Jump to ContentJump to Main Navigation
Unfit for DemocracyThe Roberts Court and the Breakdown of American Politics$

Stephen E. Gottlieb

Print publication date: 2016

Print ISBN-13: 9780814732427

Published to NYU Press Scholarship Online: September 2016

DOI: 10.18574/nyu/9780814732427.001.0001

Show Summary Details
Page of

PRINTED FROM NYU Press SCHOLARSHIP ONLINE (www.nyu.universitypressscholarship.com). (c) Copyright University of NYU Press Press, 2018. All Rights Reserved. Under the terms of the licence agreement, an individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a monograph in NYSO for personal use (for details see www.nyu.universitypressscholarship.com/page/privacy-policy/privacy-policy-and-legal-notice). Subscriber: null; date: 20 October 2018

(p.355) Index

(p.355) Index

Source:
Unfit for Democracy
Publisher:
NYU Press
Abortion, 91, 231, 232
Absentee ballots, 167
Accountability, 83, 85, 89–90;
corporate and financial, 226
Accuracy in Media, 157
Adams, President John, 9
Adams, Sam, 10, 24
Adams administration, 9
Adamson v. California, 45, 276
Adelson, Sheldon, 164
Affirmative action, 149, 208, 212;
in India, 61, 129;
in the U.S., 130
Afghanistan, 114, 176, 204
African Americans, 23–27, 44–45, 127, 171–173, 181, 200–201, 205, 207, 234–235, 258;
antebellum Boston schools, 26;
communities destroyed, 27;
federal safety net, 224;
ghettoes and northern segregation, 149;
law enforcement impact on, 181;
migration of, 29, 51;
military service, 26;
redlining, 148, 165, 207, 208;
regiments, 50;
segregation after Brown, 148, 207;
violence and intimidation against, 26–27
African Christian Democratic Party, 88
African National Congress, 90
Afrikaner Weerstandsbeweging (African Resistance Movement), 91
Age of Enlightenment, 6
Agnew, Vice President Spiro, 160
Alexander, Michelle, 114;
THE NEW JIM CROW, 235
Al-Hussayen, Sami Omar, 193
Alien and Sedition Acts, 9
Alito, Justice Samuel A., 196–197, 204, 208, 238
Allende, Chilean President Salvador, 131
Allocation of resources, 86–87. See also Concentration of wealth; Disparity and dispersion
Alter, Jonathan, 30
Ambedkar, Dr. B. R., 61–62, 129;
on democracy and socio-economic rights, 62
American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU), 29, 112
American exceptionalism, 139, 140
American Revolution, 22, 31, 82, 171
Americanism and Americanization, 14, 23–24, 30
Anand, Indian Chief Judge Adarsh Sein, 107
Anderson, Elizabeth, 150, 151
Anti-defection principle, 85, 89–90
Anti-democratic groups, treatment of, 95
Anti-Federalists, 6, 20, 143–144
Anti-semitism, 34, 78, 93
Antitrust law, 20, 216, 220–221, 225;
and consequences, 216–17, 217;
evidence, 216;
per se violation, 217;
price fixing, 216;
Roberts Court, 216, 217;
rule of reason, 217
Apartheid, 90, 96, 115
Arbitrary interference, 106
Arbitration and the Supreme Court, 221–222, 225, 230, 248
Aristocratic assumptions, 5–6
(p.356) Ariz. Christian Sch. Tuition Org. v. Winn, 209
Armed conflict, worldwide, 176, 177
Armed gangs, guards, and corporate police, 5, 132, 177
Arrest and detention, 47, 107
Articles of Confederation, 12
Aryan Nations, 173, 174
Ashcroft, John, 192, 193
Ashcroft v. al-Kidd, 193
Ashcroft v. Iqbal, 191–194
Asians and treatment of, 24, 38, 83, 150
Associations, 15. See also Collective action problem
AT&T Mobility LLC v. Concepcion, 222
Attlee, British Prime Minister Clement, 55
August v. Electoral Commission, 96
Aung San Suu Kyi, 112
Austria, 32, 120
Baker v. Carr, 119
Balancing, 247
“Ballad for Americans,” 27
Ballot counting, 76
Banks, 33, 245
Barak, Israeli Chief Justice Aharon, 107
Bartlett v. Strickland, 200
Basic structure doctrine, 74–77
Basques, 102, 115
Bavarian Constitution, 56
Belgian federalism, 124
Bell Atl. Corp. v. Twombly, 216
Bergen, Norway, 103
Bermeo, Nancy, 32, 130, 131, 273, 308, 324, 328
Bernstein, Carl, 160
Bible, 24
Bickel, Alexander, 233–234, 245, 247, 248
Biddle, Nicholas, 16
Bills of rights, 5, 28, 36–37, 39–40, 45, 64–65, 87, 112–113, 115, 189–194, 201, 230, 240, 249;
history, strengths, and weakness, 8–9, 112, 143
Bill of Rights of South Africa, 86
Bipartisan Campaign Reform Act of 2002, 199
Black, Charles, 8, 252
Black, Justice Hugo, 8, 36–37, 39, 252,
on incorporation of the Bill of Rights, 45,
protecting democracy, 39
Black Shirts, 32
Blacklists, 30
Blackmun, Justice Harry A., 127
Blanche, Terre, 91–92
Bloomberg, Mayor Michael Rubens, 117, 144–45
Bobbitt, Philip, 241, 246, 247, 250
Boix, Carles, 137
Bolsheviks, 31, 94
Boston, segregation and integration in, 26
Bowdoin, Governor James, 170
Bowers v. Hardwick, 232
Bradley, Senator Bill, 21
Brady Handgun Violence Prevention Act, 176
Brady v. Maryland, 190, 191
Branch Davidians, 174
Brandeis, Justice Louis Dembitz, 18, 33, 34, 39, 239;
on democracy, 33, 34;
Nazis, 34;
political freedom, 33;
Zionist movement, 34
Breakdown of democracy, 31–32, 36, 168, 172;
and constitutional law, 134, 189–261;
distribution of resources, 122, 212, 226;
economics, 129–141;
Europe, 31–32, 131;
history, 130;
internal conflict, 142–169;
Latin America, 131;
legal rules, 111–128, 256;
malapportionment, 118,
size of stakes, 237;
threat of force, 170–85, 256
Brennan, Justice William J., 40, 303, 345, 346
(p.357) Brescia, Raymond, 193
Breyer, Justice Stephen G., 4, 217, 220, 222, 224,
and protection of democracy, 238
British government, 121
Broadcast Authority (South Africa), 93
Broadcasting, 154–155
Brooklyn Dodgers, 146
Brotherhood, 34
Brown v. Board of Education, 27–28, 44, 148, 231, 234, 235, 245
Bruesewitz v. Wyeth, 219
Brunner v. Ohio Republican Party, 199, 335n74
Buckeye Check Cashing, Inc. v. Cardegna, 221–222
Buckley v. Valeo, 174–75n, 163
Buckshot War (Pennsylvania), 116
Bueno de Mesquita, Bruce, 134, 136
Bulgaria, 32, 34, 104, 106, 131
Bulgarian Constitutional Court, 99
Bundy, Cliven, 174
Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, and Firearms, 174
Burger Court, 119, 207, 232, 238, 247, 250, 261
Burr, Vice President Aaron, 170
Busch, Gidone, 179
Bush, President George W., 117, 145, 153, 208
Bush administration, 113, 114, 153, 218, 220
Business and the melting pot, 23
Butler, Justice Pierce, 39
Cable television, 155
Caetano, Marcello, 133
Campaign finance, 19, 162–64, 166, 200, 254;
public funding, 202
Campaign speech, 94
Canada, 50, 59, 63–65, 78–79, 80–81, 83, 95–96, 124, 140, 258,
protection for democracy, 57;
economic provisions, 64;
federalism, 124;
notwithstanding power, 80
Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms, 63, 78–79, 82, 96
Canadian Supreme Court, 78–83, 95, 100
Capitalism, 52, 129;
and concentration of power, 139–140;
democracy, 139, 152;
state enterprise in the early republic, 139
Cardinal McConnel of Masssachusetts, 34
Cardozo, Justice Benjamin N., 34–37, 39, 69, 219, 239, 274
Carter, Judge Robert, 21, 28
Castroville, Texas, 25
Catholic Charities, 148, 165
Catholics, 24
Censorship, 99, 144
Certification of the Constitution of the Republic of South Africa, 83–86
Ceylan v. Turkey, 103
Chamber of Commerce, 158, 213, 224, 250
Character and democracy, 13–14, 28
Charles River Bridge v. Warren Bridge, 247
Charter schools, 152, 165, 212
Chaskalson, Chief Justice Arthur (South Africa), 86
cheap labor, 132
Chemerinsky, Erwin, 178
Chevigny, Paul, 114
Child labor, 18, 29, 54
Chile, 131, 135, 168, 176, 178
Christian Century, 145
Christian Identity groups, 173
Christopher Commission, 114
Chua, Amy, WORLD ON FIRE, 132, 135
Church, Senator Frank, 113
Church Committee (United States Senate Select Committee to Study Governmental Operations with Respect to Intelligence Activities), 177
Cincinnati, Society of the, 171
(p.358) Circles of power, vicious and virtuous, 136–137
Circuit City v. Adams, 248
Citizens United v. Federal Election Comm’n, 195, 202
Citizenship, 70, 83, 84
City of Boerne v. Flores, 201
Civil and political rights and liberties, 35–41, 67, 76, 83, 87, 111–128, 189–204
Civil rights acts, 116, 155, 171, 234, 236;
effects on African-Americans, 149
Civil rights demonstrations, 171;
attacks on demonstrators, 155;
broadcast coverage, 155
Civil Rights Movement, 16, 26, 112, 117, 156, 171, 202;
volunteers, 236
Civil rights, Germany, 57
Civil service, 154
Civil War, 166, 170–172, 177, 185, 228, 231, 233, 254
Civil War (U.S.), 8, 16, 17, 21, 26
Civil war, conditions for, 137
Civilian control of the military, 184
Class actions, 222, 225, 230
Clean elections, 116, 152
Clinton, President Bill, 145, 193;
Clinton v. Jones, 193, 334n27
Coase, Ronald, 215
Coeducation, 21–23, 208
Cold War, 139, 305, 315, 325, 329
Coleman v. Thompson, 127, 307n152
Colfax Massacre, 171
Collective action problem, 17, 137;
political parties and, 135
Collective bargaining, 32, 85
College:
enrollment, 51;
integration in, 51;
quotas, 51
Colombia, strife in, 131
Colonialism, 115
Commerce and tolerance, 6
Commission on Industrial Relations, 33
Commitment to democracy, 130;
of the general public, 132;
in interwar Europe, 131
Committee of Detail, 9
Common schools, 21–23, 42, 43
Communism, 30–32;
and concentrated power, 139
Communist Party, 77
Company towns, 17
Comparative law, 73
Compelling government interests, 247
Competition and democracy, 76, 162
Compulsory license of broadcast signals, 155
Concentration camps, 32, 43, 46;
medical experiments in, 43
Concentration in business, names for, 135
Concentration of wealth, 129;
and breakdown of democracy, 135,
kleptocracy, 226;
and power, 17, 135;
reactions to, 13, 16, 18, 20;
Confederate States of America, 113, 200–202, 235, 261;
Army of, 185;
and secession, 124
Conflict:
aggravation of, 182;
and breakdown of democracy, 32;
escalation, 18;
management of, 230–233;
among racial, religious, ethnic or other communities, 123–124, 233
Congress (U.S.), 120, 168, 175;
and partisan control, 146;
financial incentive to integrate schools, 206
Congress Party, 58, 59, 60, 61, 129
Connecticut compromise, 118
Connick v. Thompson, 191, 193
Conscription. See Draft
Consequential reasoning. See Constitutional interpretation
Conservative ideology, 139, 141;
legal thought, 4;
think tanks, 158
Constitution (U.S.):
and equality, 12;
Free Exercise Clause, 210–211;
freedom of speech, press, assembly and petition, 112, 145, 168, 204;
national powers, 9
(p.359) Constitution (U.S.), Amendments to:
First, 8, 31, 37–39, 41–43, 55, 145, 199, 210, 211, 252, 260;
Second, 171, 226, 227, 233;
Tenth, 247, 251;
Eleventh, 247, 252;
Twelfth, 252;
Fourteenth, 8, 35, 36, 37, 38, 45, 48, 58, 81, 127, 172, 200, 201, 202, 227, 234;
“Fourteenth Amendment citizens,” 172;
Fifteenth, 200;
Seventeenth, 252;
Nineteenth, 243;
and Reconstruction, 112, 115, 171, 228, 243
Constitution of India, 59, 60, 62
Constitutional Convention (U.S.), 3, 5–7, 9, 11–13, 112, 118–119, 127, 170, 241, 244, 246;
North-South bargain, 118
Constitutional Court of South Africa, 65, 83–94, 96
Constitutional interpretation, 3–4, 241–261;
and analogy to other practices 251–52;
coherence and incoherence, 239, 250–251;
common grounding of disparate methods, 241, 251;
consequential reasoning, 247–248, 252–255;
consent of the governed, 242–243;
constraint of judges, 243, 247,
contract theory, 242;
counter-majoritarian difficulty, 245;
democratic, 233–261;
democratic structure, 252;
doctrinal, 245–246;
effects on self-government, 239;
ethical or philosophical, 249–250, 253;
fidelity to the Constitution, 255;
judicial competence 257–259;
judicial restraint, 246;
legitimacy, 243, 250–251;
methodological interdependence, 241, 244;
obligation to obey, 242;
originalism, 244–245;
popular sovereignty, 242, 245;
ratification, 244;
risk, 239;
rule of law, 242;
specificity and flexibility, 243;
structural, 69, 74, 79, 107–108, 195, 237, 246–247, 251–252;
textualism, 239, 241–244;
traditional, 250
Constitutional Principles (South Africa), 83–85, 90
Constitutional structure, 79;
democratic, 89, 108, 252
Constitutionalism, 79, 80
Constitutions, economic protections, 52–54, 56, 62, 64, 70, 87,
protections for democracy, 56–58, 63–66, 69, 78, 80–81
Consumer protections and the Roberts Court, 225
Contact hypothesis, 169;
in school, 208
Contracts of adhesion, 222
Convention against Torture, 103
Convention of Rome, 94
Copyright Act of 1976, 155
Corporations, 20;
and Americanization, 24;
campaign spending, 203;
charters, 16;
compliance, 220;
curbs on, 18–19;
industry, 23–24;
police, 23
Corruption of elections and parties, 131, 167
Coughlin, Father Charles, 30, 34
Council of Europe, 63
Counter-majoritarian difficulty, 108, 119
Coups d’état, 131
Courts, evaluation of, 3–5
Courts, impact of, 235;
through common law and regulatory review, 236–237;
on democracy, 108, 258;
distributive justice, 236;
distribution of wealth, 212, 215;
economic change, 212;
economic rights, 236;
election issues, 235, 236;
shape of public discussion, 237
Courts, on cause and effect of democracy, 35–40, 69, 107–108
Covert activities, government, 177
Crawford v. Marion County Election Bd., 199
Credit Mobilier scandal, 17
Credit Suisse Sec. (USA) LLC v. Billing, 220, 225
Crèvecœur, Hector St. John de, 20, 24
Crimes against humanity, 46
(p.360) Criminal justice system, 71, 102, 169, 235, 240;
abuse of, 112;
in Germany, 58;
protections in, 29, 35, 67
Cruel treatment in prison, 107
Cultural identity, 78, 80
Culture of impunity, 173, 178
Customary law, 84–85
Cycle of power, 136–138
Dahl, Robert A., 125, 126, 134
Daley, Mayor Richard J., 161
Danziger Bridge, 114
Daubert v. Merrell Dow Pharmaceuticals, 258–259
Death penalty, 67
Death squads, 178
Declaration of Independence, 107, 112, 242, 249
Defamation, 93, 103, 169;
changes in law of, 156
Defense of Marriage Act, 232, 261
Deference. See Margin of appreciation
Definitions of democracy, 4, 8, 35–41, 49, 54–56, 70, 75, 107–108, 111, 255–257
Delay, Rep. Thomas, 163
Deliberative democracy, 13, 91
Democracy and American assumptions about nourishing and protecting, 5–28;
and dignity, 57, 60, 64–65, 75–76, 78, 80, 82, 86–88, 93–94, 96, 249;
discrimination, 38;
due process, 256;
effect in other countries, 258;
fundamental rights, 35–36, 38, 43, 47–48, 50, 54, 61, 63–64, 69, 75–76, 84–87, 96, 106, 121, 243;
inclusiveness, 256;
language in text, 63, 69;
minority rule, 257;
morality and inclusion and representation, 38–40;
other rights and freedoms, 64;
political and social science, 111–185;
social justice, 75, 78, 80, 86–87, 122, 129–141, 212, 226;
speech rights, 49;
unity, 256
Democracy and hate speech. See Freedom of expression: hate speech
Democracy and interpretation, 239, 241–61;
as standard, 63;
structure, 252
Democratic National Convention of 1968, 154, 161
Democratic theory, 40, 69, 83, 111, 115, 240, 255–257;
Brandeis on, 33, 34;
as central interpretive premise, 239, 241–61, 241;
in Europe, 31;
India, 60;
Palko v. Connecticut and, 36;
South Africa, 65;
as standard, 63;
as structure, 252;
United States v. Carolene Products and, 37;
UDHR, 49–50;
validity, 97
Democratization, 111, 125, 138;
recent, 94, 132
Demonstrations, 5;
suppression of, 168
Department of Correctional Services (South Africa), 91
Department of Justice, 236
Department of Labor, 224
Desegregation, 231, 234;
enforcement of, 206
Detainees, 113, 114, 191, 194
Detention of witnesses, 193
Dharmadhikari, Justice D. M., 73
Diallo, Amadou, 179
Dictatorship, 32, 69, 74, 111, 115, 122, 130, 131, 142, 226, 255,
in the U.S., 113,
and incentives, 136,
oligarchs, 140
Dignity, 76, 78, 82, 86, 87, 88, 94, 96
(p.361) Direct horizontal effect of the constitution, 254, 260
Directive Principles, 75–76, 78;
in India, 62;
influence on interpretation, 75;
Ireland, 62
Discrimination, 28;
against African Americans, 201;
Asians; 38;
and claims, 193, 223;
gender, 222–223;
in India, 60;
Islam, 104;
Jews, 51;
law, 169, 223;
proof, 222, 223
Disenfranchisement, 82;
of inmates, 81
Disparity and dispersion of resources, 5, 7, 28–29, 40, 50–51, 70, 137, 214–215, 222, 226;
basic services, 86;
and checks and balances, 7;
diversity, 7;
effect on democracy, 52, 108, 122, 129–141, 212–213, 226;
human capital, 132;
military power, 10;
property, 12,
the Roberts Court, 215–226;
wealth, 86, 225
Disregard of court orders, 92
Dissent, treatment of, 136, 144
District of Columbia v. Heller, 226–227
Districting, apportionment, and gerrymandering, 44, 68, 118–19, 162, 195;
in India, 61–62;
safe districts, 120, 162, 166;
nonpartisan commissions, 121
Diversity, 7, 9, 28;
attitudes toward, 50–51;
and business, 23;
governability, 6;
in India, 130;
separation, 6
Doctors for Life, 91
Domestic insurrection, 6
Dorrien, Gary, on Christian middle ground, 145
Draft, 25;
advantages and protections, 184;
and national unity, 152
Draper, Robert Paul, 29
Dred Scott v. Sandford, 254
Dreyfus affair, 34
Drones, 113
Drudge Report, 158
Drugs, crime and racial disparities, 181
Dual citizenship, 97
Due process, 8, 29, 35, 36, 43, 59, 60, 77, 113, 115, 194, 220, 238, 260;
and democracy, 256;
tradition, 250
Dust Bowl, 30
E pluribus unum, 6, 38, 142, 185;
relation to other freedoms, 38. See also Unity
East German parties, 70
Economic impact on development, 138;
and constitutional law, 139;
constitutional text, 52–54;
democracy, 11–13, 61, 129–141;
diversity and opportunity, 140;
independence, 11–12;
justice, 57, 67, 76;
mobility, 140;
pluralism, 140;
power, 17;
welfare, 70
Edmund Pettus Bridge, 155
Education, 5–7, 12, 14, 16, 20–22, 24, 28, 31, 43–44, 49–52, 54, 56, 62, 65, 73, 82, 129, 132, 138, 151, 206, 210–211, 233;
Americanization by, 24;
college, 6–7;
common or public schools, 21–22, 43, 211;
for democracy, 6–7, 14, 62, 73, 143;
in Germany, 57;
integration of graduate schools, 205;
the melting pot, 210, 211;
and national unity, 152;
private and religious education, 30, 152, 165, 209–210, 212;
unified school system, 212;
women and girls, 21–23, 51, 208
Egalitarianism, 13, 14, 15, 16, 19, 21, 24, 29, 50, 254
Egypt, democracy and dictatorship in, 256
Eisenhower, President Dwight D., 154, 172, 200, 234
Eisenhower Administration, 200
El Salvador, 178
Election rights:
dependence on other rights, 115;
inclusiveness, 236. See also Right to vote
(p.362) Elections:
administration, 117, 118;
Florida count in 2000 presidential election, 117;
fraud, 257;
miscounting, 119;
verification, 117
Elections, corruption of, 114, 116;
seats at large or by districts, 118
Elections, regularity and democracy, 94–95, 97
Elite incentives, 136
Ely, John Hart, 39
Emerson, Michael, and Christian Smith, Divided by Faith, 151, 317–318n47
Empathy and social capital, 143, 146, 153,
Employers and employees, 11, 17–18, 33, 52, 85, 116–117, 150–151, 195, 221–224
Employers’ right to collective bargaining, 85
Employment conditions, 225
England, 7, 13, 34, 59, 111, 112, 118
Entrenchment of political power, 76, 195, 197, 203, 238, 257;
judicial nominations, 200
Environment, 213;
and the state, 86
Epstein, Richard, TAKINGS:
PRIVATE PROPERTY AND THE POWER OF EMINENT DOMAIN, 213
Equal protection, 165, 202;
limited to intent, 207;
malapportionment, 45;
preferences for whites, 197;
relation to other rights, 39
Equalitarian tradition, 13
Equality and democracy, 96, 108
Equality and distribution of wealth, 62;
as essential for democracy, 14;
free society, 37;
and protection for whites, 202;
self-government, 256
Equality and mob like behavior, 15
Equality before the law, 85
Equality or egalitarian spirit, 11–13, 15
Equality, 15, 16, 19, 20, 22, 23, 24, 28, 31, 34, 41, 45, 48, 49, 54, 55, 57, 60, 61, 62, 64–65, 68, 77–88, 94–96, 105, 107–108, 236, 240, 249, 256;
in Canadian Charter, 63;
German Basic Law, 58;
Indian Constitution, 60–61;
risks of, 15;
UDHR, 48
Erbakan, Prime Minister Necmettin (Turkey), 100
Essential to a free and democratic society, 78, 80, 82
Estonia, 32, 131
Ethnic background in founding era, 6
Ethnicity, 124, 132
Eugenics, 43
European Commission for Democracy through Law, 99, 103, 175
European Community, citizenship and voting, 57
European Convention on Human Rights, 57, 63, 65, 94–107;
on requisites of democracy, 63
European Court of Human Rights (ECtHR), 63, 68, 94–107;
constraints on, 68;
margin of appreciation, 98
European Court of Justice, 107
European democracy, 99;
democratic thought, 95
European Union, 63, 69–70, 258
Everson v. Board, 42
Eviction, 87
Evolutionary democracy, Canadian Supreme Court on, 79
Ex post facto laws, UDHR and, 47
Excess profits taxes, 50
Excessive force, 114, 175
Exculpatory information, 190, 191
Exile and the UDHR, 48
Externalities, 214, 222
Exxon Valdez, 221
Fact-checking and changes in media, 158
Faigman, David, 259
Fair Labor Standards Act, 224
(p.363) Fair procedures and the UDHR, 48
Fairness doctrine, 157
Faith-based organizations:
and education, 210;
and programs, 165
False Claims Act, 224
Family farms, 19
Fascism and fascists, 27, 30
Fear of democracy, 130–132;
of the poor, 132, 138
Fearon, James, 137
Federal Arbitration Act (FAA), 221–223
Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), 27, 30–31, 112, 113, 114, 172, 191
Federal Communications Commission (FCC) and cable television, 155, 156;
licensing, 154, 157;
fairness doctrine, 155–156
Federal election campaign finance law, 162–64, 166, 200, 202, 254
Federal Election Commission, 164
Federal Highway Administration, 51, 148
Federal Housing Administration (FHA), 165;
discrimination by, 51, 148;
and segregation, 149, 206, 207
Federal Reserve System, 33
Federal Rules of Civil Procedure, 192, 216
Federal subsidies, 17, 19, 209
Federal Trade Commission, 18
Federalism, 9, 28, 55–56, 71, 74, 77, 79, 80, 86, 100, 123–128, 195, 227, 229, 230–231, 233, 240, 246–247, 252;
and checks and balances, 229;
conflict management, 125, 230;
geographic organization of issues, 233;
Germany, 57;
government competence and efficiency, 126, 228–229;
human rights, 230;
identity as reshapable, 124;
indeterminate effects on democracy and liberty, 123–124, 127–28, 228;
judicial role, 124;
national unity, 228, 230;
pacted constitutionalism, 123–124;
structural inference, 251;
Switzerland, 124;
text, 124–126
Federalist Papers, The, 122, 244
Federalists, 6, 9, 127
Finland, 135
Fiorina, Morris, 154, 168
First peoples, 79
Flack, Horace Edgar, incorporation of the Bill of Rights, 45
Florida Supreme Court, 168;
2000 presidential election count, 118
Food and Drug Administration (FDA), 218
Force, government monopoly, 103;
state use of, 103
Foreign courts and causality, 108;
democracy, 67–108;
open and democratic society, 88, 92, 94;
pro-democratic effect of, 108;
religion, 72, 74, 80;
secularism, 72, 100, 105, 106. See also European Court of Human Rights
Foreign judgments as prediction, 3, 4;
test of meaning, 67–68
Foreign law, citation of, 67–68;
comparability, 68
Form contracts, law and impact, 222
Forrest, U.S. District Court Judge Katherine, 113
14 Penn Plaza, 223
Founders, the, 5–14, 28, 50, 62, 67, 71, 111, 112, 121, 127, 139, 143, 170, 171, 176, 183, 194, 238, 240, 242, 244, 249, 253, 255, 256;
public spirit of, 213
Founding assumptions for strengthening democracy, 5–28
Four Freedoms, 52, 57;
and welfare rights, 48
Fourteenth Amendment, 8, 81
France, 14, 34, 46, 50, 94, 102, 105, 111, 115, 140;
Constitutional Court, 124;
early constitutions, 52,
Gaullist Constitution, 124;
Revolution, 62
Franco, Generalissimo Francisco, 122, 131, 133
Frankfurter, Justice Felix, 35–37, 42, 44–45, 59–60, 77, 234, 245,
and “political thicket,” 44
(p.364) Franklin, Benjamin, 5, 7, 241
Fraternity in Germany and India, 55, 60
Free and democratic society, as constitutional text, 63
Free elections and the European Convention on Human Rights, 96
Free labor, 6
Freedmen, 171, 177, 197, 227
Freedom from Religion Foundation, 208
Freedom of expression, 8, 49, 77–78, 91–94, 98, 102, 107;
and American doctrine, 93, 107;
criticism of judges, 92–93;
criticism of official action, 104;
disloyalty, 97;
hate speech, 94;
incitement, 104;
Indian constitution, 73;
inter-communal violence and, 73, 77;
suppression;
113,
territorial integrity, 97;
Freedom of Information Act (FOIA), 225
Freedom Riders, 171
Freedom. See Liberty
French revolution, 6
Frye v. United States, 258
Fundamental rights and freedoms, 35–36, 84, 85, 96;
in Canadian Charter, 63;
Constitution of India, 61;
freedoms and political democracy, 63;
human rights, 86;
marriage and procreation as, 43
Galanter, Marc, 236
Game theory, 137
Gandhi, Mahatma, 61, 72, 129;
assassination of, 72
Gandhi, Prime Minister Indira, 74–76
Garcia v. San Antonio Metropolitan Transit Authority, 128
Garrison, William Lloyd, 35
Gender and equality, 83–84;
flight, 23;
relations, 105;
segregation, 21
General welfare. See Welfare, public
Genius of the people, 13
Geographic differences, 6;
and patterns, 151
German banned in U.S. schools, 30
German Basic Law, 55;
Allied influence on, 55;
protection for democracy, 57
German Communist Party, 102
German Constitutional Court, 69–71
German Länder constitutions, principles of democracy, liberty and fraternity, 55
Germans in the U.S., 24;
violence against, 38
Germany, 32–34, 41–42, 44, 46, 50, 52, 55–58, 65, 69–71, 80, 94, 97, 103, 115, 120, 123, 129–131, 133, 139, 254, 258;
as “republican, democratic, and social state,” 70;
speech law, 73
Gerry, Elbridge, 10, 119
Gerrymandering, 68, 88–89, 119–121, 126, 162, 166, 195–197, 200, 203, 238;
and extremism, 120;
incumbent protection, 120;
and safe districts, 120, 162, 166;
symmetry or neutrality test, 121, 195, 196;
unequal treatment, 121
GI Bill, 51, 52, 117
Gibbons v. Ogden, 247
Giffords, Congresswoman Gabby, attack on, 145
Giglio v. United States, 190
Gilded Age, 17
Gingrich, Newt, 164
Ginsburg, Justice Ruth Bader, 191, 217, 224, 232;
and protection of democracy, 238
Giuliani, Mayor Rudolph, and freedom of speech, 144–145
Globalization, 140
Goebbels, Joseph, 31
Goldstein, Thomas, 189, 191
Goldwater, Senator Barry, 120, 153, 198
Gonzales v. Carhart, 232
(p.365) Gore, Vice President Al, 118, 133, 145, 153, 257
Governing majority, import of, 98
Government incompetence, as cause of breakdown of democracy, 133;
and of state failure, 134
Government procurement, 154
Government support for religious education. See Religion and foreign law; Tuition tax credits; Vouchers for education
GRAPES OF WRATH, THE, 30
Great Depression, 30, 32, 33, 49, 53, 129, 155, 177
Greece, 32, 34, 50, 131
Greenhouse, Steven, 150
Greve, Judge H.S. (ECtHR), 103
Grootboom, Irene, 87
Grover, Justice A. N., 75
Guatemala, 168, 178
Guest workers, 70
Guidelines on Prohibition and Dissolution of Political Parties, 99
Gun ownership, 170;
rights, 174;
risk of, 10;
and the Roberts Court, 226;
self-protection, 170;
violence, 237
Gypsies, 46
habeas corpus, 112, 194, 281
Hamilton, Alexander, 7, 13, 125, 253
Hanging chads, 168
Harlan, Justice John Marshall, II, 37, 250, 255
Harper v. Virginia State Bd. of Elections, 199, 335n70
Hasan and Chaush v. Bulgaria, 106
Hate groups, 102, 171–177
Hate speech, 78–79, 93;
and minority grievances, 104;
pluralism, 93–94, 98, 102, 103
Health care, 86–88;
and legislation, 91;
sanitation, 133
Hearst press, 30
Hedge, Justice K. S., 75
Hein v. Freedom from Religion Found, 208
Hightower, Jim, THERE’S NOTHING IN THE MIDDLE OF THE ROAD BUT YELLOW STRIPES AND DEAD ARMADILLOS, 146
Hindenburg, German President Paul von, 32, 129–130, 176
Hirst v. The United Kingdom, 95, 99
Hispanic immigrant segregation, 150;
voting districts, 197
Hitler and emergency powers, 74
Hitler, Adolf, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 41, 43, 46, 56, 74, 94, 102, 129, 130, 131, 176;
and Stalin, combined death toll, 46;
world-wide impact, 46
Hobbes, Thomas, 82, 176
Holder, Eric, 172
Holmes, Jennifer, 115
Holmes, Justice Oliver Wendell, 239
Holocaust denial, 93, 173
Home health care agencies and employees, 224
Homestead Act of 1862, 12, 20
Hoover, FBI Director J. Edgar, 30, 113, 172
Hoover, President Herbert, 30, 154, 158
Hoovervilles, 30
Horizontal effect of constitutions, 71
Housing policy, 87
Huey Long, 31
Hughes, Chief Justice Charles Evans, 36, 37, 39, 59
Hughes Court, 40, 238, 261
Human dignity, 80, 93
Human rights, 33, 41, 47, 52, 54–55, 57–58, 63–64, 67, 69, 84, 86, 94–95, 101–102, 177, 243, 249;
and democracy, 95
Human Rights Association, 100
Huntington, Samuel, 132, 138
Hurricanes:
Katrina, 114;
Sandy, 117
Ideological power, 90, 184
Illiteracy, 129
(p.366) Immigrants and immigration, 11, 14, 17, 20, 23, 25, 29, 51, 116, 202, 205;
Northern European, 51;
quotas, 51;
and segregation, 150
Immunities, 194
Incarceration:
of African Americans, 88, 235;
of Latinos, 88
Inclusion of contrasting views, 90
Inclusiveness of adult population, 4, 10, 56, 69, 91, 115–116, 255–256;
and democracy, 38, 80, 82–83, 90–91, 96–97, 126, 195;
importance, 40;
and UDHR, 50
Income and democracy. See Wealth and democracy
Incorporation of the Bill of Rights, 45
Incumbents, protection of, 195
India, 49, 58–62, 65, 72–78, 80, 123, 129, 132–133, 211, 258;
castes and tribes in, 61, 130;
Constitution, 59–61, 75;
“the emergency,” 76;
independence of, 129;
Indian National Congress, 60;
religious conflict and segregation in, 72;
Supreme Court exclusion from election disputes, 61. See also Supreme Court of India
India and Pakistan, partition of, 72
Indian Independence Act, 72
Industrial democracy, 33
Inequality, 90;
and American democratic traditions, 19–20;
breakdown of democracy and, 129–141,
increasing in America, 233;
of landholding, 132;
wealth, 35. See also Wealth and democracy
Infant mortality, 133–134
Information media, restructuring of, 204
Inherent in democracy, 80, 83
Inhuman or degrading treatment, 107. See also Human rights
Initial public offerings, 220
Innocent, costs of convicting, 239
Integration, 16, 21–23, 26, 28–29, 39, 107, 207;
applied to different groups, 205;
and baseball, 51;
electoral and political districts, 6, 20;
faiths in public schools, 70–71, 210;
military services, 50, 184;
schools, 16, 27, 70,
voluntary 206
Intelligence:
files, 106,
services, 107
Interest on Lawyers Trust Accounts (IOLTA), 213
Interim Constitution (South Africa), 84
Intermarriage, 27
Internal Revenue Service, 164, 174
International acceptance as consideration, 84
International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, 91
International law, 47, 79
Internet, 157–158, 204
Internment of Japanese-Americans, 38
Interpretation. See Constitutional
Interpretation Interstate Commerce Commission, 18
Intolerance, 145, 167;
in America, 30, 32;
racial and religious, 35
Iran, 112, 135, 168
Iraq, 106, 114, 176, 204
Ireland, 1937 Constitution of, 34, 53, 59, 61
Iron Curtain, 46
Islam, 100, 102;
and Turkey, 104
Islamic law and democracy, 72, 101. See also Shari’ah
Islamic religious dress, 71–72, 102, 104–105
Islamic Unity Convention, 93
Issacharoff, Samuel, 100
Italy, 32, 34, 54, 115, 120, 130, 131, 142, 169, 176, 314;
1948 Constitution, 54;
abdication of elected government, 130
Jackson, Justice Robert H., 42
Jackson, President Andrew, 17
Jackson era, 160
Jacksonians, 17
Jailhouse informants, Los Angeles County grand jury report on handling of, 190
(p.367) Japan, 47, 50, 54, 111;
1946 Constitution, 53–54;
Meiji Constitution of 1889, 53
Japanese:
discrimination against, 38,
internment of, 43
Jefferson, President Thomas, 7, 9, 12, 15–16
Jewish Family Services, 148, 165
Jews, 24, 31, 32, 34, 41, 43, 46, 51, 93, 211
Jim Crow, 150, 166, 235
Johnson, President Lyndon Baines, 112, 172, 234
Johnson administration, 234
Journalistic principles and conventions, 159, 166, 171–172
Judges, criticism of, 92–93;
nominations, 197;
self-protection, 92;
values of, 239
Judicial activism and restraint, 37, 40, 125, 248;
and abortion, 232;
and foreign courts, 108
Judicial competence and impact, 254, 257–258;
and judicial process school, 246
Judicial review, authority for, 240
Jurisdiction, protection of, 85
Justiciability, 84
Justifiable in a free and democratic society, 81
K Street Project, 163
Kagan, Justice Elena, 209, 238
Kantian principle of human dignity, 57
Karlan, Pamela, 201–202, 301n5
Keegstra, James, 78–79
Kennedy, Justice Anthony M., 121, 194, 196, 198, 201, 203–204, 213, 261;
and protection of democracy, 238;
separation of powers, 204;
takings clause, 212;
taxpayer standing, 208
Kennedy, President John F., 112, 172, 234;
assassination of, 155
Kesavananda Bharati Sripadagalvaru and Ors v. State of Kerala and Anr, 74–75, 77
Key, V. O., 161
Khanna, Justice H. R., 62, 74
Khomeini, Ayatollah, 135
King Juan Carlos de Borbón, 133
King Victor Emmanuel of Italy, 130
King, Gary, 137
King, Martin Luther, Jr., 112
Kirk, Daniel, 224
Kleptocracy, 116, 195
Koch, Charles G. and David H., “the Koch brothers,” 164
Kohut, Andrew, 145
Korean War, 50, 146
Koresh, David, 174
Kriegler, Justice Johann (South Africa), 92
Krishna, Sankaran, 76
Ku Klux Klan (KKK), 24, 26–27, 113, 150, 169–172, 176–177, 227, 235
Kurd, nationalism and complaints, 100, 104, 106;
and treatment of, 103
Kūris, Judge P. (ECtHR)
Labor relations, 117;
and labor law, 29;
labor unions, 18–19, 23, 52, 57, 131, 166, 223–224;
violence, 30, 177
Laissez-faire, 29
Laitin, David, 137
Land distribution and democracy, 15
Land use law, 169
Länder constitutions, 57
Languages spoken, 25;
in founding era, 6;
and language rights, 38, 80;
and minorities in India, 61
Latin America, 132
Latvia, 32, 95, 131
Law and distributive consequences, 215;
housing, 164–166;
politics, 154, 160–164;
speech, 154–159;
impact, 154
Law enforcement abuses, 114, 116, 180–182
Lawrence v. Texas, 232
Layla Sahin v. Turkey, 100, 104
League of United Latin Am. Citizens v. Perry, 195–96
Ledbetter, Lilly, 223
Ledbetter v. Goodyear Tire & Rubber Co., 223, 225
(p.368) Legal death, UDHR and, 48
Legal positivism, 240
Legal services programs, 213
Legislative districting, 162, 195
Legitimacy, 82
Legitimate use of force, government monopoly on 176, 183
Lehman, Judge Irving, 37
Lenin, Vladimir, 33, 36
Levittown, 146–147
LGBT rights, 67
Liberals, 4
Liberty, 36, 86–88, 94;
as ballot, 139;
economic independence, 11;
federalism, 123–124, 127–28, 228;
and German constitutions, 55;
ordered liberty, 37;
protection of, 37;
self-government as, 249;
as social, 13
Lincoln, President Abraham, 80
Linz, Juan J., 122, 125, 130, 131, 175
Lipset, Seymour M., 129, 130, 134, 138, 226
Literacy, 132
Lithuania, 32, 131
Livesay, Curt, 189
Lobbying, 158, 163
Local boundaries, 89
Locke v. Davey, 211
Locke, John, 82
London Charter, 46
Long Island Care at Home, Ltd. v. Coke, 224–225
Los Angeles District Attorney, 190
Los Angeles Police Department, 178
Los Angeles Police Protective League, 178
Los Angeles, investigation of police abuse, 114, 178, 190
Louisiana, 31, 171, 257
Lusky, Louis, 35, 39
Lynchings, 171
MacArthur, General Douglas, 30, 54
MacPherson v. Buick, 219
Madison, President James, 6–9, 11, 16–17, 112, 123, 125–127, 183, 204, 244, 245, 246
Mafia, 170, 326
Magna Carta, 54, 59, 60
Mahatma Gandhi, 61, 72
Majoritarianism and democracy, 255–257;
majority will, 90,
and minority government, 126
Malum in se and Nuremberg principles, 47
Mamabolo, Russell, 91–92
Mandela, Nelson, 112
Mann, Horace, 16, 21, 25
Marbury v. Madison, 254
March of Dimes fight against polio, 146
March on Rome, 31–32
Margin of appreciation to member states, 98, 106
Margold, Nathan, 27
Market-place of ideas, 92, 93
Markets:
beneficial, 225;
failure of, 216;
law and, 225;
“unregulated,” 215
Marriage and procreation:
as fundamental rights, 43;
same sex, 232–233;
in the UDHR, 48
Marshall, Chief Justice John, 246, 254
Marshall, Justice Thurgood, 40, 169
Marshall, U.S. Secretary of State George, 55
Marshall Court, 228;
nation building of, 254
Martin, Trayvon, 183
Massachusetts Governor James Bowdoin, 5
Material witnesses, arrest and detention of, 193
McCarthy, Senator Joseph, 160
McCarthyism, 160
McClelland, David C., 143
McCollum v. Board, 43
McCulloch v. Maryland, 247
McDonald v. City of Chicago, 226
McHenry, James, 241
(p.369) McLaurin v. Oklahoma State Regents, 205 note 110
McReynolds, Justice James Clark, 39
McVeigh, Timothy, 173
Media, 171, 172;
fractured, 166;
polarization and legal changes, 154–160
Medical devices, law and regulation, 218
Melting pot, 5, 21, 24, 27, 50, 169, 205, 212, 233
Mentally retarded, 67
Militant democracy, 57, 69, 94
Military, 10, 24, 25, 28, 29, 32, 34, 41, 42, 43, 46, 50, 54, 55, 103, 115, 130, 131, 135, 137, 169, 170, 171, 175, 177, 184, 185, 199, 204, 235, 248, 256;
professional, 170, 184;
role in coups, 184
Military and African-Americans, 25;
Americanization by, 25;
assimilation, melting, and mixing in, 24–25;
civilian control, 28;
democratization by, 25;
diversity in, 24–25;
diversity policies of, 26;
integration of, 11;
officers, 24;
race relations, 25;
risk from, 10;
soldiers in, 24;
World War II effects of, 25
Militia, 10, 24;
advantages of, 10–11;
class and, 10–11;
common, select and volunteer, 24;
control of, 10–11;
melting pot and, 10;
private, 170–77;
risks of, 10–11. See also paramilitaries
Mill, John Stuart, 259
Miller, Arthur, Death of a Salesman, 146
Milliken v. Bradley, 207
Millionaire’s amendment, 199
Minersville School Dist. v. Gobitis, 42
Minimum wages and overtime, 224–225
Ministry, state funds for study, 211
Minorities, 14;
protection of, 37–39;
regional, 84;
relation to democracy, 38, 195;
respect for, 79, 80;
threats, attacks and other abuse of, 43, 46–47, 61, 117, 148, 173, 181, 258;
tribal, 84
Minority culture, 100
Minority parties, 90
Minority rights, 80, 83, 85, 108
Minority views, 90
Minow, Martha, 126
Mississippi River, 6
Mob psychology and mass public, 142
Mobility, 132, 151
Moldova, 97
Mollen Commission, 114
Monahan, John, and Laurens Walker, 259
monopoly, 16, 50, 53, 103, 135, 139, 140, 154, 217, 310, 337. See also Antitrust law
Montesquieu, Baron de, 6, 121
Morgenthau, Secretary of the Treasury Henry M. Jr., 45
Morris, Gouverneur, 11–12
Morris, Robert Jr., 26
Morrison v. California, 35
motive to abuse power, 193
Motorola, 219
Movietone News, 46
Mueller, FBI Director Robert, 192
Mukherjea, Justice A. K., 75
Multani, Gurbaj Singh, 82
multiculturalism, 79, 83
multi-party democracy, 83, 89–90, 94
municipal incorporation, 164–165
municipal representation, 90
municipalities and separation, 127
murder:
political, 8, 19, 171, 174;
religious, 42
Murphy’s Law, 134, 136–137;
of dictatorship, 136
Muslims, 72, 101, 102, 104, 113, 211;
discrimination against, 191–192;
Mussolini, 31–32, 130;
March on Rome, 130
Myanmar, 112
Nader, Ralph, 203
National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP), 27–29, 231
(p.370) National Broadcasting Co. (NBC), 157
National Broadcasting Co. v. FCC, 157, 321n102
National Childhood Vaccine Injury Act of 1986, 219
National Council of Provinces (South Africa), 85
National Defense Authorization Act, 113
National Guard, 171–172;
local units, 24
National Institute for Crime Prevention and the Reintegration of Offenders (NICRO), 88, 96
National Labor Relations Act, 177, 224
National origins in founding era, 6
National Rifle Association (NRA), 172, 177
National security, 5, 10, 97
National Security Agency (NSA), 113
National unity, 231;
and interpretation, 228
Nationality, 97
Nationalization of issues, 233
Native Americans, 28
Nazi Germany, 31–32, 35, 41–43, 45–50, 52, 69, 94, 102–103, 108, 112, 122, 130, 133;
abuse of genetics, 43;
international reaction to, 41–66, 112, 47;
Jews, law, minorities and women, 43, 46–47, 117;
slavery, 47;
spur to protect freedom, 112,
support in the U.S., 32;
takeover in Europe, 32;
“useless eaters,” 47
Nazis, 69, 94, 102;
terror, 108
Nazism, 47, 57
Necessity, as component of constitutional reasoning, 253
Necessity for multi-party democracy, 90
Need for approval and democracy, 144;
and social capital, 146
Nehru, Prime Minister Jawaharlal (India), 74, 129
Neo-Nazi groups, 91
Network broadcasting and news, 155
Neutrality and news organizations, 155
Neutrality principle and religion, 211
New Deal, 19, 30, 32, 117, 138
New Deal Court, 203
New Orleans, 114
New York Civil Liberties Union, 144
New York Constitution, 53
New York State Bd. Of Elections v. López Torres, 197–198
New York Times v. Sullivan, 156
News reporting and impact, 155–156
Ngcobo, Chief Justice Sandile, 91
Nixon, President Richard M., 19, 145, 160;
impeachment of, 160
Nixon administration, 131
Nomination system and legal changes, 160–164, 198
Noninterpretivism, 4;
and democracy, 249. See also Constitutional interpretation
Northwest Austin Municipal Utility District v. Holder, 200
Northwest Ordinance and distribution of wealth, 12
Norway, 103
Nuremberg Principles, 45–47, 52
Obama, President Barack Hussein, 113, 145, 172, 173,
attacks on, 145,
Obamacare, 228
Obligation to law and right to vote, 82, 95
O’Connor, Justice Sandra Day, 213
Oil depletion allowance, 19
Oklahoma City bombing, 158, 173, 227
One-person-per-vote requirement, 252
Openness and democracy, 83
Ordered liberty, 37
O’Regan, Justice Kate (South Africa), 90
Orfield, Gary, on reversal of desegregation, 150
(p.371) Orwell, George, 119, 202
Osaki, Mr. K., 35
Other People’s Money, 33, 269
Ottoman Empire, 102
Owens, Jesse, 44
Pacted constitutions, 227
Pakistan, 59, 72, 123, 124, 132
Palestine, 34
Palko v. Connecticut, 35, 36, 37, 39, 40, 45, 69, 274
Paper ballot, 17
Paramilitaries, 31–32, 94, 130, 131, 170–178, 184, 226–227;
bans on, 103;
government supported, 177–78;
other ties with the military, 184
Parents Involved in Community Schools v. Seattle School Dist. No. 1, 206–207
Parliamentary and presidential systems, 121–122, 128
Partial-Birth Abortion Ban Act of 2003, 232
Participation in democracy, 67, 78–80, 82, 85, 89–91, 94, 96, 108
Parties and corruption, 17;
autonomy, 100;
dissolution of, 102;
importance to democracy, 98, 100;
Islamic law, 100, 102;
minorities, 99;
secularism, 99–100
Party system, 20;
fragmentation, 98
Pathé News, 46
Patriot Militia, 173–174, 176
Patronage, 17, 154, 195
Paycheck accrual rule, 223
Pennsylvania Constitution of 1776, 256
Pensions:
The Broken Promise, 157
People out of doors, 5
Peru, 115
Petain, Marshall Philippe, 102
Pew Research Center for the People and the Press, report on unity and polarization, 145
Pharmaceuticals, law and regulation, 219
Philippines, 114, 132
Pinker, Steven, 183, 227;
THE BETTER ANGELS OF OUR NATURE, 183
Pinochet, President Augusto of Chile, 131, 135, 194
PKK, 104
Plea bargaining, 169
Plessy v. Ferguson, 27, 231;
and separate but equal doctrine, 235
Pliva v. Mensing, 219
Plots, conspiracies, and racist rampages, 173
Pluralism, 13, 72–73;
European, 102
Pluralistic democracy, 91, 97
Pogroms in Russia, 34
Poland, 32, 131
Polarization and breakdown of democracy, 13, 130, 166–167;
mob psychology, 153;
social capital, 143;
vicious circle, 167
Polarization in the U.S., 120, 145–146, 153–168
Police, 178–183;
and abusive behavior, 179;
manipulation of rules, 182;
politics of regulation; 182–183;
shootings, 178–179
Police states, 138
Police stops:
absent probable cause, 180;
and respectable appearance, 182;
stings, 180;
for traffic, 180
Polio and flight from cities, 146
Political advantages of merchants and manufacturers, 15
Political and social science and democracy, 111–185
Political bosses, 160
Political competition, and UDHR, 50
Political corruption, 52;
culture, 15, 54, 118, 153;
machines, 16, 23, 31, 33, 113, 116, 138, 160, 172
Political parties, 17, 85, 99, 100, 135;
conventions, 17, 160, 161;
and undemocratic parties, 57
(p.372) Political science and breakdown of self-government, 108;
breakdown historically, 130–32, 130;
breakdown statistically, 132–34, 133;
capitalism and democracy, 139;
causal relationships, 111;
collective action problem, 137;
community and democracy, 205;
corruption by power, 132;
definitions of democracy, 108, 256;
disparity and dictatorship, 226;
distribution of wealth, 138;
education and democracy, 130;
fair and accurate procedures, 194;
geographic sorting, 182;
gerrymandering, 121, 196;
high stakes and democracy, 237;
honest elections, 116;
desegregation’s multiple causes, 234;
pacted constitutions, 227;
paramilitaries and democracy, 175–176, 227;
presidential and parliamentary systems, 122;
protection for elective government, 257;
requirements of self-government, 4, 111, 233;
responsible parties, 153;
risks to self-government, 3, 68, 239, 255;
State Failure Task Force, 133;
tolerance and intolerance, 144;
wealth, money, and democracy, 130, 164, 202–203
Popular sovereignty, 5, 55, 56, 58, 67, 70, 75, 77, 79, 83, 90, 242, 243, 244, 245, 246, 250;
and universal suffrage, 67. See also Inclusiveness of adult population
Popular will, 97
Populists, 29, 166
Pornography decisions, 233
Porter, Jim, 172
Portugal, 32, 131, 133
Positivists and positivism, 253
Posner, Judge Richard, 248, 255
Poverty, 129;
and assistance for, 87, 213;
autocracy, 134;
breakdown of democracy, 138;
civil war, 137;
education and democracy, 129;
voting and, 115
Powell, G. Bingham, 122
Powell, Justice Lewis F., report to Chamber of Commerce, 158, 213, 250
Power:
corruption by, 132, 135, 139;
names for in politics, 135;
willingness to share or seize, 135
Preamble (U.S.), 254
Predictors of democracy, 133
Preemption, 227;
and federalism, 217
Prejudice, 27;
and commerce, 6
Prendergast machine, 160
Presidential elections of 1876 and 2000, 153, 167, 257;
Supreme Court and, 145
Presidential government, 128
Presidential nominations and selection, 161
Press. See Media
Pretextual warrant, 193
Prigg v. Pennsylvania, 247
Primary elections, 17, 44–45, 49, 120, 160–161, 164, 166–168, 198, 203
Principles of democracy, 40, 69, 80–81, 83, 81, 107, 111, 115, 240, 255–257;
and dignity, 75;
elections and legislative supremacy, 75;
fluid process, 70;
fundamental rights, 75;
inclusiveness, 256;
majority and minority rights in, 105, 257;
morality of inclusion, 38–40, 97;
other rights and freedoms, 64;
popular sovereignty, 75;
values, 81, 97
Prisoners’ voting rights, 81, 95
Prisons, 235, 239
Privacy, 113;
right to, 106
Private militia and breakdown of democracy, 175–76;
and bans on, 175;
civil liberties, 175;
connections with US Armed Forces, 175;
hearings on, 175. See also Militia; Paramilitaries
Privatization of warfare and congressional powers, 177
Procedural justice, 107
Product liability, 225
Profiling of minorities, 181
(p.373) Progressive movement, 17, 20
Progressives and progressivism, 24, 29, 33–34, 160, 166
Property rights, 57
Proportional representation, 68, 70, 83, 89–90, 97–99, 120;
in India, 61;
minority threshold, 70
Proportionality between rights and means, 84, 88, 96, 99, 104, 107
Prosecutorial immunity, 193
Protestant congregations, integration in, 151
Protocol No. 1, 95, 97
Public broadcasting, 158
Public health and safety, 29
PUBLIC INTEREST, THE, 159
Public opinion as censor, 144
Public schools. See Education
Public services, 154;
agencies, 86;
in Europe, 140;
public/private mix in early U.S., 140. See also Welfare, public
Punitive damages, 220, 221
Puritans, 21
Putnam, Robert, MAKING DEMOCRACY WORK, 142, 169, 314n4
Quality of life, 86–87
Quebec, possible secession of, 79–81, 83;
Reference Re Secession of Quebec, 288n108
Qur’an, 101
R. v. Oakes, 80
Race, 26,
racism, 27,
discrimination, 38, 235,
distinctions, 88,
equality and inequality, 35, 83, 84, 232,
impact of racial division, 90, 205, 208,
prejudice, 34–35, 51, 207,
profiling, 169, 181, 235,
resegregation, 165,
restrictive real estate covenants, 44, 206,
riots, 24, 30,
violence and the KKK, 169
radio, 154
Ramparts scandal, 178
Rapanos v. United States, 229
Rau, Benegal Narsinga and Constitution of India, 59–61;
influenced by U.S. Supreme Court justices, 59
Rawls, John, 73
Reagan, President Ronald, 145, 176
Reapportionment, 162, 254, 258,
incentive to avoid, 236, see also districting, apportionment,
Rebellion, see Civil war
Reconstruction, end of, 235
Red Scares, 24, 30–31, 33
Redistribution of wealth, 130,
and see Breakdown of democracy
Reed, Justice Stanley Forman, 39, 231
Reelection Processes in Unified Germany, 70
Refah Partisi v. Turkey, 100
Reference Re Secession of Quebec, 288n108. See also Quebec, possible succession of
Regional conflict, 6
Rehnquist, Chief Justice William H., 4, 36–37, 40, 119, 128, 211, 213, 241, 251, 253
Rehnquist Court, 119, 168, 201, 203, 209, 210, 211, 212, 218, 232, 247, 250, 261
Reich, Robert, 147, 164
Reichstag, burning of, 32
Religion and foreign law, 61, 71, 73–74, 77–78, 80, 82, 93–95, 99, 101–102, 104–106, 132;
secularism, 72, 100, 105, 106
Religion and U.S. law, 6, 22, 38, 41–43, 73, 165, 204, 208–212, 233, 238. See also Segregation and separation; Violence
Religious Freedom Restoration Act (RFRA), 165, 201
Reno, Janet, 174, 175
Rent wars in New York, 116
Representation, 91, 98;
in India, 62;
of minority communities, 200
Republican character, 13;
Germany as republican, democratic, and social state, 57, 70, 71;
government, 28
(p.374) Republican principles, 10, 13, 14–16, 20–22, 28–29, 57, 70–71, 84, 225, 241, 246, 251, 255;
education for, 6–7, 14, 28, 50, 62, 73, 143
Requisites of democracy, 5–28, 36–39, 63, 76, 79, 93–94, 99, 103–104, 106–107, 111–185, 256;
clean elections, 116;
control over armies and militia, 10–11, 28, 170–85;
desire for power and affection, 143, 153, 237;
dispersed power, 5, 7–20, 28–29, 50, 111–128, 140;
dispersed wealth, 11–13, 28–29, 40, 50, 52, 108, 139–140, 256;
federalism, 9–10, 28, 123–128;
individual rights, 8–9, 28, 80, 84, 111–128;
melting, mixing and integration, 14–15, 20–28, 50–52, 142–169;
republican principles and education, 6–7, 13–14, 28, 50;
unification, 6–7, 142–169;
universal adult suffrage and participation, 7–13, 49, 54, 58, 63–65, 76, 78–81, 83, 88–91, 94–97, 107–108, 112, 115–118, 128, 203, 243
Resegregation:
impact of, 150, 164–166, 235;
multiple causes for, 234;
subjugation, 172
Revolutions, 6, 22, 31, 82, 171, 184;
causes, 137;
revolutionary parties, 94
Riegel v. Medtronic, Inc., 218
Riesman, David, 143;
THE LONELY CROWD, 314n10
Right to vote, 8, 18, 37–38, 45, 63, 70, 79–82, 88, 91, 95–96, 98, 115–116, 118, 171, 189–204, 252;
and economic independence, 11;
as foundation to democracy and liberty, 88, 255;
and property, 12, 255;
racial minorities, 258;
universality as condition of legitimacy, 243. See also Districting, apportionment, and gerrymandering; Gerrymandering
Rights:
as goals, 86;
individual and collective, 8;
inter-relation among, 87;
limited by Constitution of India, 74;
of minorities, 79, 85;
of Muslims, 71;
of women, 79
Rights to:
know, 76;
life, 86;
medical treatment, 86;
seek public office, 93;
self-government, 13;
stand for election, 98;
travel, 247
Riots, 27, 155
Roberts, Chief Justice John, 196, 207, 215;
baseball umpires, 240;
and presidential power, 204;
protection of democracy, 238;
taxpayer standing, 208
Roberts Court, 3, 4, 5, 29, 67, 119, 129, 189–237, 239, 250, 254, 255, 257, 261;
and abuse of power, 194;
affirmative action, 207;
Bill of Rights, 237;
campaign finance rules, 202;
concentration of wealth, 212;
consequences for democracy, 239;
contact hypothesis, 205;
corporate protection, 229;
criminal process, 189;
democratic values, 237;
economic gulf, 238;
entrenched political power, 195, 197, 203, 238;
federalism, 227, 229;
gerrymandering, 196;
habeas corpus, 194;
innocence, 189, 194;
local self-government, 229;
melting pot, 205–212, 205;
notice pleading, 192, 193;
plausibility pleading standard, 192–193;
political party conventions, 198;
prosecutorial immunity, 190, 191;
race, 205–208;
racial integration, 231, 232;
Reconstruction Amendments, 237;
religious establishment, 208–212, 233;
requirements of democracy, 238;
right to counsel, 194;
right to evidence, 194;
safeguards of democracy, 237;
self-government, 195–205;
separation of powers, 204–205;
states’ rights, 201;
structural interpretation, 195, 237
Roberts, Justice Owen J., 39
Robeson, Paul, 27
(p.375) Robinson, Jackie, 51, 146
Roe v. Wade, 232, 239
Romania, 32, 97, 131
Romer v. Evans, 232
Romney, Massachusetts Governor Mitt, 120
Roosevelt, Eleanor, 47
Roosevelt, President Franklin D., 30, 45
Roosevelt, President Theodore, 18, 25, 184
Rosenberg, Gerald, THE HOLLOW HOPE, 234–235
Rosewood, Florida, destruction of African American community, 27
Roux, Theunis, 87, 94
Ruby Ridge, Idaho, 174, 227
Rule of law, 77, 79–81, 92–93, 106;
and respect for law and democracy, 95
Russia, 14, 30, 36;
Russian Revolution, 30, 31, 52
Rutan v. Republican Party, 195
Rwandan genocide, 178
Sachs, Justice Albie (South Africa), 86, 90, 93
Salazar, António de Oliveira, 133
Salk, Dr. Jonas, 146
Samuelson, Robert J., 144, 162
Sauvé v. Canada, 74, 95, 289n124
Scalia, Justice Antonin, 4, 67, 120, 195–198, 211–213, 218, 220, 222, 241, 243, 249, 253–255, 257;
on definition of democracy, 195, 204;
due process, 250;
patronage, 195;
presidential power, 204;
protecting democracy, 238;
religion and public benefits, 211;
takings clause, 212;
taxpayer standing, 208
Schauer, Frederick, 257, 258
Schelling, Thomas, on suburban resegregation, 148
Schindler Elevator Corp. v. United States ex rel. Kirk, 224
Schools. See Education
Schumer, Sen. Charles, 175
Schumpeter, Joseph, 255
Scientific evidence in court, 258–259
Scientific-Atlanta, Inc., 219
Secret ballot, 11, 18, 91, 95, 98
Secret police, 184
Secular and neutral in education, 72–74, 210–211,
public services, 211;
and the secular state, 74, 99–100, 104–106
Securities and Exchange Commission, 220
Securities fraud, law and regulation, 219
Security, foreign and domestic threats, 5, 10
Segerstedt-Wiberg v. Sweden, 106
Segregation and law, 164–66;
de facto, 164–165, 206;
de jure, 49, 164–166, 207;
NAACP, 29, 231
Segregation and separation, 21, 27, 28, 39, 44, 72, 149–150, 155, 166, 171, 172, 206–208, 224, 231, 234;
of African Americans after Brown, 148;
Asian and Hispanic immigrants, 150;
in business and industry, 151;
economic, 147;
ethnic and religious, 147–148, 151, 211;
gender, 22;
higher education, 44;
northern, 51, 149;
of voters, 146. See also Resegregation; Segregation and law
Seixas, Victor, 51
Selectorate, and dictator’s incentive to shrink, 116, 136
Self-determination, 81, 100
Self-government and federalism, 9;
liberty, 28, 249;
protection for, 29. See also Democracy
Selfishness and democracy, 143
Senate Intelligence Committee, 113
Sense of community, 184
Separation of powers, 62, 68–69, 74, 79, 85, 90, 121–123, 125, 128, 204–205, 240, 246–247, 252;
and abuse or dictatorship, 204;
agency regulation, 205;
freedom, 204;
religious issues, 204
Separatist parties, 99
(p.376) Serfdom, 132
Servia, 34
Servicemen’s Readjustment Act of 1944 (GI Bill), 51
Sexual orientation, 43, 232, 260
Shah, Justice M. B., 73
Shapiro, Ian, 125
Shari’ah, 101, 102;
and democracy, 101–102;
and interpretation of sacred texts, 101;
traditional interpretations of, 101
Shaw, Massachusetts Chief Justice Lemuel, 26
Shays’s Rebellion, 5, 6, 170
Shelat, Justice J. M., 75
Shelby County v. Holder, 201–202
Shelley v. Kraemer, 44, 206, 260
Sherman Antitrust Act, 18
Sikh religious dress, 82
Simmons, Kami Chavis, 114
Single-member districts, 120
Size, effects of large and small states, 6
Skinner v. Oklahoma, 43
Slavery, 6–7, 9–10, 13, 15–16, 20, 48, 63, 113, 118, 125–126, 132, 135, 172, 184, 225, 228, 242–243, 247, 255;
and the Constitution, 228;
and slaves, 6, 10
Smith, Christian. See Emerson, Michael
Social justice and economic rights and aspirations. See Democracy and American assumptions about nourishing and protecting: social justice
Social capital, 143, 146, 169, 233;
African-American access to, 151;
and democracy, 142, 144, 152
Social contract theory, 82
Social issues, 159, 230, 231, 233
Social Security, 32, 117, 338, 341
Sons of Gestapo, 173
Sotomayor, Justice Sonia, 238
Souter, Justice David, 191, 217
South Africa, 96, 97, 254, 258,
Constitution of, 64–66;
Constitutional Court of, 83–94;
and democracy, 57, 64–65
Southern Poverty Law Center (SPLC), 172–174
Southern states, 6
Sovereign citizen groups, 173
Soviet Union (USSR), 49, 133;
on punishment of Nazis, 46
Spain, 6, 32, 102, 115, 131, 133;
civil war in, 122, 131
Spanish-American War, 24, 114
Spoils of power, 132. See also Patronage Squatters, 87
Stalin, Joseph, 33, 41, 46, 55, 94, 131
Standing army, 24
Standing to sue:
and presidential power, 209;
taxpayers, 208–209
State action, 35, 44–45, 71, 250
State court reference to sister state judgments, 68
State Failure Task Force (Political Instability Task Force), 133–134, 137
State failure, 137;
and breakdown of democracy, 133
States’ rights and sovereignty claims, 16, 126, 171, 247, 250
Steinbeck, John, 30
Stepan, Alfred, 130
Stereotypes, effects of, 181
Sterilization, compelled, 43
Stern, Kenneth, 175
Stevens, Justice John Paul, 217, 220, 223
Stock market crash of 1929, 30
Stone, Chief Justice Harlan Fiske, 35, 37–40, 42
Stone Court, 238
Stoneridge Inv. Partners, LLC v. Scientific-Atlanta, Inc., 219–220, 225, 340n170
Stouffer, Samuel, 50, 272, 277
Strážnická, Judge V. (ECtHR), 103
Strict scrutiny, 84
(p.377) Structural interpretation. See Constitutional interpretation
Students, 14, 16, 21, 23, 26, 51, 70, 78, 82, 105, 116, 134, 142, 144, 150, 152, 172, 205, 207, 209–211, 253
Suburbs, 51, 119, 148, 150, 152, 153, 165, 181, 206;
economic segregation, 146–147;
minorities, 148;
suburbanization, 89
Sullivan, Kathleen, 253
Sumner, Senator Charles, 26
Supreme Court (U.S.), 3, 9, 18–19, 26, 29, 3134, 36–37, 39, 41, 44–45, 49, 58–59, 62, 67–68, 72–75, 77–81, 83, 89, 93, 95, 107, 112, 129, 145, 150, 152–153, 156, 158, 162–165, 168, 171, 189–190, 197–199, 203, 205–206, 215, 218, 223, 230, 232, 234, 238, 241, 245, 254, 257–260;
aware of racism in Germany, Russia, and the U.S., 33–35;
and compliance, 237;
desegregation, 231;
docket control, 234;
economic issues and democracy, 260;
education, 237;
equal rights and democracy, 238;
expressive rights, 238;
gun rights, 237;
influence of, 233, 234, 235, 237;
integration and the contact hypothesis, 205, 206;
power of, 254;
procedural rights and democracy, 194;
race, 237;
reapportionment, 236;
relation of due process to other rights, 238;
religious rights, 238;
and regulation, 18;
social science, 240;
as storytellers in chief, 212, 240;
threats to democracy, 29, 233, 240;
voting rights, 236;
weakness before Civil War, 254;
white primary cases, 236
Supreme Court of Canada, 78–83
Supreme Court of India, 72–78, 89, 93
Surveillance, 106–107
Swift, Jonathan, 72
Takings clause, 213
Tammany Hall, 160
Tănase v. Moldova, 97
Taney, Chief Justice Roger B., 254
Taney Court, 254
Tashjian v. Republican Party, 198
Tax:
benefits, 19;
credits, 212
Tea Party, 120, 164
Teaching democratic values, 95. See also Education
Terrorists, 102, 107, 115, 173, 174, 181
Terry v. Ohio, 180
Texas’s congressional delegation, 197
Text, democracy in, 63, 69
Textualism, consequences of, 248;
and national unity, 228. See also Constitutional interpretation
Thayer, James Bradley, 248
Theocracy, 100
Thomas, Justice Clarence, 67, 120, 191, 196–197, 213, 220 254, 255, 257;
and definition of democracy, 195, 204;
presidential power, 204;
protection of democracy, 238;
religion, 211;
takings clause, 212;
taxpayer standing, 208
Thomas, Seth, 22
Thompson, John, 191
Threshold for party representation, 97–99
Thrivent Financial for Lutherans, 148
Ticking time bomb, 107
Tillman, Senator Benjamin R., 19
Tocqueville, Alexis de, 14–15, 20, 144;
DEMOCRACY IN AMERICA, 14;
on nurturing democracy, 15–20
Tolerance, 79, 103, 153;
and democracy, 142–144;
and social capital, 146
Tomkins, Richard, on polarization, 145
Tort law, 214
Torture, 107, 114
Totalitarianism, 94
Trading with the Enemy Act of 1917, 33
Traditional leadership, 84–85
Traditionalism, relation to ethics and popular sovereignty, 250
Transformative constitutionalism, 254
Transparency, 89
(p.378) Treason, 112
Treasury Department, 220
Treaty of Westphalia (1648), 94
Tribal population, 83, 90
Truman, President Harry S., 46, 50, 51, 55, 267
Truman Administration, 149
Trust, 73, 93, 124, 127, 131, 138, 142, 143, 153, 164, 167, 178;
and distrust, 167;
social capital, 146,
Trusts, 33
Tuition tax credits, 209
Tulkens, Judge Françoise (ECtHR), 106
Tulsa, Oklahoma, destruction of African American community, 27
Turkey, 98, 99, 100, 104, 105, 106, 108,
and courts of, 105,
Constitutional Court, 100,
Kurds, 99,
secularism, 106
Türmen, Judge R. (ECtHR), 103
Twain, Mark, “The Celebrated Jumping Frog of Calaveras County,” 240
Tweed, Boss, 160
Twenge, Dr. Jean, 146
Two-party system, benefits of, 17
Un-American activities committees, 30
Unconscionable contracts, 222
Underworld organizations, 172
Unemployment, 30;
insurance, 32, 117
Union Army, 177, 185
Union Pacific Railroad, 17
United Communist Party, 100
United Kingdom (U.K.), 115, 140
United Nations, 45, 46;
Commission on Human Rights, 47;
General Assembly, 47;
International Law Commission, 46
United States v. Carolene Products, 37, 39, 40, 42, 238, 239, 252, 261;
rejected, 238–239
United States v. Cruikshank, 171, 326n4
United States v. Lopez, 127
United States v. Singleton, 180, 332n61
United States v. Windsor, 232, 233
Uniersal adult suffrage and participation, 7–13, 49, 54, 58, 61, 63–65, 76, 78–81, 83, 88–91, 94–97, 107–08, 112, 115–118, 128, 203, 243
Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR), 45, 47–50, 52, 58, 63, 78, 80, 112;
and democracy, 49–50
Universal rights, 83;
and democracy, 108;
and democratic rights, 81;
required, 95;
suffrage and participation, 70, 76, 80, 83, 88, 95–97, 107;
universalism, 76
Unlawful detention, 107
Untouchables, 129
Unwritten constitutional principles, 79;
unwritten rights, 48
Urban multi-cultural neighborhoods, 147
Urban renewal, impact of, 51, 149;
also known as Negro clearance, 165
Uruguay, 115
U.S. Army, 174
U.S. Bank and concentrated power, 16–17
U.S. Constitution. See Constitution (U.S.)
U.S. Department of Justice, 116
U.S. free speech doctrine, 94, See also Constitution (U.S.)
U.S. Supreme Court. See Supreme Court (U.S.)
Usury law, 221–222
Vaccines, law and regulation, 219
Van Buren, President Martin, 17
Van de Kamp v. Goldstein, 189–191, 193
Van Devanter, Justice Willis, 35–36
Vanhanen, Tatu, 134, 135, 136, 267, 310
Vardaman, Senator James K., 25
Verma, Justice Jagdish Saran, 72–73
Veterans, impact of, 52;
Bonus March, 30
Vietnam, broadcast coverage, 155:
war in, 184
Vigilantes, 29
(p.379) Vinson Court, 40, 209, 238
Violence, 73, 177, 183, 212, 226, 228, 230, 231, 256;
advocacy of, 99;
protection from, 170
Violence, consequences of:
breakdown of self-government, 131, 167;
control of the South, 171;
death, long term decline in, 183;
democracy, 100;
ECtHR reactions to, 102;
intimidation by, 172–174
Violence, interreligious, and restrictions on speech, 77
Violence, sources of:
and basic human needs, 138;
Bolsheviks, 31;
government, 177;
incitement of, 93, 104;
incompetent nations, 134;
intolerance, 142;
the KKK, 26, 177;
Mussolini, 31–32;
organized, 176;
as means to overthrow, 99;
paramilitary, 131, 176;
violent groups, 170, 173
Violence and handguns, 226;
impact of, 175
Violence and political parties, 102;
as justification for party dissolution, 99
Violence and the Civil Rights Movement, 171;
labor disputes, 32, 117, 177;
speech cases, 102;
racial and religious divides, 42, 72, 73, 77, 169
Violence in:
America, 145, 172;
Columbia, 131;
Spain, 131;
Turkey, 104
Violence toward:
African Americans, 26–27;
dissent, 113;
judges and public officials, 178;
opposition, 76
Virginia and Kentucky resolutions, 126
Virginia desegregation trial, 28
Virtue, public, 14;
and self-interest, 15
Voter eligibility, 70;
equality, 68;
identification, 68;
registration, 68, 83, 195
Voting rights, 29, 67, 96, 115–121, 195–204;
and burdens on, 115–117;
condition of democracy, 200;
discriminatory consequences, 199;
economic power, 117;
federal registrars, 200;
fraud and manipulation, 33, 199;
identification, 115, 199;
and imprisonment, 182;
in India, 61;
minorities, 88;
prisoners, 88, 96;
registration, 199;
the secret ballot, 116;
the states, 261. See also Gerrymandering
Voting Rights Act, 116, 152, 155, 196, 197, 200, 202;
hearings on, 201;
preclearance requirement, 200;
and race, 197
Vouchers for education, 152, 165, 210, 212
Vulnerability of judges and public officials as, 173
Waco:
hearings, 175;,
siege, 174;
warrants, 227
Wall of separation between church and state, 209–211
Wal-Mart, 222, 223
War Claims Act of 1928, 33
War crimes, 46
Wards Cove Packing Co., Inc. v. Atonio, 150
Warren, Chief Justice Earl, 119, 165, 231
Warren Court, 39, 119, 203, 232, 236, 238, 240, 254;
and freedom of choice plans, 206;
law enforcement, 183;
judicial values, 239
Warren, Robert Penn, All the King’s Men, 31
Washington, President George, 10, 171
Watergate, 160;
burglary, 19
Wealth and democracy:
abroad, 32, 70, 86;
early understanding, 5, 7, 10–13, 15–18, 28–29;
political science, 122, 129–141, 147, 151, 164, 169;
and the Roberts Court, 212–226
Weapons:
abuse, 114;
in schools, 127;
risks to democracy, 176, 183–84;
violations, 227
Weaver, Randy, 174
Weber, Max, 176
Weimar Republic, 36;
Constitution, 52, 55–56, 60, 74, 278
(p.380) Welfare, public, 7, 11, 13, 14, 15, 28, 32, 48, 50, 52–54, 56–57, 61–63, 67, 70, 75–77, 80, 83, 86–88, 143, 166;
rights in UDHR, 49
Welfare and democracy, 67, 76
Welfare rights, 87, 88;
and law and order, 87
Welfare state, 75
West Virginia, 17, 42, 117, 203, 268, 273, 300, 349
West Virginia State Bd. of Ed. v. Barnette, 42
West Virginia voting rules, 17, 18
Western Europe, 111
Whistleblowers, 224
White, John, on polarization, 145
White Citizens’ Councils, 27
White flight, 23, 146, 165;
hopes, 28;
population, 83, 84
White House Office of Faith-Based and Community Initiatives, 208
White Primary cases, 37, 44, 206, 258
White supremacist and neo-Nazi groups, 173–174
Wickersham Commission, 114
Wilkinson, Paul, 115
Wilmington, North Carolina, destruction of African American community, 27
Wilson administration, 25
Wilson, President Woodrow 26, 33
Winn, Kathleen, 209
Winner-take-all elections, 161
Women and discrimination, 51;
education, 21–23;
religion, 71, 101, 102;
Women, rights, and legal status, 101–102, 232;
the constitution of India, 60;
the constitution of Ireland, 53;
the constitution of Germany, 58,
the constitution of South Africa, 83;
protections in Canadian Charter, 79;
and the Uniform Declaration of Human Rights, 48
Woodward, C. Van, “the strange career of Jim Crow,” 150, 272n12
Woodward, Robert, 160
Working conditions, 18
World Health Organization, 88
World War I, 18, 25, 29–30, 33, 52, 130, 184, 267, 270
World War II, 3, 25–27, 39, 41, 49, 50–52, 58, 67, 75, 84, 99, 108, 117, 122, 131, 147, 148, 151, 171, 231
Worship, surveillance of, 181
Yeoman farmers, 11
Yugoslavia, 32, 124;
stresses on, 95
Yumak & Sadak v. Turkey, 97
Zangwill, Israel, 21
Zelman v. Simmons-Harris, 210
Zeng, Langche, 137
Zeran v. America Online, Inc., 158
and note 107
Zimmerman, George, 183
Zionism, 34, 274
Zogby poll on polarization, 145
Zoning, 88;
and segregation, 147, 165