This chapter examines the ways in which pardon or parole revived old forms of patronage in newly bureaucratized procedures. Leaving the prison, as much as entering it, reproduced region-specific hierarchies of race, sex, class, gender, and nation. For instance, officials in California, an aesthetically modern and liberal penal state, tended to favor an extensive parole program. Along with many progressive penologists of the day, they were convinced that parole was a necessary component of incarceration and release. In contrast, the assumption in Texas was that prisoners should serve their full sentences, unless significant extenuating circumstances surrounding the crime were discovered. Thus, most Texas prisoners served their full terms.
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