German Film and Television, ed. Bruce Murray and Chris Wickham, 220–60. Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press.

(p.199) Gilroy, Paul (1993) The Black Atlantic: Modernity and Double-Consciousness. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.

Gitlin, Todd (1983) Inside Prime Time. London: Routledge.

Goldberg, David Theo (1993) Racist Culture: Philosophy and the Politics of Meaning. Malden, MA: Blackwell.

——— (2002) The Racial State. Malden, MA: Blackwell.

Gomez, Michael, ed. (2006) Diasporic Africa: A Reader. New York: New York University Press.

Gray, Herman (1986) “Television and the New Black Man: Black Male Images in Prime-Time Situation Comedy.” Media, Culture and Society 8: 223–42.

——— (1995) Watching Race: Television and the Struggle for “Blackness.” Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.

——— (2005) Cultural Moves: African Americans and the Politics of Representation. Berkeley: University of California Press.

“Gyökerek és Emberek” (1980) Magyar Nemzet, 20 February, 4.

“A Győkerek Győkerei” (1980) Népszava, 5 February, 5.

Haag, Laurie L. (1993) “Oprah Winfrey: The Construction of Intimacy in the Talk Show Setting.” Journal of Popular Culture 26: 115–21.

Hairman, Robit (1987) “Television by Apartheid.” Village Voice, 3 May, 8.

Hajjawi, Bassam (1999) Interview by the author with president and CEO, International Distribution Agency (Jordan).

Haley, Alex (1966) The Autobiography of Malcolm X. New York: Grove.

Hall, Carla, Victoria Dawson, Jacqueline Trescott, Desson Howe, and Megan Rosenfeld (1986) “Thursday Night at the Huxtables.” Washington Post, 6 November, D1.

Hall, Stuart (1993a) “Encoding/Decoding.” In The Cultural Studies Reader, ed. S. During, 90–103. New York: Routledge.

——— (1993b) “What Is This ‘Black’ in Black Popular Culture?” Social Justice 20: 104–15.

——— (1996) “New Ethnicities.” In Stuart Hall: Critical Dialogues in Cultural Studies, ed. David Morley and Kuan-Hsing Chen, 442–51. London: Routledge.

Harper, Phillip Brian (1998) “Extra-Special Effects: Televisual Representation and the Claims of ‘the Black Experience.’ ” In Living Color: Race and Television in the United States, ed. Sasha Torres, 62–81. Durham: Duke University Press.

Harrison, James (2004) “FX289 Lines Up HBO Drama Hit.” Channel 21, 21 September. Accessed 20 September 2009. http://www.c21media.net/news/detail.asp?area=4&article=21820.

Havens, Timothy (2000) “’The Biggest Show in the World’: Race and the Global Popularity of The Cosby Show.” Media, Culture and Society 22: 371–91.

——— (2006) Global Television Marketplace. London: British Film Institute Publishing.

——— (2008) “The Hybrid Grid: Globalization, Cultural Power, and Hungarian Television Schedules.” Media, Culture and Society 29: 219–39.

Havens, Timothy, Amanda D. Lotz, and Serra Tinic (2009) “Critical Media Industry Studies: A Research Approach.” Communication, Culture, Critique 2: 234–53.

Henderson, Felicia D. (2010) Interview by the author with executive producer, Soul Food.

Henry, Greg (1986) “Why Is It That a Show Which Pulls a Massive 51 Per Cent Following in Its Home Country Can Only Muster a Measly Three Million Viewers Here?” Televisuality, 21 April, 33–34.

Herman, Edward, and Robert McChesney (1997) The Global Media: The New Missionaries of Global Capitalism. London: Cassell.

(p.200) Hesmondhalgh, David (2000) The Cultural Industries. London: Sage.

Heuton, Cheryl (1990) “An Enviable Situation: The Format Once Declared Dead Now Rules Syndication.” Channels, 17 December, 36–38.

Hilmes, Michelle (2003) “Who We Are, Who We Are Not.” In Planet TV: A Global Television Reader, ed. Lisa Parks and Shanti Kumar, 94–110. New York: New York University Press.

Hirsch, Paul (1972) “Processing Fads and Fashions: An Organization-Set Analysis of Cultural Industry Systems.” American Journal of Sociology 77: 639–59.

hooks, bell (1981) Ain’t I a Woman? Black Women and Feminism. Boston: South End.

——— (1992) “Eating the Other: Desire and Resistance.” In Black Looks: Race and Representation, 21–39. Boston: South End.

——— (1995) “Performance Practice as a Site of Opposition.” In Let’s Get It On: The Politics of Black Performance, ed. C. Ugwu, 210–21. Seattle: Bay Press.

Hoskins, Colin, Stuart McFadyen, and Adam Finn (1997) Global Television and Film: An Introduction to the Economics of the Business. New York: Oxford University Press.

Houston, Marsha (2000) “Multiple Perspectives: African American Women Conceive Their Talk.” Women and Language 23: 11–17.

Huff, Richard (1996) “Sharing the Joke.” Television Business International, October, 52.

IDATE Consulting and Research (2010) TV 2010: Markets and Trends, Facts and Figures. Montpelier, France. Accessed 11 June 2010. http://www.idate.org/2009/pages/download.php?id=124&t=f_telech_actu&fic=White_Paper_TV.pdf&repertoire=news/508_TV_2010.

Jackson, Kennell (2005) Introduction to Black Cultural Traffic: Crossroads in Global Performance and Popular Culture, ed. H. Elam and K. Jackson, 1–39. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.

JanMohammed, Abdul R., and David Lloyd (1990) “Toward a Theory of Minority Discourse: What Is to Be Done?” In The Nature and Context of Minority Discourse, ed. A. R. JanMohammed and D. Lloyd. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Jenkinson, David (2006) “Sky Bar Set High.” Channel 21, 25 May. Accessed 20 September 2009. http://www.c21media.net/news/detail.asp?area=4&article=30618.

Jhally, Sut, and Justin Lewis (1992) Enlightened Racism. San Francisco: Westview.

Jordan, Marion (1981) “Realism and Convention.” In Coronation Street, ed. Richard Dyer, 27–39. London: British Film Institute Publishing.

Kaner, Mark (1999) Interview by the author with president of international, Twentieth Century Fox Television Distribution.

Keown, Michelle (2005) Postcolonial Pacific Writing: Representations of the Body. New York: Routledge.

Kinging, Glen (1976) Letter to David Wolper from program manager, Channel 7 Sydney, 11 October. David L. Wolper Archives, 282-016. University of Southern California, Los Angeles.

Kochman, Thomas (1983) Black and White Styles in Conflict. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Kover, Amy (1998) “The After-School Specialist.” Fortune, 13 April, 32.

“La Cinq and M6 Still Not Meeting Obligations” (1989) New Media Markets, 24 May. Accessed 4 January 2007. http://web.lexis-nexis.com.

Lampel, Joseph (2011) “Converting Values into Other Values: Fairs and Festivals as Resource Valuation and Trading Events.” In Negotiating Values in the Creative Industries: Fairs, (p.201) Festivals, and Competitive Events, ed. Brian Morean and Jesper Strandgaard Pedersen, 334–47. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Lander, Richard (1984) “South Africa in a Jam as Bop Hops Color Line.” Globe and Mail, 28 February, 21.

Larkin, Brian (2008) Signal and Noise: Media, Infrastructure, and Urban Culture in Nigeria. Durham: Duke University Press.

Lazarus, Herb (1999) Interview by the author with president, Carsey-Warner International.

Leavy, Suzan (1990) “Performers Cash In on S.A. Sales.” Stage and Television Today, 11 October (Archive: 19591994). Accessed 25 August 2012. http://www.proquest.com.

Lennard, Daniel (2004) “United States of Animation.” Channel 21, 18 May. Accessed 18 April 2007: http://www.c21media.net/features/detail.asp?area=2&article=20435.

Levin, Gary (2004) “HBO Met Its Match in Itself.” USA Today, 28 September, D1.

Levine, Elana (2001) “Toward a Paradigm for Media Production Research: Behind the Scenes at General Hospital.” Critical Studies in Media Communication 18: 66–83.

——— (2007) Wallowing in Sex: The New Sexual Culture of 1970s American Television. Durham: Duke University Press.

Lippman, John (1992) “Banking on the Huxtables.” Los Angeles Times, 30 April, D1.

Lipsitz, George (1994) Dangerous Crossroads: Popular Music, Postmodernism and the Poetics of Place. London: Verso.

Loader, J. A. (1985) “Church, Theology and Change in South Africa.” In South Africa: A Plural Society in Transition, ed. D. J. van Vuuren, N. E. Wiehahn, J. A. Lomard, and N. J. Rhoodie, 272–302. Durban, South Africa: Butterworth.

Lócsey, Gabriella (1980) “Győkerek és az Emberek.” Magyar Nemzet, 20 February, 4.

Lott, Eric (1993) Love and Theft: Blackface Minstrelsy and the American Working Class. New York: Oxford University Press.

Lotz, Amanda (2004) “Textual (Im)Possibilities in the U.S. Post-Network Era: Negotiating Production and Promotion Processes on Lifetime’s Any Day Now.” Critical Studies in Media Communication 21: 22–43.

——— (2006) Redesigning Women: Television after the Network Era. Urbana: University of Illinois Press.

——— (2007) The Television Will Be Revolutionized. New York: New York University Press.

Luscombe, Belinda (2009) “Making New Mileys: Disney’s Teen-Star Factory.” Time, October 22, http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,1931732,00.html. Accessed August 31, 2012.

Lustyik, Katalin, and Philippa K. Smith (2010) “From The Simpsons to ‘The Simpsons of the South Pacific’: New Zealand’s First Primetime Animation, bro’Town.” Television and New Media 11: 331–49.

Mahlati, Cawe (1999) Interview by the author with CEO, Bophuthatswana Television.

Mahler, Richard (1990) “What Sells Best Overseas.” Electronic Media, 15 January, 82.

Marenzi, Gary (2008) Interview by the author with co-president for worldwide television, Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer.

Martin, Neil A. (1980) “Miniseries Are Getting Maxi Again.” New York Times, 14 December, D36.

Mayne, Jane (2007) “The Colour Maroon.” Cape Times, 23 November, 8.

McCabe, Janet, and Kim Akass, eds. (2007) Quality TV: Contemporary American Television and Beyond. London: I. B. Tauris.

McGregor, Charles (1977) “The Roots Phenomenon.” Warner World, 3+.

(p.202) Michell, John (1984) “SA Miles Ahead of SABC-TV Oxwagon.” Rand Daily Mail, 15 August, 10.

Miller, Toby, et al. (2005) Global Hollywood 2. London: BFI Publishing.

Mitchell, Elizabeth (2009) Interview by the author with executive producer, Firehorse Films.

Mitchell, John L. (2008) “Mexico’s Black History Is Often Ignored.” Los Angeles Times, 13 April.

Mitchell, Tony, ed. (2001) Global Noise: Rap and Hip-Hop outside the USA. Middletown, CT: Wesleyan University Press.

“Mit Látunk—Mit Hallunk” (1980) Népszava, 12 February.

Morris, David Z. (2010) “Minzoku Madness: Hip Hop and Japanese National Subjectivity.” Ph.D. diss., University of Iowa.

Mufson, Steve (1986) “The ‘Cosby Plan’ for South Africa.” Wall Street Journal, 30 July, sec. 1, p. 17.

Mulder, Frank (1999) Interview by the author with director of program acquisition and sales, Nederlandse Omroep Stichting.

NCTA (2011) “History of Cable.” Accessed 1 July 2011. http://www.ncta.com/About/About/HistoryofCableTelevision.aspx.

Nederveen Pieterse, Jan (1992) White on Black: Images of Africa and Blacks in Western Popular Culture. New Haven: Yale University Press.

Newcomb, Horace (2000) “Television and the Present Climate of Criticism.” In Television: The Critical View, 6th ed., ed. Horace Newcomb, 1–16. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Newcomb, Horace, and Robert S. Alley (1983) The Producer’s Medium: Conversations with Creators of American TV. New York: Oxford University Press.

Newcomb, Horace, and Paul Hirsch (1983) “Television as a Cultural Forum.” Quarterly Review of Film 8: 45–55.

Nielsen Media (2007) “Nielsen Begins Including College Students Away from Home in Its National People Meter Sample.” Accessed July 15, 2010. http://www.prnewswire.com/news-releases/nielsen-begins-including-college-students-away-from-home-in-its-national-people-meter-sample-53799402.html.

Nippert, Matt (2004) “The Simpsons of the South Pacific.” New Zealand Listener, 25 September. Accessed 18 September 2009. http://www.listener.co.nz/issue/3359/features/2630/the_simpsons_of_the_south_pacific.html.

Nixon, Rob (1994) Homelands, Harlem and Hollywood: South African Culture and the World Beyond. London: Routledge.

“No SABC Monopoly” (1984) Rand Daily Mail, 20 July, 8.

Ogunnaike, Lola (2005) “The Comic-Strip Revolution Will Be Televised.” New York Times, 30 October, 29.

Okome, Onookome (2007) “Nollywood: Africa at the Movies.” Film International 5 (4): 4–9.

Omi, Michael, and Howard Winant (1994). Racial Formations in the United States from the 1960s to the 1990s. New York: Routledge.

“On the Rise in Network TV: Costs and Independents” (1980) Broadcasting, 30 June, 28–43.

Owen, Bruce M., and Steven S. Wildman (1992) Video Economics. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.

Owens-Ibie, Nosa (2000) “Programmed for Domination: U.S. Television Broadcasting and Its Effects on Nigerian Culture.” In “Here, There, and Everywhere”: The Foreign Politics of American Popular Culture, ed. R. Wagenleitner and E. T. May. Hanover: University Press of New England.

(p.203) Papathanassopoulos, Stylianos (1989) The Deregulation of Television and Policies for New Media Development: A Comparative Study of the United Kingdom, France, Luxembourg and the Broadcasting Policy of the European Community during 1981–86. London: City University.

Payne, Monica (1994) “The ‘Ideal’ Black Family? A Caribbean View of The Cosby Show.” Journal of Black Studies 25: 231–49.

Peck, Janice (1994) “Talk about Racism: Framing a Popular Discourse of Race on Oprah Winfrey.” Cultural Critique 27: 89–126.

Peterson, Richard A., and N. Anand (2004) “The Production of Culture Perspective.” Annual Review of Sociology 30: 311–34.

Pfister, Roger (2005) Apartheid South Africa and African States: From Pariah to Middle Power. London: I. B. Tauris.

Poindexter, Paula M., and Carolyn A. Stroman (1981) “Blacks and Television: A Review of the Research Literature.” Journal of Broadcasting 25: 103–22.

Poussaint, Alvin (1998) Foreword to African American Viewers and the Black Situation Comedy: Situating Racial Humor, ed. R. R. Means Coleman, xi– xiv. New York: Garland.

Pratt, Andy (2004) “The Cultural Economy.” International Journal of Cultural Studies 7: 117–28.

Quinlan, Sterling (1979) Inside ABC: American Broadcasting Company’s Rise to Power. Winter Park, FL: Hasting House.

Raphel, David (1976) Letter to David Wolper from president, Twentieth Century Fox International Corporation. David L. Wolper Archives, 282-016. University of Southern California, Los Angeles.

Raschka, Marilyn (1988) “Hold Your Fire, It’s Cosby Time: TV Show’s Popularity Cuts across All Factions in Beirut.” Chicago Tribune, 19 June, sec. 5, p. 16.

Reid, Robert H. (1978) “Roots Is on German TV.” News Free-Press, 9 March.

Reynolds, Debbie (1984) “New TV Station Sparks Fresh Row.” Rand Daily Mail, 19 November, 3.

Rhoodie, Nic J., C. P. de Kock, and M. P. Couper (1985) “White Perceptions of Socio-Political Change in South Africa.” In South Africa: A Plural Society in Transition, ed. D. J. van Vuuren, N. E. Wiehahn, J. A. Lomard, and N. J. Rhoodie, 303–34. Durban, South Africa: Butterworth.

Richter, Paul (1985) “Viacom Quietly Becomes a Major Force in TV.” Los Angeles Times, 22 September, sec. 5, p. 1.

——— (1986) “Networks Get the Picture of Cost-Cutting.” New York Times, 26 October, sec. 5, p. 1.

Riggs, Marlon (1991) Color Adjustment. San Francisco: California Newsreel Distributing.

Roeder, Bill (1978) “Roots in South Africa.” Newsweek, 15 May, 27.

Roots a Hit in Australia” (1977) Daily Variety, 13 January. David L. Wolper Archives, 283-015. University of Southern California, Los Angeles.

“Roots Sets TV Records in Italy” (1978) San Diego Union, 30 September. David L. Wolper Archives, 283-015. University of Southern California, Los Angeles.

Ross, Karen (1996) Black and White Media: Black Images in Popular Film and Television. Cambridge: Polity Press.

Ruggie, John (1993) “Territoriality and Beyond: Problematizing Modernity in International Relations.” International Organization 47: 139–74.

Russell, Irwin E. (1975) “Memo to All Involved ABC Personnel,” 14 November. David L. Wolper Archives, 104-003. University of Southern California, Los Angeles.

(p.204) Sacchi, Franco, and Robert Caputo (2009) This Is Nollywood. San Francisco: California Newsreel Distributing.

Saenz, Michael (2004) “Programming.” In Encyclopedia of Television, 2d ed., ed. Horace Newcomb, 1833–42. New York: Fitzroy Dearborn.

Scannell, Paddy (1988) “Radio Times: The Temporal Arrangement of Broadcasting in the Modern World.” In Television and Its Audiences: International Research Perspectives, ed. P. Drummond and R. Patterson. London: BFI Publishing.

Schapiro, Mark (1991) “Lust-Greed-Sex-Power: Translatable Anywhere.” New York Times, 2 June, B29.

Schnedecker, Gary (1999) Interview by the author with director of acquisitions, Disney Channel España.

Seeger, Murray (1978) “Roots Successful in W. Germany.” Jackson Daily News, 16 March. David L. Wolper Archives, 283-015. University of Southern California, Los Angeles.

Seiler, John (1999) Transforming Mangope’s Bophuthatswana: Towards Democracy in the North West Province. Accessed 15 September 2001. http://www.mg.co.za/mg/projects/bop/.

Shattuc, Jane (1997) The Talking Cure: TV Talk Shows and Women. London: Routledge.

Sherwood, Rick (1992) “For Whom the ‘Bell’ Tolls.” Hollywood Reporter, 3 November, S1.

Shohat, Ella, and Robert Stam (1994) Unthinking Eurocentrism: Multiculturalism and the Media. London: Routledge.

Silverstone, Roger (1994) Television and Everyday Life. London: Routledge.

Simpson, Peter R. (1976) Letter to David L. Wolper from president, Simcom International, 27 August. David L. Wolper Archives, 282-016. University of Southern California, Los Angeles.

Smith-Shomade, Beretta (2007) Pimpin’ Ain’t Easy: Selling Black Entertainment Television. London: Routledge.

Sofley, Kris (2005) “Comic Strip Series Fans Controversy.” Channel 21, 3 November. Accessed 20 September 2009. http://www.c21media.net/news/detail.asp?area=4&article=27345.

Sollors, Werner (1979) “The Reception of Roots in Germany.” American Studies International 17 (3): 40–44.

Somerset-Ward, Richard (1976) Letter to David Wolper from director–United States, British Broadcasting Corporation, 28 September. David L. Wolper Archives, 282-016. University of Southern California, Los Angeles.

South African Truth and Reconciliation Committee (1997) Media Hearing. September 15–17. Accessed August 24, 2012.

Spiller, Nancy (1990) “Bop-TV Is Free from S. African Censorship.” Chicago Tribune, 18 June, C5.

Spring, Greg (1998) “Why Some U.S. Sitcoms Can Conquer Europe.” Electronic Media, 5 October, 6.

Squire, Corinne (1994) “Empowering Women? The Oprah Winfrey Show.” Feminism and Psychology 4 (1): 63–79.

Stevenson, Richard W. (1987) “TV Boom in Europe Is Aiding Hollywood.” New York Times, 28 December, D1.

Stoler, Ann Laura (1995) Race and the Education of Desire: Foucault’s History of Sexuality and the Colonial Order of Things. Durham: Duke University Press.

(p.205) Stone, Merv (1976) Letter to Milton W. Krasny, Wolper Television Sales, from manager of program purchasing, Canadian Broadcasting Corporation, 5 August. David L. Wolper Archives, 282-016. University of Southern California, Los Angeles.

Story, Louise (2007) “At Last, Television Ratings Go to College.” New York Times, 29 January. Accessed 22 January 2009. http://www.nytimes.com/2007/01/29/business/media/29nielsen.html?pagewanted=all.

Stovall, Taylor (2005) “Black Community, Black Spectacle: Performance and Race in Transatlantic Perspective.” In Black Cultural Traffic: Crossroads in Global Performance and Popular Culture, ed. H. Elam and K. Jackson, 221–41. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.

Straubhaar, Joseph (1991) “Asymmetrical Interdependence and Cultural Proximity.” Critical Studies in Mass Communication 8: 39–59.

——— (2007) “Região, Raça, e Clase Social: Recepcão de TV na Salvador, Bahia.” Flow TV. Accessed 21 June 2011. http://flowtv.org/2007/04/place-race-and-class-watching-brazilian-tv-in-salvador-bahia/.

Taylor, Charles, and Amy Guttmann (1992) Multiculturalism: Examining the Politics of Recognition. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

Taylor, Ella (1989) Prime-Time Families in Post-War America. Berkeley: University of California Press.

Thorburn, David (1987) “Television Melodrama.” In Television: The Critical View, 4th ed., ed. Horace Newcomb, 628–47. New York: Oxford University Press.

Thornton, John (1993) “Central African Names and African-American Naming Patterns.” William and Mary Quarterly, 3rd series, 50: 727–42.

Tinic, Serra (2005) On Location: Canada’s Television Industry in a Global Market. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.

Tobin, Betsy (1990) “The Language of Laughs.” TV World, October, 29.

Tomaselli, Ruth, Keyan Tomaselli, and Johan Muller (1989) Broadcasting in South Africa. New York: St. Martin’s.

“Top Import Moves Mover for New Magazine Show” (1998) New Media Markets, 2 July. Accessed 20 September 2009. Factiva.

“Top Series by Country” (1999) Media and Marketing Europe, 31 May, 49.

Torre, Paul (2009) “Block Booking Migrates to Television: The Rise and Fall of the International Output Deal.” Journal of Television and New Media 10 (6): 501–20.

Torres, Sasha (2003) Black, White, and in Color: Television and Black Civil Rights. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

“Transformation Scene in World Television” (1992) Screen Digest, February, 33–40.

Tucker, Ken (1992) “TV Review: The Fresh Prince of Bel-Air.” Entertainment Weekly, 17 April. Accessed 1 July 2011. http://www.ew.com/ew/article/0,,310235,00.html.

Tulloch, John, and Manuel Alvarado (1983) Doctor Who: The Unfolding Text. London: St. Martin’s.

Turow, Joseph (1981) “Unconventional Programs on Commercial Television: An Organizational Perspective.” In Individuals in Mass Media Organizations, ed. C. Whitney and J. Ettema, 107–30. Beverly Hills: Sage.

——— (1996) Media Systems in Society: Understanding Industries, Strategies, and Power. 2d ed. New York: Longman.

——— (1997) Breaking Up America: Advertisers and the New Media World. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

(p.206) Turow, Joseph (2005) Niche Envy: Marketing Discrimination in the Digital Age. Cambridge: MIT Press.

TVB (2010) TV Basics. Television Bureau of Advertising Inc. http://www.tvb.org.

Tyrer, Thomas (1994) “Syndicators Get In on Teen Business.” Electronic Media 14 November.

Umbach, Klaus (1978) “Der Dschungel Hebt.” Der Spiegel, 20 February, 184.

“The U.S. as TV Programmer to the World” (1977) Broadcasting, 18 April, 48–54.

“U.S. Programmers Converge in Cannes” (1986) Broadcasting, 21 April, 89.

Van Slambrouck, Paul (1984) “South African Whites Clamor to Tune In Black TV.” Christian Science Monitor, 3 February, 7.

Viacom (1985a) Advertisement. TV World, February, 116.

——— (1985b) National Automated Accounting Research System Annual Report. Accessed 4 January 2007. http://web.lexis-nexis.com.

——— (1986) Advertisement. TV World, February, 25.

——— (1987) Securities and Exchange Commission Form 10-K. Accessed 4 January 2007. http://web.lexis-nexis.com.

——— (1991) Securities and Exchange Commission Form 10-K. Accessed 4 January 2007. http://web.lexis-nexis.com.

VT4 (2008) Program Schedule. Accessed 18 November 2008. http://www.vt4.be/tvgids.php?dag=1.

Waller, Ed (2006) “Cowell’s Duets Find Canadian Partner.” Channel 21, 5 June. Accessed 20 September 2009. http://www.c21media.net/news/detail.asp?area=4&article=30698.

Walt Disney Company Inc. (2003) Form 10-K. Filed December 12, 2003. Accessed August 31, 2012. http://www.sec.gov/Archives/edgar/data/1001039/000095014803002883/v95088e10vk.htm.

——— (2007) Form 10-K. Filed November 21, 2007. Accessed August 31, 2012. http://www.sec.gov/Archives/edgar/data/1001039/000119312507252227/d10k.htm.

Warner Brothers (1994) “Cumulative Gross Receipts for Roots II.” 30 September. David L. Wolper Archives, 298-043. University of Southern California, Los Angeles.

——— (n.d., a) Promotional materials. David L. Wolper Archives, 300-002. University of Southern California, Los Angeles.

——— (n.d., b) Promotional kit. David L. Wolper Archives, 282-027. University of Southern California, Los Angeles.

Watkins, Mel (1994) On the Real Side: Laughing, Lying, and Signifying—The Underground Tradition of African American Humor That Transformed American Culture from Slavery to Richard Pryor. New York: Simon and Schuster.

“West Germans Tune In Roots by Millions” (1978) Birmingham News, 9 March, 21.

Whaley, Deborah E. (forthcoming) “Graphic Blackness/Anime Noir: Aaron McGruder’s The Boondocks and the Adult Swim.” In Watching While Black: Centering the Television of Black Audiences, ed. Beretta Smith-Shomade. New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press.

“What’s Hot on TV Worldwide” (1986) Advertising Age, 1 December, Global Media section, p. 60.

White, Shane, and Graham White (1998) Stylin’: African American Expressive Culture from Its Beginnings to the Zoot Suit. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.

Williams, Raymond (1974) Television: Technology and Cultural Form. Glasgow: Fontana.

——— (1980/2006) “Base and Superstructure in Marxist Cultural Theory.” In Media and Cultural Studies KeyWorks, rev. ed., ed. Meenakshi Gigi Durham and Douglas Kellner, 130–43. Oxford: Blackwell.

(p.207) “With a ‘Dish,’ America Watches the World’s TV” (1984) Rand Daily Mail, 18 August, 8.

Wolper, David (1976) Letter to David Raphel, president, Twentieth Century Fox International Corporation, 18 February. David L. Wolper Archives, 282-016. University of Southern California, Los Angeles.

Wolper, David, with David Fisher (2003) Producer: A Memoir. New York: Lisa Drew Books/Scribner.

Zook, Kristal Brent (1995) “Warner Bruthas.” Village Voice, 17 January, 36–37.

——— (1999) Color by Fox: The Fox Network and the Revolution in Black Television. New York: Oxford University Press.

——— (2008) I See Black People: The Rise and Fall of African AmericanOwned Television and Radio. New York: Nation Books. (p.208)