Ahlstrom, Sidney. A Religious History of the American People. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1972.
Art, Glitter, and Glitz: Mainstream Playwrights and Popular Theatre in 1920s America. Ed. Arthur Gewirtz and James J. Kolb. Westport, CT: Praeger Press, 2004.
Baer, Hans A., and Merrill Singer. African American Religion: Varieties of Protest and Accommodation. 2nd ed. Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press, 2002.
Best, Wallace D. Passionately Human, No Less Divine: Religion and Culture in Black Chicago, 1915–1952. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2007.
Black Drama. Alexander Street Press, 2012. www.alexanderstreet4.com.
Black Theater U.S.A.: Forty-Five Plays by Black Americans, 1847–1974. Ed. James V. Hatch and Ted Shine. New York: Free Press, 1974.
Black Theatre U.S.A.: The Early Period, 1847–1938. Ed. James V. Hatch and Ted Shine. New York: Free Press, 1996.
Bock, E. Wilbur. “The Decline of the Negro Clergy: Changes in Formal Religious Leadership in the United States in the Twentieth Century.” Phylon 29 (1st Quarter, 1968): 48–64.
Bourdieu, Pierre. Distinction: A Social Critique of the Judgment of Taste. Trans. Richard Nice. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1984.
——. “The Forms of Capital.” In Handbook of Theory and Research for the Sociology of Education, ed. John Richardson, 241–58. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1986.
Brawley, Benjamin. The Negro in Literature and Art. New York: Duffield, 1918.
Brockett, Oscar G., and Robert R. Findlay. Century of Innovation: A History of European and American Theatre and Drama since 1870. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1973.
Brockett, Oscar G., and Franklin J. Hildy. History of the Theatre. 10th ed. Boston: Pearson Education, 2008.
Brown, Sterling. “Negro Character as Seen by White Authors.” Journal of Negro Education 2 (April 1933): 179–203.
Brown-Guillory, Elizabeth. Their Place on the Stage: Black Women Playwrights in America. New York: Praeger Press, 1988.
Buck, Christopher. Alain Locke: Faith and Philosophy. Los Angeles: Kalimát Press, 2005.
Burdine, Warren. “Let the Theatre Say ‘Amen.’” Black American Literature Forum 25 (Spring 1991): 73–82.
Carby, Hazel V. Race Men. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1998.
Carroll, Anne Elizabeth. Word, Image, and the New Negro: Representation and Identity in the Harlem Renaissance. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2005.
Cheney, Sheldon. The Art Theatre. New York: Knopf, 1925.
Coleman, Gregory D. We’re Heaven Bound: Portrait of a Black Sacred Drama. Athens: University of Georgia Press, 1994.
The Collected Works of Langston Hughes: The Plays to 1942: Mulatto to The Sun Do Move. Ed. Leslie Catherine Sanders. Columbia: University of Missouri Press, 2002.
Cowley, Malcolm. After the Genteel Tradition: American Writers since 1910. Gloucester, MA: Peter Smith, 1959.
Craig, E. Quita. Black Drama of the Federal Theatre Era: Beyond Formal Horizons. Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 1980.
Cruse, Harold. Crisis of the Negro Intellectual: A Historical Analysis of the Failure of Black Leadership. 1967. New York: Quill, 1984.
Culp, Mary Beth. “Religion in the Poetry of Langston Hughes.” Phylon 48 (3rd Quarter, 1987): 240–45.
Dawkins, Laura. “From Madonna to Medea: Maternal Infanticide in African American Women’s Literature of the Harlem Renaissance.” Literature Interpretation Theory 15 (2004): 223–40.
Dodson, Owen. “Who Has Seen the Wind? Playwrights and the Black Experience.” Black American Literature Forum 11 (Autumn 1977): 108–16.
Down by the Riverside: Readings in African American Religion. Ed. Larry G. Murphy. New York: NYU Press, 2000.
Drake, St. Clair. The Redemption of Africa and Black Religion. Chicago: Third World Press, 1970.
Drake, St. Clair, and Horace Cayton. Black Metropolis: A Study of Negro Life in a Northern City, rev. ed. 1945. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1993.
Du Bois, W. E. B. “The Drama among Black Folk.” Crisis 12 (August 1916): 169–73.
——. “Editorial: The Church.” Crisis 11 (April 1916): 302.
——. “Krigwa Players Little Negro Theatre.” Crisis 32 (July 1926): 134–36.
——. “A Litany in Atlanta.” Independent (October 11, 1906): 856–58.
——. The Souls of Black Folk. 1903. New York: Bantam Books, 1989.
——. “The Study of the Negro Problems.” Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Sciences 11(January 1898): 1–23.
Duck, Leigh Anne. “‘Go there tuh know there’: Zora Neale Hurston and the Chronotype of the Folk.” American Literary History 13 (Summer 2001): 265–94.
Edmonds, Randolph. “Education in Self-Contempt.” Crisis 45 (August 1938): 262–63, 266, 278.
——. Six Plays for a Negro Theatre. Boston: Walter H. Baker, 1934.
The Elite of Our People: Joseph Willson’s Sketches of Black Upper-Class Life in Antebellum Philadelphia. Ed. Julie Winch. University Park, PA: Penn State University Press, 2000.
Encyclopedia of the Harlem Renaissance, Vol. 1 and 2 Ed. Carey D. Wintz and Paul Finkelman. New York: Routledge, 2004.
Evans, Curtis J. The Burden of Black Religion. New York: Oxford University Press, 2008.
Favor, J. Martin. Authentic Blackness: The Folk in the New Negro Renaissance. Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 1999.
Ferguson, Jeffrey B. The Sage of Sugar Hill: George S. Schuyler and the Harlem Renaissance. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2005.
Fletcher, Winona L. “From Genteel Poet to Revolutionary Playwright: Georgia Douglas Johnson.” Theatre Annual 30 (1985): 41–64.
——. “Witnessing a ‘Miracle’: Sixty Years of Heaven Bound at Big Bethel in Atlanta.” Black American Literature Forum 25 (Spring 1991): 83–92.
Floyd-Thomas, Juan M. The Origins of Black Humanism in America: Reverend Ethelred Brown and the Unitarian Church. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2008.
Fraden, Rena. Blueprints for a Black Federal Theatre, 1935–1939. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1996.
Frank, Glenda. “Tempest in Black and White: The 1924 Staging of All God’s Chillun Got Wings.” In Art, Glitter, and Glitz: Mainstream Playwrights and Popular Theatre in 1920s America. Ed. Arthur Gewirtz and James J. Kolb, 31–43. Westport, CT: Praeger Press, 2004.
Frazier, E. Franklin. Black Bourgeoisie: The Rise of a New Middle Class in the United States. 1957. London: Collier-Macmillan, 1962.
——. The Negro Church in America. New York: Schocken Books, 1974.
Fulop, Timothy E. “‘The Future Golden Day of the Race’: Millennialism and Black Americans in the Nadir, 1877–1901.” Harvard Theological Review 84 (January 1991): 75–99.
Gaines, Kevin K. Uplifting the Race: Black Leadership, Politics, and Culture in the Twentieth Century. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1996.
Gates, Henry Louis, Jr. “Dept. of Disputation: The Chitlin Circuit.” New Yorker 72 (February 3, 1997): 44–55.
Gatewood, Willard B. Aristocrats of Color: The Black Elite 1880–1920. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1990.
Gilkes, Cheryl Townsend. If It Wasn’t for the Women: Black Women’s Experience and Womanist Culture in Church and Community. Maryknoll, NY: Orbis Books, 2001.
Gillett, Peter J. “O’Neill and the Racial Myths.” Twentieth Century Literature 18 (April 1972): 111–20.
Gray, Christine Rauchfuss. Willis Richardson: Forgotten Pioneer of African-American Drama. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1999.
Gregg, Robert. Sparks from the Anvil of Oppression: Philadelphia’s African Methodists and Southern Migrants, 1890–1940. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1993.
Grene, Nicholas. The Politics of Irish Drama: Plays in Context from Boucicault to Friel. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1999.
Griffin, Farah Jasmine. Who Set You Flowin’? The African-American Migration Narrative. New York: Oxford University Press, 1995.
Gubar, Susan. Race Changes: White Skin, Black Face in American Culture. New York: Oxford University Press, 1997.
Hagood, Taylor. “Dramatic Deception and Black Identity in The First One and Riding the Goat.” African American Review 39 (Spring–Summer 2005): 55–66.
Hall, Jacquelyn Dowd. Revolt against Chivalry: Jessie Daniel Ames and the Women’s Campaign against Lynching. New York: Columbia University Press, 1993.
Handy, Robert T. The Social Gospel in America, 1870–1920. New York: Oxford University Press, 1966.
Harlem Renaissance Lives: From the African American National Biography. Ed. Henry Louis Gates Jr. and Evelyn Brooks Higginbotham. New York: Oxford University Press, 2009.
Harris, Trudier. Exorcising Blackness: Historical and Literary Lynching and Burning Rituals. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1984.
——. The Scary Mason-Dixon Line: African American Writers and the South. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 2009.
Harris, Will. “Early Black Women Playwrights and the Dual Liberation Motif.” African American Review 28 (Summer 1994): 205–21.
Harvey, Paul. Freedom’s Coming: Religious Culture and the Shaping of the South from the Civil War through the Civil Rights Era. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2005.
——. Through the Storm, through the Night: A History of African American Christianity. Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield, 2011.
Hatch, James V. Sorrow Is the Only Faithful One: The Life of Owen Dodson. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1995.
Hay, Samuel A. African American Theatre: An Historical and Critical Analysis. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1994.
Haynes, George. “The Church and Negro Progress.” Annals of the American Academy of Political Science 140 (November 1928): 264–71.
Hemenway, Robert E. Zora Neale Hurston: A Literary Biography. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1977.
Hester, Michelle. “An Examination of the Relationship between Race and Gender in an Early Twentieth Century Drama: A Study of Angelina Weld Grimké’s Play Rachel.” Journal of Negro History 79 (Spring 1994): 248–56.
Highlander, James L. “America’s First Art Theatre: The New Theatre of Chicago.” Educational Theatre Journal 11 (December 1959): 285–90.
Hill, Errol G., and James V. Hatch. A History of African American Theatre. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2003.
Holloway, Jonathan Scott. Confronting the Veil: Abram Harris Jr., E. Franklin Frazier, and Ralph Bunche, 1919–1941. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2002.
Hughes, Langston. The Big Sea. 1940. New York: Hill and Wang, 1993.
Hull, Gloria T. Color, Sex, and Poetry: Three Women Writers of the Harlem Renaissance. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1987.
Hurston, Zora Neale. Dust Tracks on a Road. 1942. New York: Harper Perennial, 1996.
——. The Sanctified Church. Berkeley: Turtle, 1981.
Irish Theatre In America. Ed. John P. Harrington. Syracuse, NY: Syracuse University Press, 2009.
Johnson, Charles Spurgeon. Ebony and Topaz: A Collectanea. New York: National Urban League, 1927.
Johnson, Georgia Douglas. Bronze: A Book of Verse. Boston: Brimmer, 1922.
Johnson, James Weldon. Saint Peter Relates an Incident. 1935. New York: Penguin, 1993.
Jones, Ida E. “Contacts without Fellowship: Lynching, the Bible and the Christian Community.” Black History Bulletin 65–66 (July 2002–December 2003): 48–55.
Kellner, Bruce. The Harlem Renaissance: A Historical Dictionary for the Era. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1984.
Kiberd, Declan. Inventing Ireland: The Literature of a Modern Nation. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1995.
Klotman, Phyllis R. “‘Tearing a Hole in History’: Lynching as Theme and Motif.” Black American Literature Forum 19 (Summer 1985): 55–63.
Krasner, David. A Beautiful Pageant: African American Performance Theatre and Drama in the Harlem Renaissance, 1910–1927. New York: Palgrave, 2002.
——. Resistance, Parody, and Double Consciousness in African American Theatre, 1895–1910. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1997.
Lewis, David Levering. “Parallels and Divergences: Assimilationist Strategies of Afro-American and Jewish Elites, 1910 to the Early 1930s.” Journal of American History 71 (December 1984): 543–64.
——. W. E. B. Du Bois: The Fight for Equality and the American Century, 1919–1963. New York: Holt, 2000.
——. When Harlem Was in Vogue. New York: Penguin, 1997.
Lincoln, C. Eric. The Black Muslims in America. 3rd ed. Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 1994.
Lincoln, C. Eric, and Lawrence Mamiya. The Black Church in the African American Experience. Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 1990.
Locke, Alain. “Art or Propaganda?” Harlem 1 (November 1928): 12.
Lofton, Kathryn. “The Perpetual Primitive in African American Religious Historiography.” In The New Black Gods: Arthur Huff Fauset and the Study of African American Religions. Ed. Edward E. Curtis IV and Danielle Brune Sigler, 171–91. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2009.
Logan, Rayford. The Negro in the United States. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1957.
Lost Plays of the Harlem Renaissance. Ed. James V. Hatch and Leo Hamalian. Detroit: Wayne State University Press, 1996.
Luker, Ralph E. The Social Gospel in Black and White. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1991.
Mackay, Constance D’Arcy. The Little Theatre in the United States. New York: Holt, 1917.
Maffly-Kipp, Laurie F. Setting Down the Sacred Past: African-American Race Histories. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2010.
Marsden, George. Understanding Fundamentalism and Evangelicalism. Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 1990.
Marty, Martin E. Modern American Religion: The Irony of It All, 1893–1919. Vol. 1. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1997.
Masuzawa, Tomoko. The Invention of World Religions. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2005.
Mathews, Donald G. “The Southern Rite of Human Sacrifice.” Journal of Southern Religion 3 (2000). http://jsr.fsu.edu/mathews.htm.
Maxwell, William J. New Negro, Old Left: African-American Writing and Communism between the Wars. New York: Columbia University Press, 1999.
Mays, Benjamin. Born to Rebel: An Autobiography. Atlanta: University of Georgia Press, 2003.
——. The Negro’s God as Reflected in His Literature. 1938. New York: Russell and Russell, 1968.
Mays, Benjamin, and Joseph Nicholson. The Negro’s Church. New York: Russell and Russell, 1933.
McArthur, Benjamin. Actors and American Culture: 1880–1920. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1984.
McClaren, Joseph. Langston Hughes, Folk Dramatist in the Protest Tradition, 1921–1943. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1997.
Meier, Joyce. “The Refusal of Motherhood in African American Women’s Theatre.” MELUS 25 (Autumn–Winter 2000): 117–39.
Melnick, Jeff, and Rachel Rubin. “Black and White Stages.” Reviews in American History 27 (December 1999): 572–79.
Miller, Kelly. Out of the House of Bondage. 1914. New York: Arno Press, 1969.
The Mind of Carter G. Woodson: As Reflected in the Books He Owned, Read, and Published. Ed. Randall K. Burkett, Pellom McDaniels III, and Tiffany Gleason. Atlanta: Emory University, 2006.
Moran, Jeffrey P. “Reading Race into the Scopes Trial: African American Elites, Science, and Fundamentalism.” Journal of American History 90 (December 2003): 891–911.
——. The Scopes Trial: A Brief History with Documents. New York: Palgrave, 2002.
——. “The Scopes Trial and Southern Fundamentalism in Black and White: Race, Region, and Religion.” Journal of Southern History 70 (February 2004): 95–120.
Moses, Wilson J. “The Lost World of the Negro, 1895–1919: Black Literary and Intellectual Life before the ‘Renaissance.’” Black American Literature Forum 21 (Spring–Summer 1987): 61–84.
——. “The Poetics of Ethiopianism: W. E. B. Du Bois and Literary Black Nationalism.” American Literature 47 (November 1975): 411–26.
Mullen, Patrick B. “Belief and the American Folk.” Journal of American Folklore 113 (Spring 2000): 119–43.
Musser, Judith. “African American Women and Education: Marita Bonner’s Response to the ‘Talented Tenth.’” Studies in Short Fiction 34 (Winter 1997): 73–85.
The New Negro. Ed. Alain Locke. 1925. New York: Touchstone, 1992.
O’Brien, C. C. “Cosmopolitanism in Georgia Douglas Johnson’s Anti-lynching Literature.” African American Review 38 ( Winter 2004): 571–87.
Patterson, Orlando. Rituals of Blood: Consequences of Slavery in Two American Centuries. Washington, DC: Civitas Counterpoint, 1998.
——. “Rituals of Blood: Sacrificial Murders in the Postbellum South.” Journal of Blacks in Higher Education 23 (Spring 1999): 123–27.
Perkins, Kathy A. Black Female Playwrights: An Anthology of Plays before 1950. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1989.
Perry, Jeffrey B. Hubert Harrison: The Voice of Harlem Radicalism, 1883–1918. New York: Columbia University Press, 2009.
Peterson, Bernard L., Jr. The African American Theatre Directory, 1816–1960. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1997.
Pinn, Anthony B. African American Humanist Principles: Living and Thinking Like the Children of Nimrod. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2004.
Plays and Pageants from the Life of the Negro. Ed. Willis Richardson. 1930. Jackson: University of Mississippi Press, 1993.
Plays of Negro Life. Ed. Alain Locke. New York: Harper Brothers, 1927.
Raboteau, Albert J. Canaan Land: A Religious History of African Americans. New York: Oxford University Press, 2001.
——. A Fire in the Bones: Reflections on African-American Religious History. Boston: Beacon Press, 1995.
Rampersad, Arnold. The Life of Langston Hughes. Vol. 1, 1902–1941, I, Too, Sing America. New York: Oxford University Press, 2002.
——. The Life of Langston Hughes. Vol. 2, 1941–1967, I Dream a World. New York: Oxford University Press, 2002.
Randolph, A. Philip. “The Failure of the Negro Church.” Messenger 2 (October 1919): 6.
Richardson, Willis. “The Hope of a Negro Drama.” Crisis 19 (November 1919): 338–39.
Rosenberg, Jonathan. How Far the Promised Land? World Affairs and the African American Civil Rights Movement from the First World War to Vietnam. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2006.
Roses, Lorraine, and Ruth Elizabeth Randolph. “Marita Bonner: In Search of Our Mothers’ Gardens.” Black American Literature Forum 21 (Spring–Summer 1987): 165–83.
Roth, John K. “A Theodicy of Protest.” In Encountering Evil, ed. Stephen T. Davis. Atlanta: John Knox Press, 1981: 1–19.
Sanders, Leslie Catherine. The Development of Black Theater in America: From Shadows to Selves. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1988.
Savage, Barbara. “W. E. B. Du Bois and ‘The Negro Church.’” Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 568 (March 2000): 235–49.
Scott, Freda L. “Black Drama and the Harlem Renaissance.” Theatre Journal 37 (December 1985): 426–39.
Sernett, Milton C. Bound for the Promised Land: African American Religion and the Great Migration. Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 1997.
Shaughnessy, Edward Phillip. “Eugene O’Neill: The Development of Negro Portraiture.” MELUS 11 (Autumn 1984): 87–91.
Spence, Eulalie. “The Theatre: A Criticism of Negro Drama as It Relates to the Negro Dramatist and Artist.” Opportunity 6 (June 1928): 180.
——. “Anti-lynch Plays by African American Women: Race, Gender, and Social Protest in American Drama.” African American Review 26 (Summer 1992): 329–39.
——. The Plays of Georgia Douglas Johnson: From the New Negro Renaissance to the Civil Rights Movement. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 2006.
Storm, William. “Reactions of a ‘Highly-Strung Girl’: Psychology and Dramatic Representation in Angelina W. Grimké’s Rachel.” African American Review 27 (Autumn 1993): 461–71.
Strange Fruit: Plays on Lynching by American Women. Ed. Kathy A. Perkins and Judith L. Stephens. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1998.
Summers, Martin. Manliness and Its Discontents: The Black Middle Class and the Transformation of Masculinity, 1900–1930. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2004.
Tate, Claudia. Domestic Allegories of Political Desire: The Black Heroine’s Text at the Turn of the Century. New York: Oxford University Press, 1992.
——. The Works of Katherine Davis Chapman Tillman. New York: Oxford University Press, 1991.
Taylor, Cynthia. A. Philip Randolph: The Religious Journey of an African American Labor Leader. New York: NYU Press, 2006.
Walker, Ethel Pitts. “Krigwa, a Theatre by, for, and about Black People.” Theatre Journal 40 (October 1988): 347–56.
Watson, Steven. The Harlem Renaissance: Hub of African-American Culture, 1920–1930. New York: Pantheon, 1995.
Weisenfeld, Judith. African American Women and Christian Activism: New York’s Black YWCA, 1905–1945. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1997.
——. Hollywood Be Thy Name: African American Religion in American Film, 1929–1949. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2007.
White, Ronald C. Liberty and Justice for All: Racial Reform and the Social Gospel, 1877–1925. Louisville: Westminster John Knox Press, 2002.
White, Walter F. The Fire in the Flint. New York: Negro Universities Press, 1924.
——. Rope and Faggot: A Biography of Judge Lynch. New York: Knopf, 1929.
Wiggins, William H. “Pilgrims, Crosses, and Faith: The Folk Dimensions of Heaven Bound.” Black American Literature Forum 25 (Spring 1991): 93–100.
Williams, Chad L. Torchbearers of Democracy: African American Soldiers in the World War I Era. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2010.
Williamson, Joel R. The Crucible of Race: Black and White Relations in the American South since Emancipation. New York: Oxford University Press, 1984.
Woll, Allen. Black Musical Theatre: From Coontown to Dreamgirls. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1989.
Woodson, Carter G. A Century of Negro Migration. Washington, DC: Association for the Study of Negro Life and History, 1918.
——. The History of the Negro Church. 1921. Washington, DC: Associated Publishers, 1972.
——. The Mis-education of the Negro. Washington, DC: Associated Publishers, 1933.
Young, Patricia A. “Acts of Terrorism, or Violence on a Sunday Morning in the South.” MELUS 26 (Winter 2001): 25–39.